ADVANCES IN GENETICS - Simpson

butterbeanscubaBiotechnology

Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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ADVANCES IN GENETICS

Sequencing DNA


Before we can produce organism’s with
desired traits, we must first sequence
DNA.


What do we call the process of
sequencing DNA?


DNA Fingerprinting


Advances in Genetics


As humans, we are capable of producing
organisms with certain desirable traits?



Identify the methods that allow us to do
this:


Selective Breeding


Genetic Engineering


Cloning

What is selective breeding?


The human practice of breeding animals
or plants that have certain desired traits.



What are some examples of selective
breeding from our articles?


Selective Breeding Interesting Fact!


Is that a fact!? As a result of selective breeding,
the smallest horse if the Falabella, which is only
about 76cm tall. The largest is the Shire,
originally bred in England. The Shire can grow to
mare than 1.73m high at the shoulder and weigh
as much as 910kg.


What is

SELECTED BREEDING
?



Breeding
: males and females mate to
produce offspring



Selective breeding
:

people choose
organisms (males and females) with
desired traits to produce offspring with the
desired traits

Dogs That Changed The World


Watch this video on how selective
breeding has changed the Saluki breed
throughout history.



Speedy Saluki



Answer this question in your notebook:
Why is it important for the Bedouin people
to selectively breed Saluki for
speed and sight?

Dogs That Changed The World


Think, Write, Share


Ask yourself: Are there any “cons” to selectively
breeding dogs for certain traits?


Write your answer on your paper


Share and discuss your answer with your table.



Watch this video:
Hard
-
Wired


Discuss any changes you would make to your
previous answer after watching this video.

What is

SELECTED BREEDING
?



Farmers SELECT and
save the BEST corn
seeds.



The seeds are
planted the next year
to grow better tasting
corn.



Selective Breeding


Imagine this: You are a farmer. You
support your family financially by growing
corn. Your neighbor also grows corn, so
you must compete with him to have the
best corn in town!



How can you use selective breeding to
increase your profits in future years?

Selective Breeding


Another type of selective breeding is
called
Hybridization.



Hybridization: the controlled breeding of
organisms with
different

genes in order to
produce offspring with
both
desired traits.


Selective Breeding
-

Hybridization


Schnauzer + Poodle = Schnoodle

SELECTED BREEDING


HYBRIDIZATION


Two different types
of colored corn
produce corn with
BOTH colors


Corn resistant to
insects is crossed
with corn that has
lots of kernels.

SELECTED BREEDING


Inbreeding:

organisms (males and
females) with
SIMILAR genes mate
to produce offspring
with similar traits



Possible problems:
“bad” genes are also
passed to the new
generation



What is CLONING?


CLONING
: scientists produce an offspring
that has the EXACT same DNA as one
adult

1. Scientists remove the DNA from an EGG cell

2. Scientist put the DNA from an adult cell into
the egg cell

3. Scientists put the EGG into a female animal
to grow

4. The offspring is an EXACT COPY of the adult


Clone MiMi!
Click and Clone


Hello, Dolly!


Watch this video on Dolly, the first
mammal ever cloned.


Hello, Dolly: One Controversial Sheep



Watch this video on the process of cloning
Dolly the sheep.


Genetics: Cloning

What is Genetic Engineering?



The manipulation of individual genes
within organisms.



Also called “
gene splicing
” because a DNA
molecule is cut open, and a gene from
another organism is spliced into it.



GENETIC ENGINEERING


Genes from one organism are transferred into
the DNA of another organism.


Also called “
gene splicing
” because a DNA
molecule is cut open, and a gene from another
organism is spliced into it.


WHY? Produce medicines, improve food crops,
may cure genetic disorders.


Gene therapy



process of inserting working
copies of gene into a person’s cell. The person
has a genetic disorder.

Genetic Engineering


Genes may be even transferred from one
organism to another!



Green Fluorescent Protein! GFP was
transferred from jellyfish into many different
organisms (fruit flies, mice and rabbits).


Genetic Engineering Interesting Fact


Did you know? Gene therapy is an
experimental field of medical research in
which defective genes are replaced with
healthy genes.



One way to insert healthy genes involves
using a delivery system called a “gene gun” to
inject microscopic gold bullets coated with
genetic material.



Genes and DNA: Genetic Engineering and
Gene Therapy

Genetic Engineering


A Gene Gun!

Genetic Engineering


Watch these videos on how genetic
engineering is an integral part of today’s
agricultural processes.



History's Harvest: Genetic Engineering
and Agriculture



History's Harvest: Genetic Engineering
and Controversy