GENETIC ENGINEERING - TeacherWeb

butterbeanscubaBiotechnology

Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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GENETIC ENGINEERING

Genetic Engineering


Some techniques in GE use bacteria and
viruses to transfer genetic information



Bacteria
-

biotic



Viruses
-

abiotic

Bacteria and Viruses


Both have the ability to reproduce very
quickly
-


GE uses this to its advantage!



Most bacteria reproduce asexually, called
binary fission (sexual reproduction is possible)



Viruses must have a host to reproduce

Recombinant DNA


Bacteria contain DNA and a circular section
of DNA called a plasmid



Plasmids are used in recombinant DNA
techniques

Recombinant DNA

Bacterial transformation


process by which bacterial cells take up DNA
molecules



If the foreign DNA is recognized by the host
cell, the bacteria will replicate the foreign DNA
along with their own DNA



Transformation can occur through
conjugation


Bacterial Conjugation


transfer of genetic material between bacterial
cells by direct cell
-
to
-
cell contact or by a
bridge
-
like connection

Cloning

Dolly: A cloned sheep



July 5
th
, 1996
-

February 14
th
, 2003


First mammal cloned from adult cell


Took 277 attempts before success



chromosomes were a little shorter than
those of other sheep


Not exact copy?!


Other clones

Hybrids


offspring of two different species usually produced
through human manipulation


Hybrids can happen naturally but it is extremely rare


Can plants be hybrids?


Can animals be hybrids?



Successful hybrids are only created when the species
used are extremely similar in genetic information

Hybrids

Hybrid offspring are usually sterile


Naming hybrids:

Male species + female species


Ex.

Male lion + female tiger= liger

Real Hybrids

Liger

Male lion+
female tiger

Tigon

Male tiger+
female lion

Leopon

Male leopard +


female lion

Real Hybrids

Wholpin

Male killer whale +
female bottlenose
dolphin

Grolar

(or pizzly)

Male grizzly
bear+ female
polar bear

Cama

Male Camel +

Female llama

Real Hybrids

Zony

Male zebra+
female pony

Zorse

Male zebra +
female horse

What is the most common hybrid
I haven’t named yet?

A Mule!

SELECTIVE BREEDING

Organisms are selected to breed due to
a desirable trait that they contain


Ex. If you wanted black dogs you would
select black dogs to mate


If you wanted small birds you would
select small birds to mate