Conseil canadien de l'horticulture Salubrité des ... - CanadaGAP

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Conseil canadien de l’horticulture
Salubrité des aliments à la ferme
Index desdocuments de référence

Table des matières

PRODUITS CHIMIQUES À USAGE AGRICOLE……………………………………………………………………………1
ENGRAIS COMMERCIAUX, BOUES DE PÂTES ET PRODUITS FERTILISANTS…………………………….2
ÉQUIPEMENT (NETTOYAGE ET ASSAINISSEMENT)………………………………………………………………...2
BONNES PRATIQUES AGRICOLES……………………………………………………………………………………………3
RENSEIGNEMENTS GÉNÉRAUX……………………………………………………………………………………………….4
SURVIE ET PROLIFÉRATION D’AGENTS PATHOGÈNES DANS LES FRUITS ET LES LÉGUMES……5
INTERNALISATION ET INFILTRATION D’AGENTS PATHOGÈNES DANS LES FRUITS ET LES
LÉGUMES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….8
FUMIER, COMPOST ET AUTRES PRODUITS DÉRIVÉS………………………………………………………………9
INSTALLATIONS SANITAIRES……………………………………………………………………………………………….11
FLAMBÉES D’INTOXICATIONS LIÉES À DES FRUITS OU À DES LÉGUMES………………………………12
EAU À USAGE AGRICOLE……………………………………………………………………………………………………….15
EAU POUR LE FLOTTAGE ET LE LAVAGE………………………………………………………………………………18

Produits chimiques à usage agricole
Anonyme. Risks and benefits of pesticide use, International Pest Control, 2003, vol. 45,
nº 4, 2003, p. 216-221.
Cooley, D. R., W. J. Manning. Estimating the risks and benefits of pesticides:
Considering the agroecosystem and integrated pest management in the use of EBDC
fungicides on apples, Environmental Pollution, vol. 88, p. 315-320.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. About pesticides: Types of pesticides,
2004. Consulté le 22 février 2005, à
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.

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dans Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 31, nº 3, 1992, p. 191-203.
2

International Food Information Council. IFIC Review: Pesticides and Food Safety. Washington,
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International Food Information Council, Backgrounder: Agriculture and Food Production,
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Lichtenberg E., D, Zilberman. Storage technology and the environment, dans Journal of
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Webber M.D., Singh. Contamination des sols agricoles, 2003, Agriculture et
Agroalimentaire Canada. Consulté le 19 décembre 2006, à
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.

Whitford, F., Mason, L., Winter, C. Purdue Pesticide Programs: Pesticides and Food
Safety, Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, 2000.

Engrais commerciaux, boues de pâtes et produits fertilisants

Anonyme. What we know about sludge, grate ash and lime dregs », dans Monitoring
Solid Pulp Mill Wastes. Reach for Unbleached, 1997. Consulté le 19 décembre 2006, à
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B.C. Pulp and Paper Association. Pulp and paper mill residuals: A resource too valuable
to waste, 2000.

Cabral., F, E. Vasconcelos, M. J. Gos, C. M. Cordovil. The value, use and environmental
impacts of pulp-mill sludge additions to forests and agricultural lands in Europe, dans
Environmental Reviews, vol. 6, 1998, p. 55-64.

Forcier F. Biosolides et bioaérosols. L’état de la situation, Ministère de l'Environnement
du Québec, 2002.
INRE. Dix ans de recherche sur les effets environnementaux des affluents des fabriques
de pâtes et papiers au Canada (1992-2002), 2004. Consulté le 19 décembre 2006, à
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.

OMRI. Calcium hydroxide: Crops. National Organic Standards Board Technical Advisory
Panel Review, 2002.
Organix Waste Solutions Inc. Final Report – Pulp and paper mill residual chemistry and
options for regulations, 2000. Rédigé par la British Columbia Pulp and Paper
Association.

Équipement (nettoyage et assainissement)

Gibson, H., J. H. Taylor, K. E. Hall, J. T. Holah. Effectiveness of cleaning techniques
used in the food industry in terms of removal of bacterial biofilms. Journal of Applied
3

Microbiology, vol. 87, 1999, p. 41-48.

Ministère de l’Agriculture, de l'Alimentation et des Affaires rurales de l'Ontario, Foods of
Plant Origin. Cleaning and Sanitation Guidebook, 2006. Consulté le 21 décembre 2006,
à
http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/food/inspection/fruitveg/sanitation_guide/cleaning_
sanitation_guidebook.htm
Bonnes pratiques agricoles
British Columbia Fruit Grower’s Association. British Columbia Good Agricultural
Practices (BCGAP) – 2. Tree Fruits, 2004.

Castelnuovo, R., S. Ingham. Reducing food safety risks in apples. University of
Winsconson Extension, 2001, publication G3761. Consulté le 19 décembre 2006, à
http://www.uwex.edu/farmasyst/apple/apple_pub.pdf
.

Reitmeier, C., B. Glatz, T. Boylston, L. Wilson, A. Mendonca, M. Gleason, H. Jensen, J.
Becker. Apple Update: Safety, quality, and sustainability of small-farm production of
apples and cider – An overview of research conducted at Iowa State University, Iowa
State University, 2003. Consulté le 19 décembre 2006, à
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edu/apple/files/progress/appleupdate.pdf
.

Les Producteurs de poulet du Canada. Votre propre poulet, 2003.

Lettuce/Leafy Greens Industry (États-Unis).Commodity specific food safety guidelines
for the lettuce and leafy greens supply chain (1re éd.), 2006. Consulté le 24 octobre
2006, à
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.

North American Tomato Trade Work Group. Commodity specific food safety guidelines
for the fresh tomato supply chain (1re édition), 2006. Consulté le 24 octobre 2006, à
http://www.cfsan.fda.go/~dms/tomatsup.html
.

Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences. Good management practices for safe apple
growing, packing and cider production: Orchard Operations », dans Pennsylvania Tree
Fruit Production Guide (2004-2005) - Part VIII - Maintaining the safety of Pennsylvania
apples and apple products, Penn State University, 2004.

Produce Industry Food Safety Initiative (United States). Commodity Specific Food Safety
Guidelines for the Melon Supply Chain (1re édition), 2005. Consulté le 24 octobre 2006, à
http://www.uffva.org/PDF/MelonCommoditySpecific.pdf
.

Rangarajan, A., E.A. Bihn, R. B.,Gravani, D. L. Scott, M. P. Pritts. Cornell Good
Agricultural Practices Program: Food safety begins on the farm - A grower’s guide, 2000.
Consulté le 19 décembre 2006, à
http://www.sfc.ucdavis.edu/pubs/articles/
foodsafetybeginsonthefarm.pdf
.

Rushing, J.W., F.J. Angulo et L. Beuchat. « Implementation of a HACCP program in a
4

commercial fresh-market tomato packinghouse: A model for the industry », Dairy, Food, and
Environmental Sanitation, vol. 16 (1996), p. 549-553.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Report of 1997 inspections of fresh,
unpasteurized apple cider manufacturers, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition,
1999. Consulté le 22 février 2005, à
http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/ciderrp3.html
.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration/ Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
(CFSAN). The guide at a glance: The guide to minimize microbial food safety hazards
for fresh fruits and vegetables in brief, 1999. Consulté le 22 février 2005, à
http://vm.
cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/prodglan.html
.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration/ U.S Department of Agriculture/Center for Food
Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN). Guidance for industry. Guide to minimize
microbial food safety hazards for fresh fruits and vegetable, 1998. Consulté le 22 février
2005, à
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.

Renseignements généraux

Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada. Entreposage commercial des fruits et légumes,
2002. Consulté le 19 septembre 2005, à
http://www.agr.gc.ca/cal/epub/1532f/1532_cover_f.html
.

Arthur, L., S. Jones, M. Fabri et J. Odumeru. « Microbial survey of selected Ontario-grown fresh
fruits and vegetables », Journal of Food Protection, vol. 70, n
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12 (2007), p. 2864-2867.
Chirife, J., M. Del Pilar Buera. Water Activity, Glass Transition and Microbial Stability in
Concentrated/Semimoist Food Systems, Journal of Food Science, vol. 59, nº 5, 1994, p.
921-927.
CODEX Alimentarious Commission. Code of Hygienic Practice for fresh fruits and vegetables,
n
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de publication : CAC/RCP 53-2003 (2003).
Dawson, D. Foodborne protozoan parasites. Série « Europe Report », juin 2003.
Consulté le 31 mars 2005, à :
http://northamerica.ilsi.org/file/ RPFoodbornePara.pdf
.
Brock, T.D., M. T. Madigan, J. M. Martinko, J. M., J. Parker. Biology of Microorganisms,
7e ed., New Jersey, Prentice Hall,1994, p. 339-341.

Cole-Parmer’s FoodTechSource. Water Activity. 2005. Consulté le 14 avril 2005, à
http://www.foodtechsource.com/rcenter/tech_data/td_water.htm
.

De Roever. Microbiological safety evaluations and recommendations on fresh produce,
dans Food Control, vol.10, 1999, p.117-143.

Food Safety Network. Factsheet: What is acrylamide?, 2005. Consulté le 19 décembre
2006, à
http://www.foodsafetynetwork.ca/articles/533/acrylamide_factsheet.pdf
.

Organisation des nations unies pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture (FAO)/organisation mondiale
de la santé (OMS). Microbiological hazards in fresh fruits and vegetables. Meeting Report.
5

Microbiological Risk Assessment Series, 2008. [consulté le 25 juillet 2009]. Accès :
www.fao.org/ag/agn/agns/files/FFV_2007_Final.pdf
Odumeru, J. A., S. J. Mitchell, D. M. Alves, J. A . Lynch, A. J. , Yee, S. L Wang, S.

Warriner, K., F. Ibrahim, M. Dickinson, C. Wright et W.M. Waites. « Seed decontamination as an
intervention step for eliminating Escherichia coli on salad vegetables », Journal of the Science
of Food and Agriculture, vol. 85 (2005), p. 2307-2313.

Styliadis, J. M. Farber, J.M. Assessment of the microbiological quality of ready-to-use
vegetables for health-care food services, dans Journal of Food Protection, vol. 60, nº 8,
1997, p. 954-960.
Zohar-Picciano, H. Handling consumer complaints regarding green or off-taste potatoes,
Agence canadienne d’inspection des aliments, Direction des produits végétaux, Aliments
d’origine végétale, 2002.

Survie et prolifération d’agents pathogènes dans les fruits et les
légumes

Allwood, P.B., Y. S. Malik, S. Maherchandani, K. Vought, L. Johnson, C. Braymen, C. W.
Hedberg, S. M. Goyal, S.M. Occurrence of Escherichia coli, noroviruses, and F-specific
coliphages in fresh market-ready produce, dans Journal of Food Protection, vol. 67, nº
11, 2004, p. 2387–2390.

Asplund, K., E. Nurmi. The growth of salmonellae in tomatoes, dans International
Journal of Food Microbiology, vol;13, 1991, p. 177-182.

Bartz, J. A. Washing fresh fruits and vegetables: Lessons from treatment of tomatoes
and potatoes with water, dans Dairy, Food and Environmental Sanitation, vol.19, nº12,
1999, p. 853-864.
Beuchat, L.R., R. E. Brackett. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into raw
tomatoes and processed tomato products, dans Applied and Environmental
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Buck, J. W., R. Walcott, L. R. Beuchat. Recent trends in microbiological safety of fruits
and vegetables, dans Plant Health Progress, 2003. Consulté le 19 décembre 2006, à
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.

Burnett, S.L., J. Chen, L. R. Beuchat. Attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to the
surfaces and internal structures of apples as detected by confocal scanning laser
microscopy, dans Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 66, nº 11, 2000, p.
4679-4687.
Cantwell, M. et X. NIE. Use of heat treatments to control postharvest pathogens on tomatoes
and melons, n
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Chancellor, D. D., S. Tyagi, M. C. Bazaco, S. Bacvinskas, M. B. Chancellor, V. M. Dato,
F. De Miguel. Green onions: Potential mechanism for hepatitis A contamination, dans
Journal of Food Protection, vol. 69, nº 6, 2006, p. 1468-1472.

Del Rosario, B. A., L. R. Beuchat. Survival and growth of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia
coli O157:H7 in cantaloupe and watermelon, dans Journal of Food Protection, vol. 58, nº
1, 1995, p.105-107.
Delaquis, P., S. Stewart, S. Cazaux, P. Toivonen. Survival and growth of Listeria
monocytogenes and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in ready-to-eat iceberg lettuce washed in
warm chlorinated water, dans Journal of Food Protection, vol. 65, nº 3, 2002, p. 459-
464.
Dingman, D. W. Growth of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in bruised apple (Malus domestica)
tissue as influenced by cultivar, date of harvest and source, dans Applied and

Environmental Microbiology, vol. 66, nº 3, 2000, p. 1077-1083.

Espinoza-Medina, I. E., F. J. Rodrigues-Leyva, I. Vargas-Arispuro, M. A. Islas-Osuna, E.

Acedo-Felix, M. A. Martinez-Tellez. PCR identification of Salmonella: Potential
contamination sources from production and postharvest handling of cantaloupes, dans

Journal of Food Protection, vol. 69, nº 6, 2006, p. 1422-1425.
Fernandez Escartin, E., A. Castillo Ayala, J. S. Lozano. Survival and growth of
Salmonella and Shigella on fresh fruit, dans Journal of Food Protection, vol. 52, nº 7,
1989, p. 471-472.
Garcia-Villanova Ruiz, B., R. Galvez Vargas, R. Garcia-Villanova. Contamination on
fresh vegetables during cultivation and marketing, dans International Journal of Food
Microbiology, vol. 4, 1987, p. 285-291.

Guo, X., J. Chen, R. E. Brackett, L. R. Beuchat. Survival of Salmonellae on and in
tomato plants from the time of inoculation at flowering and early stages of fruit
development through fruit ripening, dans Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.
67, nº 10, 2001, p. 4760-4764.
Hsu, W.-Y., A. Simonne, P. Jitareerat. Fates of seeded Escherichia coli O157:H7 and
Salmonella on selected fresh culinary herbs during refrigerated storage, dans Journal of
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Janisiewicz, W. J., W. S. Conway, M. W. Brown, G. M. Sapers, P. Fratamico, R. L.
Buchanan. Fate of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 on fresh-cut apple tissue and its potential
for transmission by fruit flies, dans Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 65, nº
1, 1999, p. 1-5.
Kenney, S. J., S. L. Burnett, L. R. Beuchat. Location of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 on and
in apples as affected by bruising, washing and rubbing, dans Journal of Food Protection,
7

vol. 64, nº 9, 2001, p. 1328-1333.
Kniel, K. E., D. S. Lindsay, S. S. Sumner, C. R. Hackney, M. D. Pierson, J. P. Dubey.
Examination of attachment and survival of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts on raspberries
and blueberries, dans Journal of Parasitolology, vol. 88, nº 4, 2002, p. 790-793.

Knudsen, D. M., S. A. Yamamoto, L. J. Harris. Survival of Salmonella spp. and
Escherichia coli 0157:H7 on fresh and frozen strawberries, dans Journal of Food
Protection, vol. 64, nº 10, 2001, p. 1483-1488.

Liao, C.-H., G. M. Sapers. Influence of soft rot bacteria on growth of Listeria
monocytogenes on potato tuber slices, dans Journal of Food Protection, vol. 62, nº 4,
1999, p. 343-348.
Natvig, E. E., S. C. Ingham, B. Ingham, L. Cooperband, T. R. Roper. Salmonella
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vegetables grown in soils with incorporated bovine manure, dans Applied and
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Park, C. M., L. R. Beuchat. Evaluation of sanitizers for killing Escherichia coli 0157:H7,

Salmonella, and naturally occurring microorganisms on cantaloupes, honeydew melons
and asparagus, dans Dairy, Food and Environmental Sanitation, vol. 19, nº 12, 1999, p.
842-847.
Richards, G. M., L. R. Beuchat. Attachment of Salmonella poona to cantaloupe rind and
stem scar tissues as affected by temperature of fruit and inoculum, dans Journal of Food
Protection, vol. 67, nº 7, 2004, p. 1359-1364.

Richert, K. J., J. A. Albrecht, L. B. Bullerman, S. S. Sumner. Survival and growth of
Escherichia coli 0157:H7 on broccoli, cucumber, and green pepper, dans Dairy, Food
and Environmental Sanitation, vol. 20, nº 1, 2000, p. 24-28.

Riordan, D.C.R., G. M. Sapers, T. R. Hankinsson, M. Magee, A. M. Mattrazzo, B. A.
Annous. A study of U.S. orchards to indentify potential sources of Escherichia coli
0157:H7, dans Journal of Food Protection, vol. 64, nº 9, 2001, p. 1320-1327.
Satchell, F. B., P. Stephenson, W. H. Andrews, L. Estela, G. Allen. The survival of
Shigella sonnei in shredded cabbage, dans Journal of Food Protection, vol. 53, 1990, p.
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Ukuku, D. O., W. F. Fett. Effects of cell surface charge and hydrophobicity on
attachment of 16 Salmonella serovars to cantaloupe rind and decontamination with
sanitizers, dans Journal of Food Protection, vol. 69, nº 8, 2006, p. 1835-1843.

Wei, C. I., T. S. Huang, J. M. Kim, W. F. Lin, M. L. Tamplin, J. A. Bartz. Growth and
survival of Salmonella Montevideo on tomatoes and disinfection with chlorinated water,
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8

Wells, J. M., J. E. Butterfield. Salmonella contamination associated with bacterial soft rot
of fresh fruits and vegetables in the marketplace, dans Plant Disease, vol. 81, 1997,
867-872.
Yu, K., M. C. Newman, D. D. Archbold, T. Hamilton-Kemp. Survival of Eschericia coli
0157:H7 on strawberry fruit and reduction of the pathogen population by chemical
agents, dans Journal of Food Protection, vol. 64, nº 9, 2001, p. 1334-1340.

Zhuang, R. Y., L. R. Beuchat, F. J. Angulo. Fate of Salmonella Montevideo on and in
raw tomatoes as affected by temperature and treatment with chlorine, dans Applied and
Environmental Microbiology, vol. 61, nº 6, 1995, p. 2127-2131.

Internalisation et infiltration de pathogènes dans les fruits et les
légumes

Bartz, J. A., R. K. Showalter. Infiltration of tomatoes by aqueous bacterial suspensions,
dans Phytopathology, vol. 71, nº 5, 1981, p. 515-518.

Bartz, J. A. Washing fresh fruits and vegetables: Lessons from treatment of tomatoes
and potatoes with water, dans Dairy, Food and Environmental Sanitation, vol. 19, nº 12,
1999, p. 853-864.
Buchanan, R. L., S. G. Edelson, R. L. Miller, G. M. Sapers. Contamination of intact
apples after immersion in an Aqueous environment containing Escherichia coli O157:H7,
dans Journal of Food Protection, vol. 62, nº 5, 1999, p. 444-450.

Dingman, D. W. Growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in bruised apple (Malus domestica)
tissue as influenced by cultivar, date of harvest and source, dans Applied and
Environmental Microbiology, vol. 66, nº 3, 2000, p. 1077-1083.

Farber, J. M., S. L. Wang, Y. Cai, S. Zhang. Changes in population of Listeria
monocytogenes inoculated on packaged fresh-cut vegetables, dans Journal of Food
Protection, vol. 61, nº 2, 1998, 192-195.

Ibarra-Sanchez, L. S., S. Alvarado-Casillas, M. O. Rodriguez-Gracia, N. E. Martinez-
Gonzales, A. Castillo. Internalization of bacterial pathogens in tomatoes and their control
by selected chemicals, dans Journal of Food Protection, vol 67, nº 7, 2004, p. 1352-
1358.
Suslow, T.N.D. Key factors regarding the practice of heating dump tank and flume water for
postharvest quality and safety of fresh market tomatoes are summarized. Key points of control
and management of microbial food safety for growers, packers, and handlers of fresh market
tomatoes. University of California Davis Vegetable Research Center. [consulté le
23 juillet 2009]. Accès : www.postharvest.ucdavis.edu/datastorefiles/234-30.pdf
Janes, M. E., K. S. Kim, M. G. Johnson. Transmission electron microscopy study of
enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple tissue, dans Journal of Food
Protection, vol. 68, nº 2, 2005, p. 216-224.
9


Janisiewicz, W. J., W. S. Conway, M. W. Brown, G. M. Sapers, P. Fratamico, R. L.
Buchanan. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut apple tissue and its potential
for transmission by fruit flies, dans Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 65, nº
1, 1999, p. 1-5.
Kasmire, R. F. Hot water treatments for tomatoes, dans Fruit and Vegetable Perishables
and Handling, vol. 29, 1971, p. 3-4.

Riordan, D. C. R., G. M. Sapers, T. R. Hankinsson, M. Magee, A. M. Mattrazzo, B. A.
Annous. A study of U.S. orchards to indentify potential sources of Escherichia coli
0157:H7, dans Journal of Food Protection, vol. 64, nº 9, 2001, p. 1320-1327.

Seeman, B. K., S. S. Sumner, R. Marini, K. E. Kniel. Internalization of Escherichia coli in
apples under natural conditions, dans Dairy, Food and Environmental Sanitation, vol. 22,
nº 9, 2002, p. 667-673.
Zhuang, R. Y., L. R. Beuchat, F. J. Angulo. Fate of Salmonella Montevideo on and in
raw tomatoes as affected by temperature and treatment with chlorine, dans Applied and
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Fumier, compost and autres produits dérivés

Conseil canadien du compostage. Setting the standard: a summary of composting
standards in Canada. Consulté le 19 décembre 2006, à
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Ministère de la Justice du Canada, Loi sur les engrais, L. R. 1985, ch. F-10. Consulté le
19 décembre 2006, à
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Ministère de la Justice du Canada, Règlement sur les engrais, C.R.C., ch. 666. Consulté
le 19 décembre 2006, à :
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Guan, T. Y., R. A. Holley. Pathogen survival in swine manure environments and
transmission of human enteric illness, dans Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 32,
2003, 383-392.
Guo, X., J. Chen, R. E. Brackett, L. R. Beuchat. Survival of Salmonellae on and in
tomato plants from the time of inoculation at flowering and early stages of fruit
development through fruit ripening, dans Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.
67, nº 10, 2001, p. 4760-4764.
Himathongkham, S., H. Riemann. Destruction of Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia
coli 0157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in chicken manure by drying and/or gassing
with ammonia, dans FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 171, nº 2, 1999, p. 179-182.

Himathongkham, S., S. Bahari, H. Riemann, D. Cliver. Survival of Escherichia coli
O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium in cow manure and cow manure slurry, dans
FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 178, 1999, p. 251-257.
10


Himathongkham, S., S. Nuanualsuwan, H. Riemann. Survival of Salmonella enteritidis
and Salmonella typhimurium in chicken manure at different levels of water activity, dans
FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 172, 1999, p. 159-163.

Islam, M., J. Morgan, M. Doyle, X. Jiang. Fate of Escherichia coli in manure compostamended
soil and on carrots and onions grown in an environmentally controlled growth
chamber, dans Journal of Food Protection, vol. 67, nº 3, 2004c, p. 574-578.

Islam, M., J. Morgan, M. Doyle, S. C. Phatak, P. Millner, X. Jiang X. Persistance of
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on lettuce and parsley and in soils on which
they were grown in fields treated with contaminated manure composts or irrigation water,
dans Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, vol 1, nº 1, 2004a, p 27-35.

Islam, M., J. Morgan, M. Doyle, S. C. Phatak, P. Millner, X. Jiang X. Fate of Salmonella
enterica serovar Typhimurium on carrots and radishes grown in fields treated with
contaminated manure composts or irrigation water, dans Applied and Environmental
Microbiology, vol. 70, nº 4, 2004b, p. 2497-2502.

Jiang, X, J. Morgan, M. Doyle. Thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cow
manure compost, dans Journal of Food Protection, vol. 66, nº 10, 2003, p. 1771-1777.
Kudva, I.T., K. Blanch, C. J. Hovde. Analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ovine or
bovine manure and manure slurry, dans Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.
64, nº 9, 1998, p. 3166-31374.
Lung, A. J., C. M. Lin, J. M. Kim, M. R. Marshall, R. Nordstedt, N.P. Thompson, C. I.
Wei. Destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enteriditis in cow manure
composting, dans Journal of Food Protection, vol. 64, nº 9, 2001, p. 1309-1314.

Mamaril, C., V. Gonzales, A. Olegario, W. Obcema. Integrated plant nutrient
management systems in the Philippines: Review and analysis, Fertilizer Advisory,

Development and Information Network for Asia and the Pacific [FADINAP], 1999.
Consulté le 19 décembre 2006, à
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Mubiru, D. N., M. S. Coyne, J. H. Grove. Mortality of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in two
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