4 Hot Topics in Biotech: Cloning, Stem Cells

calendargrumpyBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Biotechnology

Cloning

Genetically
modified food
and organisms

Four hot topics in biotechnology:

DNA
Fingerprinting

Stem Cells

Biotechnology
: the
engineering of organisms
for useful purposes.

I think it’s ethic
al (it’s right to
do)


It’s unethical (so
bad/wrong)

Cloning

another animal by
messing around with the
DNA of organisms.

Cloning a
human

Cloning food

Injecting cells

from one
organism to another

Changing the genes in food
to make our food

more tasty

Changing

genes in humans
by removing genes and
putting in better genes.

Cloning


1 Sentence


1 Picture



Stem

Cells


DNA Fingerprinting




Genetically Modified Organisms


Biotechnology

Summary

Animal Cloning

Megan and Morag, the
world’s first cloned mountain
sheep.

A cloned
animal is an
exact duplicate in
every way of its
parent; it has the
same exact DNA.

Cloning is done by
tinkering with the
DNA of animals, is
this ethical (the
right thing to do)?

The First
Cloned Pet

You are in a lab
cloning your orange
-
spotted cat; however,
the clone that was
born had fur with no
orange spots, why did
this happen?

C
ats have the gene for orange spots,
that gene has been “turned off” in one
cat and turned on in the other cat.
Turning on genes is called
Gene
Expression.

Is Animal Cloning Ethical?

The first cloned
horse

Is cloning messing around with nature?

Stem Cells

A
stem cell
is a cell that has not yet been assigned a specific
job.

During the development of an organism the stem cells become
specialized. It can be destined to become a white blood cell or a
nerve cell or a skin cell, or liver cell and more.

Stem Cell
-
No
job

White
Blood
Cell
-
Job:
To destroy
bacteria

Skin Cell
-

Job: To protect organs
organs

Nerve Cell

Stem Cells

Once a cell has been specialized, it can only
produce more cells like it.

White Blood Cell

White Blood Cell

Stem Cells

Where can you find stem cells?

Inside an embryo!
An embryo is an
undeveloped
organism that has
not developed
organs yet. Each of
these developing
cells is a stem cell!

When stem cells are
removed,
the embryo is
damaged
and can no longer grow into a
fetus (a more developed
organism).

What do scientists do with stem cells?

Stem cells can possibly be used to replace damaged
tissue caused by cancer, or to help treat other
diseases.


(Don’t Write)
Let’s say Mr. Narez drank a poison that
destroyed most of his White Blood Cells. He is at the
hospital very ill. What can a scientist do to help your
teacher out?


A scientist can possibly inject stem cells that can be
specialized into white blood cells to help recover the
white blood cells that were lost by the poison.

Ethical
Questions

If stem cells are taken
from these embryos
and then no focus will
form, then aren’t you
destroying living
things?

Stem Cell Clip

Article on “Dolly the Sheep”

Found at
mrnarez.wordpress.com


How to Annotate Text:


1. Underline or highlight important
information


2.
Circle words that you don’t know and
you want to know what it means


2.
Write questions on the side.



DNA
Fingerprinting


Different
individuals carry different
versions of a gene. These different
versions are called
alleles.

Gene
:
A piece of
DNA that codes for
protein


Think of a gene as


a SHOE.

Allele:
Is a
version of a gene.


Think of an allele
as a type of shoe:
NIKE, VANS,
SPERRYS.

DNA
Fingerprinting

DNA can be cut up into
pieces of alleles. Each piece
has a different size.

A DNA fingerprint is
when you
analyze
the sizes of DNA
fragments.

The DNA Fragments Are Separated
by size.
Video Clip

The technique is
called
gel
electrophoresis
.

The DNA fragments are placed in a well (slot). The DNA
fragments separate based on size. You can place another
sample of DNA on another slot or well to compare DNA.

DNA
Fingerprinting

A DNA fingerprint used in a
murder case.

You are a blood expert at
LAPD. You go to a crime
scene. You find blood as
evidence on

the floor. 4
suspects were arrested.
Blood samples were taken
from the suspects and the
blood on the floor. Who
committed the crime?


Which Set of Bands
match?

Mary is married to Bob. Mary had a
child a week ago.


Bob came home from work and found a
pair of underwear that did NOT belong
to him!


Mary has been cheating on Bob with
the mailman named Larry. Bob knew
that Larry and Mary were spending a
lot of time together.


Bob did not believe that the child was
his so Mary, Bob, and Larry went to
the hospital to get tested.


On the right shows a DNA Paternity
Test, who is the father? ____________

Genetically Modified Foods

They genetically modify our food for disease
resistance, to change its taste, and to make it
grow faster and larger.

Lets say there’s a valuable
gene that causes cows to
produce more milk or it

s a
gene that makes food grow
larger.


Scientists want to ‘cut

or
splice out that gene using
enzymes and then they paste
it into another organisms DNA
so they too can benefit from
that trait.

Genetically Modified Crops

Genetically Modified Cotton

(contains a
gene
for pest
resistance)

Standard
Cotton

A
pest

is a creature that
destroys crops or food. This
can be a problem for
farmers trying to grow food.


Some
genetically modified
crops
or foods contain a
gene that codes for pest
resistance, so pests cannot
destroy crops, or food.


Therefore, these crops grow
in abundance and it’s
cheaper for us to buy at the
store.


Article: “From Stinky to Minty E. Coli”

Found at
mrnarez.wordpress.com


How to Annotate Text:


1. Underline or highlight important
information


2.
Circle words that you don’t know and
you want to know what it means


2.
Write questions on the side.



Study Guide:
Vocabulary Words and Concepts to Know for
Mutations and Biotechnology Test:


1.
Mutation

2.
Mutagen

3.
Insertion

4.
Deletion

5.
Substitution

6.
Point Mutation

7.
Know how to convert DNA to mRNA and mRNA to Amino Acids

8.
Sickle
-
Cell Anemia

9.
Hemoglobin

10.
Cloning

11.
Stem Cells (What are they, where do you find them?)

12.
Genetically Modified Food (How they differ from normal food)

13.
DNA Fingerprinting

14.
How to analyze a DNA Gel: Blood Test or Paternity Test

15.
Gene Expression

16.
Gene Versus Allele


Cloning


1 Sentence


1 Picture



Stem

Cells


DNA Fingerprinting




Genetically Modified Organisms


Biotechnology

Summary