CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK CANDIDATE DIVERSITY ...

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Have You “Met” Standard 4?


Maureen D. Gillette

Northeastern Illinois University

Fall 2007

Standard 4: Diversity

(Initial & Advanced)


The unit designs, implements, and evaluates
curriculum and experiences for candidates to
acquire the knowledge, skills, and
dispositions necessary to help all students
learn. These experiences include working
with diverse higher education and school
faculty, diverse peers, and diverse students
in P
-
12 schools.

FOUR ELEMENTS


4.1: Design, implementation, and evaluation of
curriculum and experiences


4.2: Diverse Faculty


4.3: Diverse Candidates


4.4: Diverse P
-
12 Students


Note: Because these elements can be cross
-
listed
with other Standards, sometimes a problem in one
place means an AFI in another.

NCATE Definition of Diversity


Differences among groups of people and
individuals based on ethnicity, race,
socioeconomic status, gender,
exceptionalities, language, religion, sexual
orientation, and geographic area

WHY IS IT SO DIFFICULT TO DOCUMENT
DIVERSITY PROFICIENCY
?


AWARENESS (candidate has his/her eyes
opened but does not know how to implement
culturally relevant teaching)


ACCEPTANCE (candidate understands
diversity but does not know how to implement
culturally relevant teaching)


AFFIRMATION (candidate knows,
understands, and can implement culturally
relevant teaching)

Conceptual Framework


Commitment to Diversity


“The unit’s
conceptual framework(s) reflects the unit’s
commitment to preparing to support learning
for
all
students and provides a conceptual
understanding of how knowledge,
dispositions, and skills related to diversity are
integrated across the curriculum, instruction,
field experiences and clinical practice,
assessments, and evaluations.”

Conceptual Framework Resources


Smith, G.P. (1998).
Common Sense about Uncommon Knowledge:
The Knowledge Bases for Diversity.
AACTE


Dottin, E. S. (2005).

Creating a Professional Community through
Means
-
Ends Connections to Facilitate the Acquisition of Moral
Dispositions.

Landham, MD: University Press of America.


Sapon
-
Shevin, M. & Breyer, R. (2004).
And Noboby Said Anything:
Uncomfortable Converstions about Diversity
. Syracuse, NY:
Syracuse University (video)


Preconference clinic on meeting NCATE Standard 4. Annual
Conference of the National Association for Multicultural Education,
2006, November in Phoenix, AZ


CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK


UNIT DEFINITION OF DIVERSITY

CANDIDATE DIVERSITY PROFICIENCIES


What knowledge, skills, and dispositions related to diversity do
you expect of your candidates?

__________________________________________________


Faculty Conversations


Collaboration with the Professional Community


Candidate Input


Work with Liberal Arts and Sciences Colleagues

________________________________________________

HOW WILL YOU COLLECT BASELINE DATA ON CANDIDATES
AND ON THE CURRICULUM ?


Element 4.1:

Design, Implementation, and Evaluation
of Curriculum & Experiences

(Crossed to Standard 1, Standard 2, Standard 6)

THE NCATE “ACCEPTABLE” RUBRIC AND COMMON PROBLEMS


“The unit clearly articulates the proficiencies that candidates are expected to
develop during their professional program

No diversity proficiencies have been identified by the unit




“Curriculum and accompanying field experiences are designed to help
candidates understand the importance of diversity in teaching and learning”

Syllabi do not reflect the unit’s emphasis on diversity

Field Experience and Clinical Practice forms do not reflect diversity
proficiencies


“Candidates learn to develop and teach lessons that incorporate diversity and
develop a classroom and school climate that values diversity. Candidates
become aware of different teaching and learning styles shaped by cultural
influences and are able to adapt instruction and services appropriately for all
students, including students with exceptionalities.

Assessments do not assist programs/unit in ascertaining whether or not
candidates are developing the expected diversity proficiencies

Candidate performance data on diversity proficiencies is not available




“They demonstrate dispositions that value fairness and learning by all students.”


Programs/units have no clear dispositions related to fairness and learning
for all students



Assessments of candidate proficiencies provide data on the ability to
help all students learn. Candidates’ assessment data are used to
provide feedback to candidates for improving their knowledge, skills,
and dispositions.”


No initial candidate data on diversity proficiencies is available


No advanced candidate data on diversity proficiencies is available


No feedback mechanism related to diversity proficiencies is
evident


Faculty are not analyzing and using the data to improve
candidate’s ability to meet diversity proficiencies



IF THE UNIT DOES NOT MEET ELEMENT ONE AT THE
ACCEPTABLE LEVEL, THE TEAM MUST FIND THE
STANDARD “NOT MET”


CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK


CANDIDATE DIVERSITY PROFICIENCIES

(UNIT OR PROGRAM)


CURRICULUM MAPPING

FOR COVERAGE


SYLLABI

TEXTS & ASSIGNMENTS

CLINICAL



MATERIALS ASSESSMENTS

FORMS &


RUBRICS

FEEDBACK



SYLLABI
-

If it is not visible to the candidates on the syllabus, it is not
seen as important to them. It is a myth that the team will not want to
look at syllabi in the “new” NCATE process. They should be available
on line or during the visit and you might want to consider coding them
for ease of identification of diversity (and technology) integration.



TEXTS AND MATERIALS
-

Find texts that infuse diversity rather than
relegate the discussion of diversity to one chapter. All materials
(videos, case studies, readings, etc.) should teach or reinforce the
concept or strategy while addressing diversity in a balanced way.



ASSIGNMENTS, ASSESSMENTS, RUBRICS
-

If it is not assigned &
assessed, it is not seen as important to the candidates.



CLINICAL FORMS & FEEDBACK
-

Align all forms and feedback
instruments with CF and diversity proficiencies.

COMMON ISSUES


The same materials (e.g., videos, case studies) are
used throughout the program


Having one course on diversity is seen as “solving
the problem”


Some aspects of diversity are overemphasized and
others are ignored


Candidate expectations for proficiency do not
change as they move through the program


Some programs in the unit are doing an excellent job
and others are not doing anything



NOTE: Faculty and students who resist discussions
of and inclusion of diversity in their work are often
insecure


they need assistance and support

DATA ON PROGRAM/UNIT EFFECTIVENESS
RELATED TO DIVERSITY



STUDENT FOCUS GROUPS


ALUMNI SURVEYS


ALUMNI FOCUS GROUPS


EMPLOYER SURVEYS


EVALUATIONS OF SPECIAL, REQUIRED
EVENTS


CANDIDATE WORK SAMPLES


FIELD AND CLINICAL FORMS


PORTFOLIOS


DIVERSE FACULTY

(Standard 5 & 6)

“Candidates interact in classroom settings on campus

and in schools with professional education faculty,

faculty from other units, and school faculty from diverse

ethnic, racial, and gender groups.”


Data on institutional faculty diversity


Data on unit diversity


Data on faculty by program


Data on Clinical Faculty Diversity


Data on Cooperating Teacher/Mentor Diversity


Data on faculty involvement in teaching, research, service, and
professional development that indicates expertise or growth in
diversity


Data on endowed chairs, visiting lecturers, faculty exchanges



Common Problems in Element 2


Unit faculty are not diverse


Diverse faculty do not stay at the institution


Liberal Arts faculty are not diverse


Clinical faculty are not diverse


The institution is making minimal efforts to
recruit and retain diverse faculty

“We advertise in the Chronicle but no one
applies……Diverse faculty do not want to live
here……..”

KEY QUESTION


On balance, do candidates interact in meaningful
ways with diverse faculty?



If not, what can you do?
HAVE A PLAN and BE
WORKING ON IT!

Team/Collaborative Teaching (liberal arts/methods)

Visiting Scholars, Faculty Exchanges, Endowed Chair,
Distinguished Clinical Professor

Partnerships with Community Colleges

Look at course taking patterns if faculty teach across
programs



“Good Faith Efforts” vs Results


What are effective recruitment strategies?


Pairs/Small Group Recruitment


Recruit like school districts! HBCUs, HSIs, Community Colleges


Grow Your Own through graduate programs


Use the web (e.g.,
www.insidehighered.com
;




www.AcademicCareers.com

(e.g., their “diversity package);


http://latinosinhighered.com
)


What type of college/university environment supports retention of
diverse faculty?

Faculty focus groups and exit surveys to find factors that support retention


develop a plan to address any issues raised and implement the plan!
Support for teaching, research, service


find and support projects that
make institutional or programmatic connections

Mentors, support groups





Continued


What type of school/college of education environment
supports retention of diverse faculty?

(e.g., the work is exciting and professionally challenging, there
is support and mentoring)


What types of faculty professional development indicate a
commitment to ensuring that faculty are aware, accepting,
and affirming of diversity and can facilitate those
perspectives in candidates?

(e.g., diversity is integrated into faculty PD, professional
discussions etc.)


What type of statistics can you keep to document your
efforts?



-

diversity of the candidate pool



-

interviews with candidates who turn you down



-

exit surveys


DIVERSE CANDIDATES

(Standard 6; initial and advanced)


“Candidates interact and work with candidates from
diverse ethnic, racial, gender, and socioeconomic
groups in professional education courses on
campus and in schools. Candidates from diverse
ethnic, racial, gender, and socioeconomic groups
work together on committees and education projects
related to education and the content areas. The
affirmation of the values of diversity is shown
through good
-
faith efforts made to increase or
maintain candidate diversity.

Common Problems with Element 3


Candidates in the unit are not diverse


Candidates in certain programs are not
diverse


Opportunities to interact with diverse peers
are not available


There is no recruitment and/or retention plan
in place


data on candidate diversity is not
being collected, analyzed, and addressed

DATA, DATA, DATA


HAVE A PLAN OR A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH
AND BE IMPLEMENTING IT!


Demographics by institution, unit, program


Recruitment, retention &/or diversity plans


Be using an analysis of how diverse students are
doing (e.g., courses, standardized tests, graduation
rates) to improve candidate performance


Descriptions of special programs &
results

of those
programs


On balance, what is the character and quality of the
interactions of diverse peers?


“Good Faith” efforts vs results?


RECRUITMENT & RETENTION


Partnerships with liberal arts & sciences


Community College pipeline


P
-
12 Pipelines, e.g.,



FEA/FTA clubs



Substantive school partnerships


“adopt”

a school, even one that is far away

DATA, DATA, DATA



Know the issues for
your institution and unit & be taking action!


Experience with Diverse Students in P
-
12
Schools (Standard 3;Initial and Advanced)


“Field experiences or clinical practice in
settings with exceptional populations and
students from different racial, ethnic, gender,
and socioeconomic groups are designed for
candidates to develop and practice their
knowledge, skills, and dispositions for
working with all students. Feedback from
peers and supervisors helps candidates
reflect on their ability to help all students
learn.”

Common Problems with Element 4



Unit/program does not track placements


Unit/program does not provide demographic data
on placements


Not all candidates have experience with diverse
placements


Advanced programs do not ensure diverse
placements


Candidate are not provided substantive
(documented) feedback related to diversity through
assignments, seminars, or by supervisors



Ensuring Experience with Diverse P
-
12
Learners


What types of innovative field and clinical
placements provide experience with at least two
types of diverse P
-
12 learners?



Summer programs, exchanges


Is there a way to collaborate with colleagues in the
liberal arts?



First Year Experience for Education

candidates


w/field experience



College of Arts & Sciences Education Program


for first and second year w/ field



Middle School MST Program w/field


How can those be graduated and mediated to support
awareness, acceptance, affirmation?


BUILD IN
MEDIATED

EARLY FIELD


Consider out
-
of
-
school placements (e.g., after



school programs, community agencies)


Use Service Learning programs


Use alternative schools


INCREASE EXPECTATIONS OVER TIME





How can you use technology to assist you?


Collaboratory, Keypals


Ongoing video/distance exchange




MEETING STANDARD 4


Collect, analyze, and use data on all elements from all
constituencies to understand and explain the issues


and then
to address them (i.e., Have a plan!)


Collaborate, Collaborate, Collaborate


Be clear about your expected proficiencies and document the
results


Use available resources (e.g., NAME, CREDE, NCATE web)


Analyze before adoption of materials (e.g., the controversy over
Ruby Payne’s Framework for Analyzing Poverty). Be able to
explain why you are implementing the programs, materials,
strategies that you select.


Use this meeting and others (ATE, AACTE) to share strategies


The faculty is the key!

RESOURCES


Multicultural Pavilion


www.edchange.org/multicultural

(Paul Gorski’s web
site)



Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence (CREDE)


http://www.creded.ucsc.edu/
)



The Civil Rights Project


www.civilrightsproject.harvard.edu


Gay, Lesbian, Straight, Educators Network

(GLSEN)


www.glsen.org
.



MidAtlantic Equity Consortium


www.maec.org



A synthesis on scholarship on multicultural education




www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/leadrshp/le0gay.htm



Grant, C. A & Gillette, M (2006).
Learning to teach everyone’s children:
Equity, empowerment, and education that is multicultural.

Belmont, CA:
Thomson.