Applications for Genetic Engineering

calendargrumpyBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 4 months ago)

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Biotechnology
-

When biology
meets technology

Why is genetic engineering a valuable
tool in Biology?

What is biotechnology?


Application of biological techniques to
manipulate DNA to benefit humans


Biotechnology has impacted the fields of
forensics, medicine, and agriculture.

Biotechnology
-

Forensics


Forensics uses scientific techniques to collect
evidence


Used to analyze different DNA samples at a
crime scene or to determine paternity of a
child and compare it to a known sample


Process is called DNA fingerprinting and uses
the technique of gel electrophoresis to
conduct the DNA fingerprinting.

Forensics
-

DNA Fingerprinting process


Take DNA samples and use restriction enzymes to cut
the DNA at certain sites.


The samples are placed in an
agarose

gel and into an
electrophoresis

machine where electrical charges are
used to
separate the pieces of DNA by size and
molecular weight


Creates a banding pattern for each sample


If a crime scene blood sample was taken and a suspects
sample matches up with the crime scene


definitive
evidence of guilt. In paternity tests matching band
pattern must be seen between child and father

Process of electrophoresis

DNA Fingerprinting Animation


http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/conten
t/chp16/1602001.html


http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/ani
mations/content/paternitytesting.html


Which suspect was at the crime
scene?

Selective Breeding and Hybridization

Allowing only organisms with desired traits to produce
offspring

Crossing
dissimilar organisms to bring together the best of
both organisms

Examples:

Mule


Donkey and Horse

Liger


Lion and Tiger

Tangelo


Tangerine and


Pomelo

Wheat plants


Mostly hybrids

Selected for ability to resist disease,

weather tolerance, and produce


the most
grains


Advantages/Disadvantages

Perks
: Allows for desired improvement of a species.
Humans select traits that they find appealing.

Disadvantages
:


Beef Cattle


Bigger cattle produces more meat.
More meat = More $


“Double Muscling”


(Problems with birthing) cows have a harder time
birthing their young because they are too big
.


Loss of certain traits over time if the same ones
are repeatedly passed down.



Advantages/Disadvantages


Sterility results in some animals which means
they cannot produce offspring.


Generally will make plants hardier and more
disease resistant.


Can combine disease resistance with food
-
producing capabilities. (Crops)

Biotechnology in Medicine

( Recombinant DNA Technology)
-

Transformation


Genetic alternation of one
organism’s DNA to transform it to
express a section of another
organism (foreign) DNA



Bacteria are usually used as
vectors to place beneficial genes
inside because they can mass
produce the gene quickly


Example
: Using bacteria to create
insulin. Humans use the bacterial
plasmid to insert desired genes and
have the bacteria produce the product
in this case, human insulin. Using
transformation is a faster and cheaper
process to assist humans need for
insulin.


Recombinant DNA Technology in
Agriculture
-

Genetic Engineering in
Plants


Recombinant transformation can also happen
with crops


called plant hybridization


Desired genes can be inserted into crop DNA
to:



enhance the vitamins by inserting genes for
specific vitamins (golden rice
-

enhanced with
Vitamin A)


Resist certain insects, can tolerate herbicides,
prevent rotting

Insulin Transformation

Food Genetic Engineering
-

GMO


Genetically Modified Foods


Rice, tomatoes, corn, and other common food products
have been genetically modified withstand harsher
tempertures
, grow larger, be preserved longer on
shelves,make

toxins so pests don’t eat them.


Cows that produce human milk (contain human gene)


Advantages of Biotechnology in
Agriculture


Advantage
-

Can help individuals that have
deficiencies.


Advantage
-

Crop yield increases and can have
a longer life


Advantage
-

farmers can charge and make
more money


Advantage
-

the food that we eat may contain
more nutrients


Disadvantages
of Biotechnology in
Agriculture


May cause health related issues in human (e.g. allergic
reactions) since the inserted genes come from a
foreign vector and the foods are not labeled if they
have been genetically modified. Not FDA regulated


Environmental threat
-

herbicide tolerant crop plants do
not die when exposed to weed killing chemicals, so an
increased amount may have to be sprayed to ensure
greater weed control


can affect the habitats of other
animals in the


Genetic pollution
-

cross pollination of genetically
modified plants can become pollinated by non
-
genetically modified plants by wind, birds, and insects.

Genetically Modified Foods


http://www.cfs.gov.hk/english/programme/pr
ogramme_gmf/programme_gmf_er_res2.html





Biotechnology
-

Gene Therapy




Use a vector (virus) and place needed genes in
to replace faulted genes


Used for cancer therapy, replacing missing
factors and enzymes in organism


Gene Therapy


http://www.edu365.cat/aulanet/comsoc/Lab_
bio/simulacions/GeneTherapy/GeneTherapy.h
tm


Cloning


Creating an identical copy of something


produced from a
single cell.


When cloning animals we are not certain about the effects on
the created organism. Usually cloned organisms are sick and
do not live very long.


Ex. Dolly and premature aging



Advantages of cloning


Creating tissues for transplantation that would
not be rejected by the organism
-

therapeutic
cloning


Using these tissues to help fight diseases like
Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s (replace damages
brain cells)


Create therapeutic proteins like antibodies
(
monoclonal antibodies)and
have several
copies

Disadvantages of cloning


Reduced the variety in a species since all
organisms have the same genetic information.
Think of cloning humans…we would all have
the exact same traits


not good as a species


Organisms that are cloned usually experience
premature aging


Going against the natural order of things in
the world.


Therapeutic Cloning
-

Stem Cell
Research


Stem cell: cells found within the
body that have not become
specialized for a particular function


Found in adult bone marrow,
umbilical cord blood, and human
embryos


May be able to take a patient’s own
disease free cells and grow them
outside of the body when needed
and alter them to create a specific
cell type that is needed



R
e
-
introduce them into patient for
possible therapy benefits