Membres du comité d'experts pour l'évaluation de l'INSERM - Aeres


Feb 19, 2013 (4 years and 3 months ago)


Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM

: Professor
Field of expertise:
Birth date:
November 22, 1954
Professional address:
EPFL – Presidency – Station 1
1015 Lausanne - Switzerland
Present and previous positions, academic
or hospital appointments:
Instructor in Physiology, University of Fribourg, Switzerland
Resident in Medicine, University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland
Research Fellow, Dialysis Center, University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
Research Fellow, Artificial Organs Laboratory, Brown University, Providence,RI, USA
Assistant Professor of Physiology and Biophysics (Research), Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
Assistant Professor of Medical Science (tenure-track) (Section of Artificial Organs, Biomaterials and

Cellular Technology and Section of Neurobiology), Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
Associate Professor of Medical Science (tenured) (Section of Artificial Organs, Biomaterials and
Cellular Technology), Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
Chairman of the Section for Artificial Organs, Biomaterials and Cellular Technology, Brown

University, Providence, RI, USA
Professor of Surgery and Medical Director of the Surgical Research Division and the Gene Therapy
Center, CHUV, Lausanne University Medical School, Switzerland
Adjunct Professor of Material Sciences (Biomaterials), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL),

Lausanne, Switzerland
- Professor of Neurosciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland
- President, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland
Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM


10 main articles:

P. Aebischer, M. Schluep, N. Déglon, J.M. Joseph, L. Hit, B. Heyd, M. Goddard, J. P., Hammang, A.D. Zurn, A.C. Kato,
F. Regli, E.E. Baetge, Intrathecal delivery of ciliary neurotrophic factor in patients suffering from amyotrophic, lateral
sclerosis by encapsulated genetically engineered xenogeneic cells, Nature Medicine, 2:696-698, 1996

M. Lysaght, P. Aebischer, Encapsulated cells as therapy, Scientific American, April: 76-82, 1999,

J. H. Kordower, M. E. Emborg, J. Bloch, S. Y. Ma, Y. Chu, L. Leventhal, J. McBride, E-Y., Chen, S. Palfi, B. Z.
Roitberg, W. D. Brown, J. E. Holden, R. Pyzalski, M. D. Taylor, P., Carvey, Z.D. Ling, D. Trono, P. Hantraye, N.
Déglon and P. Aebischer, Neurodegeneration prevented by lentiviral vector delivery of GDNF in primate models of
Parkinson’s disease, Science, 290:767-773, 2000

C. Lobianco, J.-L. Ridet, B. Schneider, N. Déglon, P. Aebischer, !-synuclein and selective dopaminergic neuron loss
in a rat lentiviral-based model of Parkinson’s disease, Proc Natl Acad Sci, 99:10813-8, 2002

C. Lo Bianco, B.L. Schneider, M. Bauer, A. Sajadi, A. Brice, T. Iwatsubo, P. Aebischer, Lentiviral delivery of parkin
prevents dopaminergic degeneration in an !-synuclein rat model of Parkinson’s disease, Proc Natl Acad Sci,
101:17150-17155, 2004

C. Raoul, T. Abbas-Terki, J.C. Bensadoun, S. Guillot, G. Haase, J. Szulc, C.E. Henderson, P. Aebischer, Lentiviral-
mediated silencing of SOD1 through RNA interference retards disease onset and progression in a mouse model of
ALS, Nature Medicine, 11:423-8, 2005

J. Szulc, M. Wiznerowicz, M.O. Sauvain, D. Trono, P. Aebischer, A versatile tool for conditional gene expression and
knockdown, Nature Methods, 3:109-116, 2006

C. Raoul, E. Buhler, C. Sadeghi, A. Jacquier, P. Aebischer, B. Pettmann, C.E. Henderson, G. Haase, Chronic
activation in presymptomatic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice of a feedback loop involving Fas, Daxx, and
FasL, Proc Natl Acad Sci, 103:6007-6012, 2006

P. Aebischer, A. Kato, Playing defense against Lou Gehrig’s disease, Scientific American, November, 86-93, 2007

C. Lobianco, J. Shorter, E. Régulier, H. Lashuel, T. Iwatsubo, S. Linquist, P. Aebischer, Hsp104 antagonizes alpha-
synuclein aggregation and reduces dopaminergic degeneration in a rat model of Parkinson disease, Journal of
Clinical Investigation, 118:3087-3097, 2008

Peter AGRE
: University Professor and Director
Field of expertise:
Aquaporin water channels and malaria
Birth date:
January 30, 1949
Professional address:
Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg
School of Public Health
615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore,
MD 21205, United States
Present and previous positions, academic
or hospital appointments:
Theodore Roosevelt High School, Minneapolis, MN
B.A., Augsburg College, Minneapolis, chemistry major
M.D., Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Postdoctoral Fellowship, Department of Pharmacology, Johns Hopkins, lab of Pedro Cuatrecasas
Internship and Residency, Case Western Reserve University
University Hospitals of Cleveland, Dept. of Medicine
Charles C. J. Carpenter Jr., Director
Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Department of Medicine,

Hematology/Oncology Div., Harold Roberts, Director
Senior Clinical Research Scientist, Wellcome Labs., Research Triangle Park, NC
Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine at Univ. North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Research Associate to Instructor, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Departments

of Cell Biology/Anatomy and Medicine, lab of Vann Bennett
Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Departments of Medicine and Cell Biology/Anatomy
Associate Professor, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Sabbatical, Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, lab of Steven L. McKnight

Professor, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Department of Biological Chemistry and Department of Medicine

Director, Johns Hopkins Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine (CMM)
Chair, Committee on Human Rights, National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC
Professor, Department of Cell Biology and Department of Medicine and
Vice Chancellor for Science and Technology, Duke University School of Medicine
Director, Medical Science Training Program [MSTP], Duke Univ School of Medicine
Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM


10 main articles:

Liu Y, Promeneur D, Rojek A, Kumar N, Frokiaer J, Nielsen S, King LS, Agre P, and Carbrey JM. 2007.
Aquaglyceroporin AQP9: The major pathway for glycerol uptake by mouse erythrocytes with implications for malarial
virulence. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:12560-4.

Promeneur D, Liu Y, Maciel J, Agre, King LS, and Kumar N. 2007. Aquaglyceroporin PbAQP during intraerythrocytic
development of the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 2211-16.

Rojek A, Skowronski MT, Fuchtbauer EM, Fuchtbauer AC, Fenton RA, Agre P, Frokiaer J, and Nielsen S. 2007.
Defective glycerol metabolism in aquaporin 9 (AQP9) knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 3609-14.

Huang CG, Lamitina T, Agre P, and Strange K. 2007. Functional analysis of the aquaporin gene family in C. elegans.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 292: C1867-73.

Saparov SM, Liu K, Agre P, and Pohl. 2006. Fast and selective ammonia transport by aquaporin-8. J Biol Chem 282:

Lee KJ, Kozono D, Remis J, Kitagawa Y, Agre P, and Stroud RM. 2005. Structural basis for conductance by the
archael aquaporin AqpM at 1.68 Å. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102: 18932-18937.

Liu K, Kozono D, Kato Y, Agre P, Hazama A, and Yasui M. 2005. Conversion of aquaporin-6 from an anion channel to
a water-selective channel by a single amino acid substitution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102: 2192-2197.

Liu K, Nagase H, Huang CG, Calamita G, and Agre P. 2005. Purification and functional characterization of Aquaporin-
8. Biol Cell 98: 153-161.

Beitz E, Liu K, Ikeda M, Guggino WB, Agre P, and Yasui M. 2005. Determinants of AQP6 trafficking to intracellular
sites vs. to the plasma membrane in transfected mammalian cells. Biol Cell 98: 101-109.

Furman CS, Gorelick-Feldman DA, Davidson KGV, Yasumura T, Neely JD, Agre P, and Rash JE. 2003. Aquaporin-4
square array assembly: Opposing actions of M1 and M23. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 13609-13614.

Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM

: President
Field of expertise:
Neurological Sciences
Birth date:
September 21 1947
Professional address:
160 Elgin Street

Ottawa Ontario K1A0W9
Present and previous positions, academic
or hospital appointments:
Postes détenus actuellement :
Professeur titulaire, Département de neurologie et de neurochirurgie, Université McGill, Montréal,
Québec (en détachement depuis 2004)
Professeur titulaire, Département d’anatomie et de biologie cellulaire, Université McGill, Montréal,
Québec (en détachement depuis 2004)
Président-directeur général, Fonds de la recherche en santé du Québec
Co-Président, National Alliance of Provincial Health Research Organizations (NAPHRO)
Anciens postes :
Interne (médicine, chirurgie, obstétrique-gynécologie, psychiatrie), Hôpital Royal Victoria,
Montréal, Québec
Étudiant de deuxième et troisième cycles en sciences neurologiques sous la direction du Dr Laurent
Descarries, Centre de recherches en sciences neurologiques, Université de Montréal
Chercheur post doctoral en neurobiologie, laboratoire du professeur Bernard Droz, Centre d'études

nucléaires de Saclay, France
Gastwissenchafter («chercheur invité»), Laboratoire du professeur Michel Cuénod, Institut fur

Hirnforschung, Université de Zurich, Suisse
Professeur adjoint, départements de neurologie et de neurochirurgie et d’anatomie,

Université McGill, Montréal, Québec
Directeur par intérim, laboratoire de neuroanatomie, Institut neurologique de Montréal
Directeur adjoint (recherche), Institut neurologique de Montréal
Professeur agrégé (avec permanence), départements de neurologie et de neurochirurgie et
d’anatomie, Université McGill, Montréal, Québec
Coordonnateur, groupe de neurobiologie, Institut neurologique de Montréal
2000- 2004
Directeur des affaires scientifiques et des programmes, Fonds de la recherche en santé du Québec
Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM


10 main articles:

Hamel, E. and Beaudet. A. Electron microscopic autoradiographic localization of opioid receptors in rat
neostriatum. Nature, 312 (1984) 155-157.

Faure, M.-P., Alonso, A., Nouel, D., Gaudriault, G., Dennis, M., Vincent, J.-P. and Beaudet. A. Somatodendritic
internalization and perinuclear targeting of neurotensin inthe mammalian brain. The Journal of Neuroscience,
15 (1995) 4140-4147.

Dournaud, P., Boudin, H., Schonbrunn, A., Tannenbaum, G. and Beaudet. A. Interrelationships between
somatostatin sst2A receptors and somatostatin-containing axons in rat brain : evidence for regulation of cell surface
receptors by endogenous somatostatin. Journal of Neuroscience, 18 (1998) 1056-1071.

Cahill, C.M., Morinville, A., Lee, M-C., Vincent, J-P., Collier, B. and Beaudet. A. Prolonged morphine treatment
targets delta opioid receptors to neuronal plasma membranes and enhances delta-mediated antinociception.
Journal of Neuroscience, 21 (2001) 7598-7607.

Gendron, L., Lucido, A.-L., Mennicken, F., O’Donnel, D., Vincent, J.-P., Stroh, T. and Beaudet, A. Morphine and
related stimuli enhance cell surface availability of somatic delta opioid receptors in rat dorsal root ganglia,
J. Neurosci., 26 (2006) 953-962

Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM

: Sir
Field of expertise:
Viral Immunology
Birth date:
13 April 1951
Professional address:
20 Park Crescent, London, WIB 1AL
Present and previous positions, academic
or hospital appointments:
Clinical appointments at Cardiff, Hammersmith Hospital (including training in Nephrology),
Hospital for Nervous Diseases (Queen’s Square) and Ealing.
MRC Training Fellow and Registrar Royal Postgraduate Medical School
Lister Research Fellow and Lecturer/Senior Lecturer in Medicine, Royal Postgraduate Medical School
Consultant Physician at The Royal Victoria Hospital, Banjul, The Gambia
Wellcome Senior Lecturer and Consultant Physician, Cambridge
University Lecturer in Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge
Professor of Medicine, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff.
Principal, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London
Deputy Rector, Imperial College, London
Present Appointment:
Oct 2007
Chief Executive, Medical Research Council

Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM


10 main articles:

Borysiewicz LK, Morris S, Page JD, Sissons JG 1983, Human cytomegalovirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes:
requirements for in vitro generation and specificity. Eur J Immunol 13: 804-9

Borysiewicz LK, Rodgers B, Morris S, Graham S, Sissons JG 1985, Lysis of human cytomegalovirus infected fibroblasts
by natural killer cells: demonstration of an interferon-independent component requiring expression of early viral
proteins and characterization of effector cells, J Immunol 134: 2695-701

Borysiewicz L, Hickling J, Graham S, Sinclair J, Cranage M, Smith G, Sissons J 1988. Human cytomegalovirus-specific
cytotoxic T cells. Relative frequency of stage-specific CTL recognizing the 72-kD immediate early protein and
glycoprotein B expressed by recombinant vaccinia viruses. J Exp Med 168: 919-3

Carmichael A, Jin X, Sissons P, Borysiewicz L 1993. Quantitative analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type
1 (HIV-1)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response at different stages of HIV-1 infection: differential CTL
responses to HIV-1 and Epstein-Barr virus in late disease. J Exp Med 177: 249-56

Lehner PJ, Wang EC, Moss PA, Williams S, Platt K, Friedman SM, Bell JI, Borysiewicz LK 1995. Human HLA-A0201-
restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte recognition of influenza A is dominated by T cells bearing the V beta 17 gene
segment. J Exp Med 181: 79-91

Borysiewicz L, Fiander A, Nimako M, Man S, Wilkinson GW, Westmoreland D, Evans AS, Adams M, Stacey SN,
Boursnell ME, Rutherford E, Hickling JK, Inglis SC 1996. A recombinant vaccinia virus encoding human papillomavirus
types 16 and 18, E6 and E7 proteins as immunotherapy for cervical cancer Lancet 347: 1523-7

Evans EM, Man S, Evans AS, Borysiewicz LK 1997. Infiltration of cervical cancer tissue with human papillomavirus-
specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Cancer Res 57: 2943-50

Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM

: Professor
Field of expertise:
Molecular Biology and Genetics. Functional
genetics in mammals. Control of transcription
Birth date:
Professional address:
IGBMC 1, rue Laurent Fries 67400 ILLKIRCH
Present and previous positions, academic
or hospital appointments:
1956 1961
Research Assistant, Institut de Chimie Biologique, Medical School, Strasbourg
1962 1966
Associate Professor same institution
1966 1967
Sabbatical year, sponsored by the International Union against Cancer, at Stanford University
Medical School (Dept. Biochemistry / Prof. A. Kornberg).
1968 1991
Professor of Biochemistry, Institut de Chimie Biologique, Faculté de Médecine, Strasbourg.
Professor at the Institut Universitaire de France, Faculté de Médecine,
Université Louis Pasteur (ULP), Strasbourg
November 1993
Professor at the Collège de France – Paris
to August 2002
September 2002
Honorary Professor at the Collège de France, Paris and Professor emeritus at the Faculté
de Médecine, ULP, Strasbourg
Research Responsabilities and Administration:

irector of the Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire des Eucaryotes (LGME) of the CNRS (Centre National de la
Recherche Scientifique) from May 1st, 1977 to August 2002
irector of the Unité 184 de Biologie Moléculaire et de Génie Génétique of the INSERM (Institut National de la
Santé et de la Recherche Médicale) from September 1st, 1978 to August 2002
ounder and Director of the Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), CNRS/
INSERM/ Université Louis Pasteur/ Collège de France, from September 15th, 1994 to August 2002. Director
emeritus since September 1st, 2002
ounder and Director of the Institut Clinique de la Souris (ICS ; Centre de Ressources du CNRG-Génopole de
Strasbourg) from June 2002 to February 2006. Director emeritus since February 2006
roup leader at the IGBMC since March 2006
hairman of the Conseil Scientifique du Programme National de la Génomique (1999-2002)
irector of the Génopole Strasbourg Alsace-Lorraine, 1999-2007
Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM


10 main articles:

S. Green, P. Walter, V. Kumar, A. Krust, J.M. Bornert, P. Argos, and P. Chambon. Human oestrogen cDNA: sequence,
expression, and homology to v-erb-A. Nature 320:134-139, 1986.

M. Petkovich, N.J. Brand, A. Krust, and P. Chambon. A human retinoic acid receptor which belongs to the family of
nuclear receptors. Nature 330:444-450, 1987.

V. Kumar, S. Green, G. Stack, M. Berry, J.R. Jin and P. Chambon. Functional domains of the human estrogen
receptor. Cell 51: 941-951, 1987.

M. Leid, P. Kastner, R. Lyons, H. Nakshatri, M. Saunders, T. Zacharewski, J.Y. Chen, A. Staub, J.M. Garnier, S.
Mader, and P. Chambon. Purification, cloning, and RXR identity of the HeLa cell factor with which RAR or TR
heterodimerizes to bind target sequences efficiently. Cell 68:377-395, 1992.

W. Bourguet, M. Ruff, P. Chambon, H. Gronemeyer, and D. Moras. Crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of
the human receptor RXR!. Nature 375:377-382, 1995.

S. Kato, H. Endoh, T. Masuhiro, T. Kitamoto, S. Uchiyama, H. Sasaki, S. Masushige, Y. Gotoh, E. Nishida, H.
Kawashima, D. Metzger, and P. Chambon. Activation of the estrogen receptor through phosphorylation by mitogen-
activated protein kinase. Science 270:1491-1494, 1995.

D. Metzger, A. Indra, M. Li, B. Chapellier, C. Calleja, N.B. Ghyselinck and P. Chambon. Targeted conditional somatic
mutagenesis in the mouse: temporally-controlled knock out of retinoid receptors in epidermal keratinocytes.
Methods in Enzymology (2003) 364, 379-408.

M. Li, P. Hener, Z. Zhang, S. Kato, D. Metzger and P. Chambon. Topical vitamin D3 and low-calcemic analogs induce
thymic stromal lymphopoietin in mouse keratinocytes and trigger an atopic dermatitis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
(2006) 103, 11736-11741.

C. Calleja, N. Messaddeq, B. Chapellier, H. Yang, W. Krezel, M. Li, D. Metzger, B. Mascrez, K. Ohta, H. Kagechika,
Y. Endo, M. Mark, N.B. Ghyselinck and P. Chambon. Genetic and pharmacological evidence that a retinoic acid
cannot be the RXR-activating ligand in mouse epidermis keratinocytes. Genes and Dev. (2006) 20, 1525-1538.

P. Chambon. How I became one of the fathers of a superfamily. Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award. Nature
Medicine 10:1027-1031, 2004.
Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM

Jean-Paul CLOZEL
: CEO Actelion, honorary Professor at Collège de France
Field of expertise:
Birth date:
Professional address:
Gewerbestrasse 16, CH-4123 Allschwil
Present and previous positions, academic
or hospital appointments:
Since 2000
CEO Actelion
Professeur Collège de France (Chair of Technological Innovation)
Co-founder of Actelion, Senior Vice President Drug Discovery

10 main articles:

Muller DN, Fischli W, Clozel JP, Hilgers KF, Bohlender J, Menard J, Busjahn A, Ganten D and Luft FC (1998) Local
angiotensin II generation in the rat heart: role of renin uptake. Circ Res 82:13-20.

Wolny A, Clozel JP, Rein J, Mory P, Vogt P, Turino M, Kiowski W and Fischli W (1997) Functional and biochemical
analysis of angiotensin II-forming pathways in the human heart. Circ Res 80:219-227.

Mulder P, Richard V, Compagnon P, Henry JP, Lallemand F, Clozel JP, Koen R, Mace B and Thuillez C (1997)
Increased survival after long-term treatment with mibefradil, a selective T-channel calcium antagonist, in heart
failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 29:416-421.

Teerlink JR, Carteaux JP, Sprecher U, Loffler BM, Clozel M and Clozel JP (1995) Role of endogenous endothelin in
normal hemodynamic status of anesthetized dogs. Am J Physiol 268:H432-440.

Teerlink JR, Breu V, Sprecher U, Clozel M and Clozel JP (1994b) Potent vasoconstriction mediated by endothelin ETB
receptors in canine coronary arteries. Circ Res 74:105-114.

Clozel JP, Hess P, Schietinger K, Breu V, Fischli W and Baumgartner HR (1994) Major role of the renin angiotensin
system in the neointima formation after vascular injury in guinea pigs. Life Sci 54:PL87-92.

Clozel JP and Clozel M (1989a) Effects of endothelin on the coronary vascular bed in open-chest dogs. Circ Res

Powell JS, Clozel JP, Muller RK, Kuhn H, Hefti F, Hosang M and Baumgartner HR (1989) Inhibitors of angiotensin
converting enzyme prevent myointimal proliferation after vascular injury. Science 245:186-188.

el JP, Tschopp T, Luedin E and Holvoet P (1989f) Time course of thrombolysis induced by intravenous bolus or
infusion of tissue plasminogen activator in a rabbit jugular vein thrombosis model. Circulation 79:125-133.

Clozel JP, Roberts AM, Hoffman JI, Coleridge HM and Coleridge JC (1985b) Vagal chemoreflex coronary vasodilation
evoked by stimulating pulmonary C-fibers in dogs. Circ Res 57:450-460.

Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM

: Professeur des universités-Praticien Hospitalier
Field of expertise:
Physiologie Explorations fonctionnelles
Birth date:
21 Juin 1954
Professional address:
Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1

Maison de l’Université
43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918
69622 Villeurbanne cedex
Present and previous positions, academic
or hospital appointments:
Chef du Service d’Audiologie et d’explorations oro-faciales, Hospices Civils de Lyon
Directeur de l’UMR CNRS 5020 Neurosciences et Systèmes Sensoriels
Président de la Commission Scientifique des Hospices Civils de Lyon
Membre du Comité National de la Recherche Scientifique
Président de l’Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Président du PRES Université de Lyon
Directeur de l’Institut des Sciences et Techniques de la Réadaptation
Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM


10 main articles:

Depuis 2002

THAI-VAN H, MICHEYL, MOORE BCJ, COLLET L :Enhanced frequency discrimination near the hearing loss cutoff: a
consequence of central auditory plasticity induced by cochlear damage? Brain 2003;126:2235-45

THAI VAN H., MICHEYL C., NORENA A., COLLET L. Local improvement in auditory requency discrimination is
conditioned by hearing-loss slope in cochlear-damaged subjects. Brain, 2002, 125:524-37

E VEUILLET, MAGNAN A, ECALLE J, THAI-VAN H, L COLLET: Auditory processing disorder in children with
reading disabilities: Effect of audiovisual training. Brain, 2007, 130, 2915-28

tonotopic organization of the auditory cortex in cochlear implant users. Journal of Neuroscience 2007 Jul 18;

Corticofugal Modulation of Peripheral Auditory Activity in Humans Cerebral Cortex, 2006, 16(7):941-8.

Avant 2002

L. COLLET, D.T. KEMP, E. VEUILLET, R. DUCLAUX, A. MOULIN, A. MORGON : Effect of contralateral auditory
stimulation on active cochlear micro-mechanical properties in human subjects. Hearing Research, 1990, 43, 251-

L. COLLET, B. ROGE, D. DESCOUENS, P. MORON, F. DUVERDY, H. URGELL : An objective auditory dysfunction in
infantile autism : Alteration of medial olivocochlear bundle functioning. The Lancet, 1993, 342, 923-924.

MAISON S., MICHEYL C., COLLET L. : Medial olivocochlear efferent system in humans studied with amplitude
modulated tones. Journal of Neurophysiology , 1997, 77, 1759-1768


GUENOT, P. RYVLIN, C. FISCHER, L. COLLET. Evidence of peripheral auditory activity modulation by the auditory
cortex in humans Neuroscience. 2001;104(2):347-58

A.L GIRAUD, E. TRUY, FRACKOWIAK, GREGOIRE, JF PUJOL, L. COLLET :Differential recruitment of the speech
comprehension system in healthy subjects and rehabilitated cochlear implant patients. Brain, 2000, 123, 7, 1391-1402.

Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM

: Professeur honoraire du Collège de France
Field of expertise:
Birth date:
31 aout 1936
Professional address:
Collège de France
Present and previous positions, academic
or hospital appointments:
Professeur honoraire du Collège de France, chaire de Neuropharmacologie
Administrateur honoraire du Collège de France

10 main articles:

1996 GAUCHY, C., DESBAN, M., GLOWINSKI, J. & KEMEL, M.L., Distinct regulations by septide and the neurokinin-1
tachykinin receptor agonist (Pro9)Substance P of the N-Methyl-D-aspartate-evoked release of dopamine in
striosome- and matrix-enriched areas of the rat striatum. Neuroscience, 73 (4), 929-939

1996 WILLIAMS, R.J., MAUS, M., STELLA, N., GLOWINSKI, J. & PREMONT, J., Reduced glucose metabolism enhances
the glutamate-evoked release of arachidonic acid from striatal neurones. Neuroscience 74 (2) 461-468

1996 WILLIAMS, R. & GLOWINSKI, J., Cyclothiazide unmasks an AMPA-evoked release of arachidonic acid from
cultured striatal neurones. J. Neurochem., 67 n°4, 1551-1558

1997 DESAGHER, S., CORDIER, J., GLOWINSKI, J. & TENCE, M., Endothelin stimulates phospholipase D in striatal
astrocytes. J. Neurochem., 68 n°1, 78-87

1997 DESAGHER, S., GLOWINSKI, J. & PREMONT, J., Pyruvate protects neurons against hydrogen peroxyde-induced
toxicity. J. Neurosci., 17 n°23, 9060-9067

1998 MAURICE N., DENIAU J.M. GLOWINSKI J., THIERRY, A.M. , Relationships between the prefrontal cortex and the
basal ganglia in the rat: physiology of the cortico-subthalamic circuits. J. Neuroscience, 18 (22) 9539-9546

1999 MAURICE N., DENIAU J.M., GLOWINSKI J., THIERRY A.M. , Relationships between the prefrontal cortex and the
basal ganglia in the rat: physiology of the cortico-nigral circuits. J. Neurosci. 19 (11) 4674-4681

2002 KEMEL M.L., PEREZ S., GODEHEU G., SOUBRIE P. & GLOWINSKI J. Facilitation by endogenous tachykinins of the
NMDA-evoked release of acetylcholine after acute and chronic suppression of dopaminergic transmission in the
matrix of the rat striatum. The Journal of Neuroscience, 22 (5) 1929-1936

2002 GAUCHY C., NAIRN A., GLOWINSKI J., PREMONT J., N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation inhibits protein
synthesis in cortica neurons independently of its ionic permeability properties. Neuroscience, 114 (4) 859

2003 VENANCE, L., GLOWINSKI J., Heterogeneity of spike frequency adaptation among medium spiny neurones from
the rat striatum. Neuroscience, 122: 77-92

Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM

: Secrétaire général de l’académie de Grenoble
Field of expertise:
Economie et gestion
Birth date:
15 mai 1965
Professional address:
Rectorat de l’académie de Grenoble
7 Place Bir Hakeim – BP 1065
38021 Grenoble cedex
Present and previous positions, academic
or hospital appointments:
Depuis 2004
Secrétaire général de l’académie de Grenoble

Personnels gérés
: 59 831 personnes
Budget : 2.9 milliards d’euros

2002-2004 Directeur de cabinet du directeur de l’enseignement supérieur (Ministère de l’éducation
nationale, de l’enseignement supérieur et de la recherche).

2000-2002 Directeur de cabinet du recteur de l’académie d’Aix Marseille

1987 Agrégation d’économie et de gestion

1984-1988 Ecole normale supérieure de Cachan

Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM

: Distinguished Scientist Emeritus, National Institutes of Health
Field of expertise:
Birth date:
October 12, 1928
Present and previous positions, academic
or hospital appointments:
Director,Laboratoire de Chirurgie Experimentale. Hopital Marie Lannelongue. Paris
Assistant Professeur de Physiologie. Universite de Lille
Professor of Medicine,University of Washington.Seattle,WA
Director Division of Lung Disease. National Heart Lung & Blood Institute,NIH,USA
Director, Fogarty International Center,NIH,USA
Director, National Heart, Lung & Blood Institute,NIH,USA. Managed a budget that increased from
$430 million to $2.8 billion.
1982 – 2003
Program Director Cardiopulmonary Research, US Cooperation with USSR/Russia, China, Italy,
Vietnam, Japan, Germany, Poland, Hungary, Yugoslavia.
President, World Hypertension League
Member,Conseil Scientific du Grand Prix.Institut de France.present
Member,Planning Committee. Global Alliance for Chronic Respiratory Disease. Present and Expert
Panel for Cardiovascular Disease. 2003-2011, both at WHO. Geneva.
Executive Director. Global Initiatives for Asthma and for Chronic Lung Disease. present
Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM


10 main articles:

Lenfant, C., Weiss, M., Rouanet, J., DeWall, R., Nahas, G. et Dubost, C. Premiers rèsultats èxperimentaux en
France de chirurgie cardiaque exsangue avec le système pompe-oxygènateur de Lillehei-DeWall. Presse Mèdicale
64: 869-872, 1956.

Dubost, C., Piot, C., Lenfant, C., Passelecq, J., Guery, J., Le Brigand, H., Walper, C., Blondeau, P. et Weiss, M.
Fermeture d'une communication interventriculaire à coeur ouvert, sous circulation extracorporelle; premier succès
francais. Mèm. Acad. Chirurg 82: 207-217, 1956.

Lenfant, C., Johansen, K. and Grigg, G. Respiratory properties of blood and pattern of gas exchange in the lungfish,
Neoceratodus forsteri. Resp. Physiol 2: 1-21, 1967.

Lenfant, C. and Okubo, T. Distribution function of pulmonary blood flow and ventilation perfusion ratio in man.
J. Appl. Physiol 24: 668-677, 1968.

Robinson, D., Moskowitz, J. and Lenfant, C. From the gene to the general practitioner: A paradigm of research.
Policy 14: 189-203, 1985.

Hurd, S.S. and Lenfant, C. Pulmonary research: Where have we come and what does the future hold? Am. Rev.
Resp. Dis. 136: 542-544, 1987.

Lenfant, C. Shattuck Lecture. Clinical Research to Clinical Practice — Lost in Translation? N Engl J Med 349
874, 2003.

Bramlage p, Thoenes M, Kirch W, and Lenfant C. Clinical practice and recent recommend-ations in hypertension
management – report a gap in global survey of 1259 primary care physicians in 17 countries. Curr Med Res and Opin.
23; 783-91, 2007

Lenfant, C. Low birth weight and blood pressure. Metabolism Clinical and Experimental. 57: S32-35, 2008

Lenfant C. Do sleep disorders have an impact on blood pressure? Am J Theraputics 15; 345-50, 2008

In addition serves as Executive Editor for a series of monographs Lung Biology in Health and Disease. 228 volumes
published 1973 – present.

Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM

: Directeur Général de la société Synchrotron SOLEIL
Field of expertise:
Birth date:
octobre 1944
Professional address:
Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers
Saint Aubin
BP 48 91192 Gif sur Yvette cedex
Present and previous positions, academic
or hospital appointments:
ProfesseurUniversité McGill, Montréal
Professeur (PR0 en 2003) ENS de Lyon
DR0 CNRS, en détachement de l'Education Nationale
Directeur, Institut de Biologie Structurale (CEA-CNRS-UJF), Grenoble
Directeur Adjoint chargé de la direction de la recherche à l’ENS de Lyon
Directeur scientifique du Département des Sciences du Vivant du CNRS
Directeur général de la société Synchrotron SOLEIL
Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM


10 main articles:

Van der Rest, M. et Garrone, R. The collagen family of proteins. FASEB J., 5, 2814-2823 (1991)

Font, B., Aubert-Foucher, E., Goldschmidt, D., Eichenberger, E., et van der Rest, M. Binding of collagen XIV with the
dermatan sulfate side chain of decorin. J. Biol. Chem., 268, 25015-25018 (1993)

Mallein-Gerin, F., Ruggiero, F., Quinn, T. M., Bard, F., Grodzinsky, A. J., Olsen, B. R. et van der Rest, M. Analysis of
collagen synthesis and assembly in culture by immortalized mouse chondrocytes in the presence or absence of !1(IX)
collagen chains. Exp. Cell Res. 219, 257-265 (1995)

Kleman, J.P., Aeschlimann, D., Paulsson, M., et van der Rest, M. Transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-linking of fibrils of
collagen V/XI in A204 rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Biochemistry 34, 13768-13775 (1995)

Lesage, A., Penin, F., Geourjon, C., Marion, D., et van der Rest, M. Trimeric assembly and three dimensional
structure analysis by CD and NMR of a FACIT collagen COL1-NC1 junction model peptide Biochemistry 35, 9647-9660

Rousseau, J.C., Farjanel, J., Boutillon, M.M., Hartmann, D.J., van der Rest, M., et Moradi-Améli, M.. Processing of
Type XI Collagen. determination of the matrix forms of the !1(XI) chain. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 23743-23748 (1996)

Moradi-Améli M, de Chassey B, Farjanel J, et van der Rest M Different splice variants of cartilage alpha1(XI) collagen
chain undergo uniform amino-terminal processing.Matrix Biol 17, 393-6 (1998)

Dublet B, Vernet T, et van der Rest M Schmid's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia mutations interfere with folding of the
C-terminal domain of human collagen X expressed in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem 274, 18909-15 (1999)

Ricard-Blum S, Bernocco S, Font B, Moali C, Eichenberger D, Farjanel J, Burchardt ER, van der Rest M, Kessler E,
Hulmes DJS Interaction properties of the procollagen C-proteinase enhancer protein shed light on the mechanism of
stimulation of BMP-1 J Biol Chem 277, 33864-33869 (2002)

Ricard-Blum S, Féraud O, Lortat-Jacob H, Rencurosi A, Fukai N, Dkhissi F, Vittet D, Imberty A, Olsen BR, and van der
Rest M Characterization of endostatin binding to heparin and heparan sulfate by surface plasmon resonance and
molecular modeling. Role of divalent cations J Biol Chem 279, 2927-2936 (2004)

Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM

: Présidente du Groupe KORIAN
Birth date:
07 Février 1947
Professional address:
32, rue Guersant 75017 PARIS
Present and previous positions, academic
or hospital appointments:
Présidente du Directoire du Groupe KORIAN
(premier groupe privé européen spécialisé dans la prise en charge de la dépendance).
12.500 salariés en France, Italie et Allemagne. 700 millions d’Euros de CA.

10 main articles:

De 2002 à 2006 : Directrice Générale de l’Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (93.000 salariés- 6 Milliards
d’Euros de Budget Annuel).

Publication d’un livre à partir de cette expérience "Oui, la réforme est possible" chez Albin Michel.

De 2000 à 2002 : Directrice Générale de ALTEDIA Ressources Humaines.

De 1996 à 2000 : Déléguée Générale à l’Emploi et à la Formation Professionnelle

De 1986 à 1996 : Groupe DANONE (Direction Générale de Filiales et Direction Générale des Ressources
Humaines du Groupe.

De 1976 à 1986 : Inspection Générale des Affaires Sociales et Délégation à l’Emploi

En 1980 : Publication d’un rapport sur les soins aux personnes âgées.

Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM

Harold E. VARMUS
: President & CEO Memorial Sloan-Kettering
Institute Cancer Center
Field of expertise:
Birth date:
December 18,1939
Professional address:
1275 York Avenue, NY 10065
New York.
Present and previous positions, academic
or hospital appointments:
U.S. Public Health Service, Surgeon (Military Service)
Lecturer, Department of Microbiology, University of California, San Francisco, California
Asst. Professor in Residence, Dept. of Microbiology, University of California, San Francisco, California
Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology, University of California, San Francisco, California
Professor, Dept. of Microbiology & Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California
Professor, Dept. of Biochemistry & Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California
American Cancer Society Professor of Molecular Virology
Laboratory Chief, Varmus Lab, Division of Basic Science, National Cancer Institute, National

Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
Director, National Institutes of Health
Acting Chairman, Sloan-Kettering Institute
President & C.E.O., Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Member, Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, MSKCC
National Academy of Sciences
Institute of Medicine
Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award
Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology
Vannevar Bush Award, National Science Foundation
National Medal of Science
Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM


10 main articles:

Fisher, G.H, Wellen, S.L., Klimstra, D.S., Lenczowski, J.M., Tichelaar, J.W., Lizak, M.J, Whitsett, J.A., Koretsky, A.
and Varmus, H.E. Induction and apoptotic regression of lung adenocarcinomas by regulation of a K-Ras transgene in
the presence and absence of tumor suppressor genes. Genes Dev. 15:3249-62, (2001).

Li, Y., Podsypanina, K., Liu, X., Crane, A., Tan, L. K., Parsons, R., and Varmus, H.E. Deficiency of Pten accelerates
mammary oncogenesis in MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mice. BMC Mol. Biol. 2:2, (2001).

Orsulic, S., Li, Y., Soslow, R.A., Vitale-Cross, L.A., Gutkind, J.S., and Varmus, H.E. Induction of ovarian cancer by
defined multiple genetic changes in a mouse model system. Cancer Cell 1:53-62, (2002).

Cong, F., Schweizer, L., Chamorro, M., and Varmus, H.E. Requirement for a nuclear function of beta-catenin in Wnt
signaling. Mol Cell Biol 23: 8462-70 (2003).

Li, Y
., Welm, B., Podsypanina, K., Huang, S., Chamorro, M., Zhang, X., Rowlands, T., Egeblad, M., Cowin, P., Werb,
Z., Tan, L.K., Rosen, J.M., and Varmus, H.E. Evidence that transgenes encoding components of the Wnt signaling
pathway preferentially induce mammary cancers from progenitor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 100: 15853-58 (2003).

Lewis, B.C., Klimstra, D. S., and Varmus, H.E. The c-myc and PyMT oncogenes induce different tumor types in a
somatic mouse model for pancreatic cancer. Genes Dev. 17: 3127-38 (2003).

Pao, W., Klimstra, D.S., Fisher, G.H., and Varmus, H.E. Use of avian retroviral vectors to introduce transcriptional
regulators into mammalian cells for analyses of tumor maintenance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100, 8764-69 (2003).

Schweizer, L., and Varmus, H.E. Wnt/Wingless signaling through beta-catenin requires the function of both
LRP/Arrow and frizzled classes of receptors. BMC Cell Biol 4:4 (2003).

Cong, F., Zhang, J., Pao, W., Zhou, P., and Varmus, H.E. A protein knockdown strategy to study the function of
beta-catenin in tumorigenesis. BMC Mol Biol 4:10 (2003).

Podsypanina, K., Li, Y., and Varmus, H.E. Evolution of somatic mutations in mammary tumors in transgenic mice is
influenced by the inherited genotype. BMC Med 2: 24 (2004).

Cong, F., Schweizer, L., and Varmus, H.E. Casein kinase-epsilon modulates the signaling specificities of dishevelled.
Mol Cell Biol 24: 2000-2011 (2004).

Cong, F., and Varmus, H.E. Nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of Axin regulates subcellular localization of beta-catenin.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101: 2882-87 (2004).
Cong, F., Schweizer, L. and Varmus, H.E. Wnt signals across the plasma membrane to activate the ß-catenin
pathway by forming oligomers containing its receptors, Frizzled and LRP. Development 131: 5103-15 (2004).

Pao, W., Miller, V., Zakowski, M., Doherty, J., Politi, K., Sarkaria, I., Singh, B., Heelan, B., Rusch, V., Fulton, L.,
Mardis, E., Kupfer, D., Wilson, R., Kris, M., Varmus, H.E. EGF receptor gene mutations are common in lung cancers
from “never smokers” and correlate with sensitivity of tumors to gefitinib (Iressa®) and erlotinib (TarcevaTM). Proc
Natl Acad Sci U S A 101: 13306-11 (2004).

Chamorro, M., Schwartz, D.R., Vonica, A., Brivanlou, A.H., Cho, K.R., and. Varmus, H.E. FGF20 and DKK1 are
transcriptional targets of ß-catenin and implicated in carcinogenesis and development. EMBO J 24: 73–84 (2005).

Lewis, B.C., Klimstra, D.S., Socci, N.D., Koutcher, J.A. and Varmus, H.E. The absence of p53 promotes metastasi
s in
a novel somatic mouse model for hepatocellular carcinoma. Mol Cell Biol 25: 1228-37 (2005).

Pao, W., Wang, T.Y., Riely, G.J., Miller, V.A., Pan, Q., Ladanyi, M., Zakowski. M.F., Heelan, R.T., Kris, M.G.,
Varmus, H.E. KRAS mutations and primary resistance of lung adenocarcinomas for gefitinib or erlotinib. PLoS
Medicine 2: e17 (2005).

Pao, W., Miller, V.A., Politi, K., Riely, G.J., Somwar, R., Zakowski. M.F., Kris, M.G., Varmus, H.E. Acquired
resistance of lung adenocarcinomas to gefitinib or erlotinib is associated with a second mutation in the EGFR kinase
domain. PLoS Med 2: e73 (2005).

Carter, T.A., Wodicka, L.M., Shah, N.P., Velasco, A.M., Fabian, M.A., Treiber, D.K., Milanov, Z.V., Atteridge, C.E.,
Biggs III, W.E., Edeen, P.T., Floyd, M., Ford J.M., Grotzfeld. R.M., Herrgard, S., Insko, D.E., Mehta, S.A., Patel,
H.K., Pao, W., Sawyers, C.L., Varmus, H.E., Zarrinkar, P.P., and Lockhart, D.J. Inhibition of drug-resistant mutants
of ABL, KIT, and EGF receptor kinases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102: 11011–16 (2005).

Politi, K., Zakowski, M.F., Fan, P., Schonfeld, E.A. Pao, W. and Varmus, H.E. Lung adenocarcinomas induced in
mice by mutant EGF receptors found in human lung cancers respond to a tyrosine kinase inhibitor or to down
regulation of the receptors Genes Dev. 20: 1496-1510 (2006).
Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM


Du Z, Podsypanina K, Huang S, McGrath A, Toneff MJ, Bogoslovskaia E, Zhang X, Moraes RC, Fluck M, Allred DC,
Lewis MT, Varmus HE, Li Y. Introduction of oncogenes into mammary glands in vivo with an avian retroviral vector
initiates and promotes carcinogenesis in mouse models. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 46:17396-401, 2006.

Marks, J.L., McLellan, M.D., Zakowski, M.F., Lash, A.E., Kasai, Y., Broderick, S., Sarkaria, I.S., Pham, D., Singh, B.,
Miner, T.L., Fewell, G.A., Fulton, L.L., Mardis, E.R., Wilson, R.K., Kris, M.G., Rusch, RW, Varmus, H.E., Pao, W.
Mutational Analysis of EGFR and Related Signaling Pathway Genes in Lung Adenocarcinomas Identifies a Novel
Somatic Kinase Domain Mutation in FGFR4. PLoS One 2:e426, 2007

Du, Y-C.N., Lewis, B.C., Hanahan, D., and Varmus, H.E. Assessing Tumor Progression Factors by Somatic Gene
Transfer in a Mouse Model: Bcl-xL Promotes Islet Tumor Cell Invasion. PLoS Biology 5: e276, 2007

K. Podsypanina, K.A. Politi, L.J. Beverly and H. E. Varmus. Oncogene cooperation in tumor maintenance and tumor
recurrence in mouse mammary tumors induced by Myc and mutant Kras. PNAS:105 5242-5247 (2008)

U. Guha, R. Chaerkedy, A. Marimuthu, A.S. Patterson, M. Kashyap, H. Gowda, M. Sato, J. Bader, A.E. Lash, J.D.
Minna, A. Pandey, H.E. Varmus. Comparisons of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in immortalized human bronchial
epithelial cells and lung adenocarcinoma cell lines expressing lung cancer-specific alleles of EGFR and KRAS. PNAS
105:14112-7 (2008)

K. Podsypanina, Y-C. N. Du, M. Jechlinger, L.J. Beverly, D. Hambardzumyan, and H. Varmus
Seeding and Propagation of Untransformed Mouse Mammary Cells in the Lung. Science 26 321: 1841-1844 (2008)

Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM

: Former Director, National Institutes of Health
Field of expertise:
Birth date:
April 12, 1951
Present and previous positions, academic
or hospital appointments:
Instructor, Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Assistant Professor, Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Assistant Professor, Department of Radiology, Eastern Virginia Medical School
Associate Professor, Department of Radiology, Eastern Virginia Medical School
Associate Professor, Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Professor of Radiology, Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Professor of Biomedical Engineering (Secondary, Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Johns
Hopkins University
Chairman, Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Executive Vice Dean, Vice Dean for Clinical Affairs and President of the Clinical Practice

Association, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Vice Dean for Research, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Executive Vice Dean, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Professor of Radiology and

Biomedical Engineering (Secondary)
Chairman, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins
University School of Medicine
Membre du Comité de visite de l'INSERM


10 main articles:

Siegelman SS, Zerhouni EA, Leo FP, Khouri NF. CT of the solitary pulmonary nodule. AJR. 1980; 135(1):1

Naidich DP, Zerhouni EA, Hutchins GM, Genieser MB. Computed tomography of the pulmonary parenchyma. Part I:
distal air-space disease. J Thoracic Imaging 1985; 1(1):39-53.

Zerhouni EA, Naidich DP, Khouri NF, Stitik FP, Siegelman SS. Computed tomography of the pulmonary parenchyma.
Part 2: Interstitial disease. J Thoracic Imaging. 1985; 1(1):54-64.

Zerhouni EA, Parish DM, Rogers WJ, Yang A, Shapiro EP. Human heart: tagging with MR imaging: a method for
noninvasive assessment of myocardial motion. Radiology. 1988; 169(1):59-63.

Zerhouni E. Medicine. The NIH Roadmap. Science. 2003 Oct 3; 302(5642):63-72.

Zerhouni EA. Research funding. NIH in the post-doubling era: realities and strategies. Science. 2006 Nov 17;