Agriculture

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Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Agriculture

AP Human Geography

Definition


Agriculture


raising of animals or the growing
of crops to obtain food for primary
consumption by the farm family or for sale off
the farm

Historical Perspective


First Agricultural Revolution


allowed humans to become more
sedentary and avail themselves of a more reliable source of food


Animal Domestication


process of taming wild animals for human
benefit


Second Agricultural Revolution


occurred during Industrial
Revolution


used technology as a means to increase production
and distribution of products


Third Agricultural Revolution


latter half of 20
th

cent, corresponded
with exponential population growth occurring around the world


Sometimes called GREEN REVOLUTION


involves use of biotechnology
(genetic engineering)


altering genetic material of plants and animals


Double cropping


growing two crops per year to double the harvest


Triple cropping


allows even more people to be fed


Continentality



area’s temp is affected by its location relative to
nearest large body of water

Agricultural Hearths


Carl Sauer


mapped out agricultural origins of
veg

planting and see
ag


Hearths


Vegetative Planting & Animal Domestication


Veg

Planting means removing part of a plant and putting it in the ground to
grow a new plant


Central America/NW South America


Western Africa


SE Asia


Hearths


Seed Agriculture


Seed Ag means taking seeds from an existing plan and planting them to
produce new plants


S. Mexico


NE Africa


N. China


NE India


Importance of Trade Routes


helped diffuse many products we use today,
colonialism brought to western hemi

Agricultural Regions and Patterns of
Change


Subsistence Farming


produce food they need to survive on a daily basis


Shifting Cultivation


moving farm fields after several years in search of more
productive soil after depleting nutrients in original field


Slash and burn
ag



leaves barren soil behind and moves on to the next area and
clears it by burning


puts nitrogen in soil


Crop Rotation


planting of different types of crops each year to replenish the soil
with nutrients used up by previous crop


Pastoral
Nomadism



moving animals on a seasonal basis to areas that heave the
necessary resources to meet the needs of the herd


Extensive Subsistence Agriculture


includes pastoral
nomadism

and shifting
cultivation


criticized for causing soil erosion, water degradation, and other
environmental problems but is more productive


Intensive Subsistence Agriculture


more intense style of subsistence farming


more work is needed to obtain the same level of production


Rice
Sawahs



flooded fields where rice grows


Intertillage



clearing of rows in the field thru the use of hoes, rakes, and other
manual equipment

Agricultural Regions and Patterns of
Change


Commercial Farming


farming of products for sale off the farm


Mediterranean Ag


dry summer, cool moist winter


grapes, dates, olives


Dairy Farming


highly mechanized, milking cows


Mixed Livestock and Crop Production


cows grown for meat and other products are fed with
crops (corn and soybeans) grown on the same farm


Livestock Ranching


more developed countries


done on land on the fringes of productive
land


feeding of livestock is done by allowing animals to roam fields w/o assistance of farmer


huge areas of land


Specialized Fruit Production
-

orchards


Plantation Ag


less developed countries, production of one crop sold to more developed
countries


Interaction between Core Countries (dependent on Periphery) and Periphery Countries (raw
materials)


Truck Farms


farm where farmers produce fruits for market


Suitcase Farms


no one resides permanently


migrant workers


Agribusiness


mass production of
ag

products


Agricultural industrialization


increased mechanization of the farming process to increase
productivity and profits


Grain Farming


mass planting and harvesting of grain crops


wheat, barley, millet


Staple Grains
-

wheat, barley, millet that a large % of world pop depends on for survival

Von
Thunen’s

Model of Agricultural
Land Use


Johann Heinrich von
Thunen



model


crops are grown in direct relation
to their distance from market


1. Market
-
Gardening Activities


various heavy, bulky products (melons,
veggies)


need to be close to market because they will spoil and it costs too
much to transport


2. Dairy Farming


produced close to market, cost of transportation for cooling


3. Livestock Farming




fattening adds weight to animals to increase sale price,


feedlots specialize in cattle or hogs


4. Commercial Grain Farming


selling of wheat, corn, millet, other grains


Combines


separate seed from shaft of plant


Food chain


grain sent to market in trailers, sold to producer who makes product
(bread), product sold to wholesaler, sells to grocery store, individuals can buy it


5. Livestock Ranching


uses most land per farm of any other zones


6. Nonagricultural Land Use


isn’t really a zone because distance to market is
so far that farmer cannot productively or profitably sell
ag

products


Discussion/Modifications

Economic Systems and Activities


Primary


subsistence farming using hunting and gathering
techniques or pastoral
nomadism


Secondary


industrial sectors, factories take raw materials and
produce product


Tertiary


service sectors


people are involved selling commodities


Quaternary


one cannot hold or physically touch


internet, cell
phone service, etc


Quinary



management decisions of a society, people make
decisions concerning trade of commodities


Elevator
-



Farm Crisis


farmers are too productive, causing supply to exceed
demand for products, lower prices and less revenue for farmers

Trends in US Ag


Early American Ag Practices


hunting/gathering (Native Am)


Effect of Early Settlements and Westward Migration on Ag


colonization,
Europeans brought cattle and used seed
ag


Metes and Bounds


used in Great Britain, measuring uses of land’s physical features to
describe ownership claims


Township and Range


westward expansion


Sections


Midwest square mile tracts


Long Lots


French settlers in Louisiana


American Ag in 20
th

Cent


manifest destiny


God’s will to move westward across
US


Environmental Modification


intro manmade chemicals and practices to an area


Desertification


overgrazing led to encroaching deserts w/in arid regions


Future


Aquaculture


farming of fish for sale off farm


Creative Destruction


removal of what nature originally produced in a particular location to
grow what is desired

World Crop Regions


US


corn (livestock and humans consumption and
ethanol fuel)


South America


sugar cane fuel


Eastern Europe


wheat


Africa


sorghum or millet (high calorie energy source)


Asia


rice


Planned Economy


government controlled economy
(China) dictates to farmers the quantity and type of
agricultural products they can produce