ICGEB - FAO

butterbeanscubaBiotechnology

Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 10 months ago)

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2
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Development of biot
e
chnology
-
based
b
iofuels

Prof. Carlo
V
.

Brusc
h
i

Senior Sc
i
entist &

Gr
o
up

L
ea
d
er

Microbiology/Yea
s
t

M
o
lecular

G
e
netics grou
p

ICGEB
Ğ
Area
s
Scien
c
e

Park,

Tries
t
e

Seminar on
The Role of Agricultural Biotechnologies for Production of Bioenergy in Developing Countries

FAO Headquarters, Iran Room

12 October 2007



"Broadly

defined,

biotechnology

is

the

manipulation

of

living

organisms

to

produce

goods

and

services

useful

to

human

beings
.
"

(From
:

"
Modifying

Africa
"

of

F
.

Wambugu)
.

Microbial agro
-
industrial biotechnology stems from the traditional
practices and products developed by farmers and their families for use on
the farm or in the homestead.

These practices can be improved greately by
the correct implementation of genetic engineering



Ethical concerns
: Modern biotechnology is often seen as unnatural, but in
fact it relies on most of the same spontaneous processes occuring in nature
and leading to improvement through selction



THE
ICGEB
, AT ITS LOCATION OF TRIESTE PROMOTES BASIC AND
ADVANCED SCIENTIFIC TRAINING IN THE AREA OF
MICROBIAL
BIOTECHNOLOGY

FOR ITS APPLICATIONS IN
AGRO
-
INDUSTRY
.

AMONG
THE ICGEB MEMBER COUNTRIES SEVERAL AFRICAN COUNTRIES

ARE
ALREADY TAKING ADVANTAGE OF THE

ICGEB PROGRAMMES
(http://www.icgeb.org)



AREAS OF RESEARCH AND TRAINING UNDERGOING AT ICGEB:


Utilization of genetically selected yeast strains enriched for particular
aminoacids (lysine, methionine) for animal feed, and for cellulose and
hemicellulosa digestion. (Microbiology, Trieste)


Study of plant growth
-
promoting bacteria (
Pseudomonads).


Development of insect and pesticide
-
resistant crops (N.D.)


Studies towards the production of stress (drought)
-
resistant plants (N.D.)



Areas of Primary concern for
Developing Countries



Epidemiology of food
-
related diseases and
genetic susceptibilities



Impact of new technologies on food
production



Chemical contaminants and pathogens



Safer production and healthier foodstuffs
from agriculture



Animal feed and impact on human health



Environmental health risks

ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY PARKS AND INCUBATORS

IN TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

Successful experiences in creating
technology parks/ incubators

providing a basic infrastructure to transform ideas into products and
services can serve as model for developing Countries.

For example, given the comparative advantage of diversified
ethanol production in the world, particular emphasis could be
focussed upon research and transformation of agricultural products
in such
technology parks.


It would also be advisable to set up technology parks near existing
institutions to attract foreign contract research funds to perform
applied research
in situ.

Science

Social

needs

Technology

Innovation

Innovation for Development

Food Safety and Health Risks

Background and Aims:




Assuring health and well
-
being of citizens



Food intake and environmental factors



Safer and health promoting foods



Controlled and integrated production systems



From farm to fork


consumer protection as the driver


Epidemiology of food
-
related diseases and
genetic susceptibility


-

Diet, lifestyle and health

-

Measuring dietary intake and risk
assessment

-

Influence of genetic variability



Traceability


Chemical contaminants and pathogens

-

Analysis and detection

-

Improved prevention and measurement control

-

Prion detection, mapping, transfer mechanisms


Safer production and healthier foodstuffs

-

Conventional vs. organic vs. GMOs

-

Improved animal welfare, husbandry and waste
management


Animal feed and impact on human health


Environmental health risks

Respiration (
O
2

+ dispensable mitochondria,
r+ , r
-
, r
0
) and
Fermentation (
anaerobic
) convert sugars (hexoses):
sucrose>fructose>glucose>maltose
=

CO
2
+
ethanol

THE ICGEB MANDATE


To provide a Centre of excellence for
research and training in genetic
engineering and biotechnology
addressed to developing countries

THE STRUCTURE

TRIESTE COMPONENT
(ITALY)
NEW DELHI COMPONENT
(INDIA)
THE
ICGEB
+

A NETWORK OF AFFILIATED CENTRES

ICGEB IS ONE CENTRE, MADE OF TWO

COMPONENTS AND A NETWORK OF

AFFILIATED CENTRES

67 Signatory States, 51 Member States, 2 Components
: Trieste
(Italy)
-

New Delhi (India) and a network of
35 Affiliated
Centres

ICGEB: an intergovernmental
organisation

NEW DELHI COMPONENT

INSTRUMENTS OF ACTION


RESEARCH PROJECTS


LONG TERM TRAINING


SHORT TERM TRAINING


COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH
PROGRAMME


COOPERATION WITH
INDUSTRIAL SECTOR


SCIENTIFIC SERVICES


INSTITUTIONAL SERVICES

SUMMARY OF THE ACTIVITY

OF THE ICGEB (1988
-
2004)


INTERNATIONAL PUBLICATIONS:

1,220




LONG TERM FELLOWSHIPS:

481 awarded;








797 MAN/YEARS



SHORT TERM TRAINING:


5,826 persons trained



RESEARCH GRANTS:


232 awarded








for a total of US$ 12,163,781.00









PATENTS:




30 filed



TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER


AGREEMENTS:



65 signed


INSTITUTIONAL ACTIVITIES


COOPERATION AGREEMENT WITH THE UNITED
NATIONS SECRETARIAT. UN AND ICGEB COOPERATE
IN ACTIVITIES RELATED TO





SAFE AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF GENETIC
ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY




PROTECTION OF BIODIVERSITY




BIOSAFETY AND RISK ASSESSMENT




IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE X OF THE CONVENTION
ON BIOLOGICAL DISARMAMENT








“THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS MAY
BE MORE EASILY MET WITH THE EXTENSIVE
APPLICATION OF MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY
IN AGRICULTURE AND HEALTH




(Report

of

the

Secretary
-
General

on

“Impact

of

new

biotechnologies,

with

particular

attention

to

sustainable

development,

including

food

security,

health

and

economic

productivity”
-

2003
)


MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT

GOALS

TAKES NOTE OF THE PROPOSAL OF THE
SECRETARY GENERAL FOR AN INTEGRATED
FRAMEWORK FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY
DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE UN SYSTEM AND
THE NEED FOR STRENGTHENING CO
-
ORDINATION BETWEEN THESE RELEVANT
ORGANISATIONS AND BODIES IN THE AREA OF
BIOTECHNOLOGY


GENERAL ASSEMBLY


RESOLUTION 58/200
-

DECEMBER 2003


THE IANCB HAS BEEN ESTABLISHED IN MAY 2004 BY A
CLUSTER OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS IN
ORDER TO:




ELABORATE JOINT STUDIES



STRENGTHEN THE ADVISORY ROLE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY
OF THE UN



ASSESS THE IMPACT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY, IN
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES



ESTABLISH A COMMON PORTAL FOCUSED ON BIOTECH
-
RELATED ACTIVITIES LINKED TO THE EXISTING SCIENCE
AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT NETWORK



ASSIST UNCTAD IN THE PREPARATION OF THE

REPORT TO THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL
ASSEMBLY

INTER
-
AGENCY NETWORK FOR

CO
-
OPERATION IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

“THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE INTERNATIONAL
CENTRE FOR GENETIC ENGINEERING AND
BIOTECHNOLOGY …CO
-
OPERATE IN ACTIVITIES
RELATED TO THE SUSTAINABLE AND SAFE USE OF
GENETIC ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY”


ACCORDINGLY, ICGEB IS PRESENTLY CHAIRING THE
INTER
-
AGENCY NETWORK FOR CO
-
OPERATION IN
BIOTECHNOLOGY AND IS TO PLAY A KEY ROLE IN
ASSISTING UNCSTD IN THE PREPARATION OF THE
REPORT TO THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY.

UN
-

ICGEB

Co
-
operation Agreement

April, 2001

SCHEMA DEL PROCESSO PILOTA

Distillazione di etanolo
Fermentazione per inoculo
Produzione di etanolo
Vasca con B. pumilus
Decanter per separazione lignina/cellulosa
Macinazione criogenica
CRISCAT
Trasferimento calore al metano
Omogeneizzazione meccanica
Vasca di idratazione
ACCUMULO
MALIC
+Microbi ruminali
Modello di criomacinatore a scambio termico (CRISCAT)

BioEthos

Project plan : 3 FASI

Fase 1: Ricerca Scientifica
-

ICGEB

Ingegnerizzazione dei ceppi di lievito


1
.
1

produzione

ceppi

transgenici

per

digerire

la

cellulosa

in

collaborazione

con

la

Piattaforma

Nazionale

ITSusChem

1
.
2

ottimizzazione

genomica

per
?

incrementare

la

percentuale

di

etanolo

prodotto

ad

uso

industriale
;

l’ottimizzazione

verra’

realizzata

tramite

l’impiego

di

tecniche

di

miglioramento

genomico

in

collaborazione

con

l’Universita’

di

Oxford

e

grazie

ad

un

sistema

sviluppato

e

brevettato

dal

laboratorio

YMG

dell’ICGEB

Fase 2: Sviluppo
-

AREA/Talent Srl/ICGEB

2
.
1

Verifica

in

laboratorio

di

digestione

della

cellulosa

da

materiale

criomacerato

(ICGEB),

sviluppo

di

sistemi

di

controllo

(Talent

Srl)

2
.
2

sviluppo

di

impianto

pilota

con

utilizzo

di

locali

dell’AREA

di

ricerca

per

lo

smaltimento

di

rifiuti

chimici
;

come

ricaduta

vi

sara’

la

creazione

di

un

Centro

di

Fermentazione

(AREA)

Fermentazioni pilota

Fase 3: Implementazione industriale
-




Cartiere Burgo/Endesa/GasNatural

Trasferimento di frigorie



3
.
1

Utilizzo

del

freddo

prodotto

dai

rigassificatori

(Endesa/GasNatural)

per

la

criomacerazione

con

conseguente

digestione

di

cellulosa

di

scarto

(Cartiere

Burgo)

e

produzione

industriale

di

BioEtanolo
.

In

questa

fase

e’

presente

il

coinvolgimento

di

distributori

petrolchimici
.


Tempistica di attuazione del progetto

0 1 2 3 t(anni)

ICGEB

ITSusChem

ICGEB

(Oxford)

Talent/

ICGEB/

Reg. FVG?


AREA/

Nuovi

Partners


Burgo/

Endesa/

GasNatural/

Db.Petrolchimici


Fasi

Ricerca

Sviluppo

Produzione

(Implementazione
industriale)

1.1 Nuovi lieviti

1.2
Ottimizzazione

2.1 Verifiche

2.2 Imp. Pilota

3.1 Trasferimento frigorie

DIAGRAMMA DI PROCESSO

MALIC

cippato

FASE 1

Pre
-
trattamento interno


Macinazione

meccanica

Macinazione

biogenica

PAD

Batteri &
Lieviti

Acido

Vanillico

Proposta di Progetto:



Produzione di bioetanolo con lieviti ingegnerizzati,


via fermentazione di derivati vegetali criomacerati


nella

regione

Friuli

Venezia
-
Giulia




Responsabile
:

Prof
.

Carlo

V
.

Bruschi


Head,

Yeast

Molecular

Genetics

Group

ICGEB


AREA

Science

Park,

Trieste


Department

of

Genetics

and

Developmental

Biology


University of Salzburg, Austria




Collaboratori
:



Dr
.

Sergio

Stibelli


Talent

S
.
r
.
l,

Trieste



Paolo

Mander


Sister

-

Liaison

Office


AREA

Science

Park,

Trieste



Dr
.

Valentina

Tosato


Yeast

Molecular

Genetics

Group,

ICGEB


Dipartimento

di

Biofisica

UNIGE

&



Margburg

University,

Germany






Regione Friuli Venezia
-
Giulia





23 Novembre, 2006


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4

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u
lo
s
a

f
i
no

a

r
i
du
r
la

a l
i
v
e
llo

d
e
l

m
o
n
o
s
a
cc
ari
d
e

g
l
u
c
o
sio

c
h
e

la

c
e
l
lu
l
a

p
u
˜
a
s
s
i
m
i
la
r
e.

Di
ta
li

g
e
n
i

e
s
i
st
o
no

di
v
er
s
i

e
se
mp
i
,

a
l
cu
n
i

d
e
i

q
u
a
li

gi
ˆ

s
t
u
d
i
a
ti

ed

is
o
l
a
ti

d
a

l
a
bo
r
at
o
r
i

di r
ic
er
c
a,

in
p
ar
t
i
co
la
r
e

i
n

G
i
a
p
po
n
e

e

Fin
l
a
n
d
i
a.

V
err
a
nno
qui
n
di i
s
o
l
a
t
i

i

g
e
ni
c
odif
ic
a
n
ti per i

se
g
ue
nti e
nz
i
m
i:

i)

en
d
o
g
l
u
c
an
as
i

II (
E
GII)

d
a
l

f
u
ng
o

T
r
i
ch
od
e
rm
a

re
e
s
e
i
,

c
ep
p
o

Q
M9
4
14
,

i
n
gra
d
o

d
i

d
i
g
eri
r
e

l
e

c
a
t
e
n
e

d
i
c
el
l
ul
os
a

i
n mo
d
o
c
as
u
a
le
;

ii)


c
el
l
ob
i
o
i
dro
l
a
s
i

II
(C
BHII)

da
l

fu
n
g
o

Tr
ic
ho
d
er
m
a

r
ee
s
e
i
,

c
e
p
po

Q
M
9
41
4
,
in g
r
a
d
o

d
i

s
tacc
are

c
el
l
ob
i
o
s
io,

ci
o


m
o
l
e
c
ol
e

d
i
me
ri
c
he

di gl
u
c
o
sio
d
a
ll
Õ
est
re
m
i
t
ˆ

d
e
l
l
a

c
a
t
e
n
a di
c
e
l
lu
l
o
s
a;

iii
)

§
-
gl
u
c
o
s
i
d
a
si I
(
BG
L
1) d
a
l fu
n
go
A
s
p
er
g
i
l
lus
ac
u
l
e
a
tus
,

c
e
p
po

F50,

in

gr
a
d
o
di
sc
in
d
e
r
e

u
n
a

m
o
l
e
c
ol
a

d
i
m
er
ic
a

d
i
c
el
l
ob
i
o
s
io in

du
e

mo
l
e
c
ol
e

d
i
g
l
u
c
o
s
io.


C
om
e

m
i
g
lio
ram
en
t
o

in
n
o
v
a
t
ivo

d
e
ll
Õa
tt
u
a
l
e

s
t
a
t
o

d
ell
Õ
ar
t
e,

i

c
e
p
p
i
tra
n
s
g
e
n
i
c
i

di
l
i
e
vi
to

cos“

c
o
str
u
iti

v
er
ra
nno

s
o
tt
o
p
o
sti

ad u
n

nuovo
s
is
tem
a

di

m
u
t
a
g
en
esi

g
l
o
b
al
e

per

t
r
a
s
l
oc
a
z
io
n
e

c
r
om
o
s
o
m
ic
a.

In

p
r
a
tic
a,

il
ba
c
k
gro
u
nd
ge
ne
t
i
co

d
i

q
u
e
s
ti

ce
ppi

v
errˆ

r
iar
r
an
gi
a
t
o

c
as
ua
l
me
n
t
e

su
l
a
r
ga

sc
a
l
a

sfr
u
t
t
a
n
do
una

r
i
v
o
l
u
zi
on
ar
i
a

te
cn
o
l
o
g
i
a

g
e
n
e
t
i
c
a

m
e
s
sa

a p
u
nto

ne
i

l
a
b
ora
t
ori

d
e
l
lÕIC
GE
B

d
e
llÕ

A
R
E
A

d
i R
i
ce
rc
a

d
i

Tr
ie
s
t
e.

3.4.
5
O
t
t
i
m
izz
a
z
io
n
e /

Fe
rm
en
ta
z
i
o
n
e


La

r
ic
er
c
a
d
i

co
n
d
i
z
i
oni
o
t
t
i
ma
li
p
er
l
a

p
r
od
u
z
i
o
n
e

di

e
ta
no
l
o
v
errˆ

ef
f
et
tu
a
t
a
s
i
a

su

p
i
a
s
tr
a
,

m
i
s
ur
a
ndo

l
a

d
i
m
i
n
u
zi
on
e

d
e
l
la

f
luo
r
e
sc
e
nz
a

em
e
s
sa

d
al
l
a

c
e
l
lu
l
o
s
a
pre
se
n
t
e.

S
uc
c
e
s
s
i
vam
en
t
e

i

c
e
p
pi

c
h
e

da
ran
n
o

i
v
a
l
ori

p
i


al
ti

sa
r
an
n
o

o
g
g
e
t
t
o

di

m
u
t
a
g
en
es
i
g
l
o
b
a
l
e t
ra
mi
t
e i
n
d
u
zi
on
e

d
i

t
ra
sl
oca
zi
o
ni cr
o
m
o
s
om
i
c
h
e

p
er m
ez
z
o

d
el
si
s
t
em
a

BIT
(
Br
i
d
g
e
-
Ind
u
c
e
d

T
r
a
n
sl
oc
a
t
i
o
n).

L
a

se
l
ez
io
n
e

a
vve
rrˆ

p
er

r
i
v
el
a
z
io
n
e
a
u
t
o
m
a
t
ic
a

di
c
o
nc
e
n
tr
a
z
i
o
n
e

di
et
an
o
lo

pe
r

m
e
z
z
o

di
a
pp
o
s
i
ti

s
e
n
sori

en
z
im
at
ic
i.

I

c
ep
p
i

se
l
ez
io
n
a
t
i

ver
r
an
n
o

t
e
s
t
a
t
i

i
n

m
i
ni
-
f
er
me
n
t
ato
r
i

c
o
n

d
i
v
e
r
s
e

c
o
m
po
si
zi
o
ni

di

MAL
I
C

ed
ev
en
tu
a
lm
en
t
e

r
i
a
s
so
gg
et
ta
ti

a u
lt
eriori

c
ic
li

d
i

mu
t
a
g
e
n
e
si

g
l
o
b
al
e

fino

a
d
a
r
e

r
i
su
lt
at
i
s
o
dd
is
fa
ce
nt
i
,

d
a

te
s
t
a
r
e

s
u
s
c
a
l
e p
i
lo
t
a.


Per

u
l
t
i
mo,

ut
i
l
izz
a
n
do

l
e

r
ec
e
n
t
i
ss
im
e

sc
ope
rt
e

d
el

gr
u
p
p
o

d
i

Ge
r
ald

F
in
k
ne
g
li

USA,

su
l

Ò
qu
o
rum

s
e
ns
i
n
g
Ó

de
l

lie
vi
t
o,

s
i

u
ti
li
z
z
e
r
a
n
n
o

l
e

d
u
e

m
ol
e
c
o
l
e
-
s
e
g
n
a
l
e

in
d
iv
i
d
u
a
t
e
,

i
l

f
e
n
i
l
e
t
an
o
lo

e

t
r
ip
to
fo
l
o
,

p
er

a
um
e
n
ta
r
e

l
a

de
ns
it
ˆ

m
a
s
s
i
m
a
d
e
l
l
e

c
e
l
l
u
l
e

i
n

t
er
r
en
o

l
i
qu
i
do

no
n
c
h


il g
r
a
d
o

a
l
co
li
co

prod
o
tto

d
ai

c
ep
p
i
tra
n
s
g
e
n
i
c
i.



3.1.
1
.1


S
tru
t
tu
r
a

c
h
i
m
ic
a

d
e
ll
a

l
ig
n
i
n
a


La

l
ig
n
i
n
a


u
n

po
lim
ero

a
morf
o
,

e
t
er
og
e
n
eo

e c
hi
m
ic
a
me
n
t
e

c
o
m
p
l
e
s
so.
LÕe
t
e
r
o
g
en
ei
t


de
l
la

li
g
ni
n
a


d
ov
u
ta

al
suo

e
l
e
va
to

pe
so

m
o
l
e
c
o
l
a
r
e

d
eri
v
a
nt
e

d
a
llÕu
n
i
o
n
e

d
i

d
iffe
r
e
n
ti

a
c
i
d
i

e
d

a
l
c
o
l
i

fen
i
lpr
o
p
i
l
i
c
i

(
c
u
m
a
r
il
i
c
o
,

co
n
i
f
eri
l
i
c
o

e

si
n
a
p
i
l
i
c
o).


ac
c
op
p
i
a
m
e
n
to

c
as
ua
le

d
i

qu
e
s
t
i

a
l
c
o
l
i

d
ˆ

l
uogo

a
ll
a

str
u
t
t
ura
trid
im
e
n
si
on
a
l
e c
o
m
p
l
e
s
s
a

de
l
l
a

l
ig
n
i
n
a
.

Ne
ll
e

figu
r
e

s
e
g
u
e
n
ti

sono ri
p
or
t
a
t
e

l
e
stru
t
tu
r
e

ch
im
i
ch
e

d
e
g
li

a
l
c
o
o
l
i

(A)

e

a
c
i
di

c
i
n
n
a
mi
ci

(
B),

no
n
c
h


l
a

fo
r
m
ul
a
stru
t
tu
r
a
l
e d
e
l
l
a li
g
n
i
na

(
C)

p
r
op
o
s
t
a

d
a
A
d
l
er.



A

2
OCH
R
R
R
R
R
R
1
1
1
2
2
OCH
3
3
=
=
=
=
=
=
,
H
H
alcool p-cumarilico
alcool coniferilico
alcool sinapilico
CH
CH
CH
2
OH
R
1
2
R



B

OCH
R
R
R
R
R
R
1
1
1
2
2
2
OCH
3
3
=
=
=
=
=
=
,
H
H
acido p-cumarico
acido ferulico
acido sinapico
R
COOH
CH
CH
1
R
OH
2


C