Bacteria disease detectives-0.pptx

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Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 10 months ago)

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BACTERIA

Kingdom Monera

Archaebacteria

Eubacteria

(peptidoglycan
)

Autotrophs or

Heterotrophs

Methanogens

Thermophiles

Halophiles

Swamps, Intestines

Hydrothermal Vents

Salt Lake, Utah


CHARACTERISTICS


Prokaryotes



Microscopic

(Eukaryotic cells are at least 10x bigger)



Unicellular



DNA is a single circular piece of DNA



Asexual Reproduction


Binary Fission



Metabolism


Aerobic


Anaerobic



Genetic Exchange


Conjugation


transfer DNA through contact


Transformation



acquire DNA from dead bacteria


Transduction



DNA is transferred from one bacteria to
another using a virus (genetic engineering)


HTTP://HIGHERED.MCGRAW
-
HILL.COM/SITES/0072556781/STUDENT_VIE
W0/CHAPTER13/ANIMATION_QUIZ_3.HTML


http://highered.mcgraw
-
hill.com/sites/0072556781/student_view0/chapter13/animatio
n_quiz_2.html




SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST!!!

Bacteria have been around for 3.5 billion years!! How????



Cell Walls


Capsules (surrounds cell wall)


Asexual Reproduction, but can still acquire other genes


Inhabit every place on Earth


SUPER FAST REPRODUCTION


ENDOSPORES

allow them to withstand drought, high temps., lack of
food, etc.


BACTERIA ARE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO
SHAPE AND ARRANGEMENT OF CELLS


Shapes


Coccus

: Spheres


Bacillus : Rods


Spirillum

: Spirals



Arrangements


Strept

: Chains


Staph : Clusters


Diplo

: Pairs






GRAM STAIN (PG. 529)



Gram +


simple walls,
large amount of
peptidoglycan


Gram
-



less
peptidoglycan, outer
membrane contains
lipopolysaccharides which
are often toxic and
provides additional
protection


more
resistant to antibiotics


Many antibiotics
(penicillens) inhibit
synthesis of cross links in
peptidoglycan and prevent
formation of a functional
wall

Gram positive

Gram negative




Gram Positive Organisms

´
Aerobic, Gram
-
positive cocci

´
Staphylococcus aureus
(fig
1
,
2
,
3
,
4
)


Staphylococcus epidermidis
(fig
1
)


Staphylococcus

sp. (Coagulase
-
negative)(fig
1
)


Streptococcus pneumoniae
(Viridans group)(fig
1
,
2
,
3
)


Streptococcus agalactiae

(group B)(fig
1
)


Streptococcus pyogenes
(group A)(fig
1
, 2
)


Enterococcus
sp.(fig
1
,
2
,
3

)


Aerobic, Gram
-
positive rods

´
Bacillus anthracis
(fig
1
,
2

)


Bacillus cereus
(fig
1
,
2
)


Bifidobacterium bifidum
(fig
1
)


Lactobacillus
sp. (fig
1
,
2
)


Listeria monocytogenes
(fig
1
,
2
)


Nocardia
sp.(fig
1
,
2
)


Rhodococcus equi
(coccobacillus)(fig
1
)


Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
(fig
1
)


Corynebacterium diptheriae
(fig
1
,
2
)


Propionibacterium acnes
(fig
1
)


Anaerobic, Gram
-
positive rods

´
Actinomyces
sp. (fig
1
,
2
)


Clostridium botulinum
(fig
1
)


Clostridium difficile
(fig
1
)


Clostridium perfringens
(fig
1
,
2
,
3
)


Clostridium tetani
(fig
1
,
2
)


Anaerobic, Gram
-
positive cocci

´
Peptostreptococcus

sp. (fig
1
)



Gram Negative Organisms

´
Aerobic, Gram
-
negative cocci

´
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
(fig
1
,
2
,
3
,
4
)


Neisseria meningitidis
(fig
1; false color of the bacterium.
,
2
)


Moraxella catarrhalis
(fig
1
)


Anaerobic, Gram
-
negative cocci


Veillonella

sp. (fig
1
)


Aerobic, Gram
-
negative rods

´
Fastidious, Gram
-
negative rods



Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
(fig
1
)


Acinetobacter baumannii
(fig
1

really
A. calcoaceticus
)


Bordetella pertussis
(fig
1
,
2
)


Brucella
sp. (fig
1
)


Campylobacter
sp.(fig
1
)


Capnocytophaga
sp.(fig
1,

2
)


Cardiobacterium hominis
(fig 1)


Eikenella corrodens
(fig 1)


Francisella tularensis
(fig
1,
)


Haemophilus ducreyi
(fig

1
,

2
)


Haemophilus influenzae
(fig
1
,
2
)


Helicobacter pylori
(fig
1
,
2
,
3
,
4
)


Kingella kingae
(fig )


Legionella pneumophila
(fig
1
,
2
,
3
)


Pasteurella multocida
(fig
1
)


Enterobacteriaceae (glucose
-
fermenting Gram
-
negative rods)



Citrobacter
sp. (fig
1
)


Enterobacter
sp. (fig
1
)


Escherichia coli
(fig
1
,
2
)


Klebsiella pneumoniae
(fig

1
,
2
)


Proteus
sp. (fig
1
)


Salmonella enteriditis
(fig
1
)


Salmonella typhi
(fig
1
)


Serratia marcescens
(fig
1
,
2
)


Shigella
sp. (fig
1
)


Yersinia enterocolitica
(fig
1
)


Yersinia pestis
(fig
1
,
2
)


Oxidase
-
positive, glucose
-
fermenting Gram
-
negative rods



Aeromonas
sp. (fig
1
)


Plesiomonas shigelloides
(fig 1)


Vibrio cholerae
(fig
1
,
2
)


Vibrio parahaemolyticus
(fig
1
)


Vibrio vulnificus
(fig
1
)


Glucose
-
nonfermenting, Gram
-
negative rods



Acinetobacter

sp. (fig
1
)


Flavobacterium

sp. (fig 1)


Pseudomonas aeruginosa
(fig
1
,
2
)


Burkholderia cepacia
(fig
1
)


Burkholderia pseudomallei
(fig
1
)


Xanthomonas maltophilia or Stenotrophomonas maltophila
(fig
1
)


Anaerobic, Gram
-
negative rods


Bacteroides fragilis
(fig
1
)


Bacteroides
sp. (fig
1
)


Prevotella
sp. (fig
1
)


Fusobacterium
sp. (fig
1
,

2
)


Gram
-
negative spiral

´
Spirillum minus
(
minor
)
-

(fig
1
)




NUTRITION


Autotrophic


Photosynthetic


Chemoautotrophic
(nitrogen fixers)





Heterotrophic


Decomposer


Parasitic



(
Treponema pallidum
)



BACTERIA ARE USED TO PRODUCE MEDICINES

INSULIN



FIRST
COMMERICAL

USE OF GENETIC
ENGINEERING: INSULIN



Important Recyclers in environment


Nitrogen cycle



Bacteria can produce chemicals


Acetone,
Butanol



Bacteria are used to make food


Pickles, buttermilk, cheese, sauerkraut, olives, vinegar, sourdough
bread, beer, wine



Bacteria cause disease


Produce toxins (
Clostridium
botulinum
)


Metabolize their host (
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
)




History of Microbiology


1664: Robert Hooke
-

microscope


1684: Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
-

microorganisms


1798: Edward Jenner
-

smallpox vaccination


1864: Louis Pasteur
-

spontaneous generation


1884: Robert Koch
-

.RFK∙V?SRVWXODWHV


1889: Martinus Beijerink
-

concept of virus


1929: Alexander Fleming
-

discovery of penicillin


1977: Carl Woese
-

discovery of Archaea


1981: First reports of AIDS


1983: Luc Montagnier
-

discovery of HIV


1995: Craig Venter
-

complete genome sequence