6.3 Advances in Genetics

butterbeanscubaBiotechnology

Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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SELECTIVE
BREEDING


Key concept: “Selective
breeding, cloning, and genetic
engineering are three methods
for developing organisms with
desirable trait.”


Selective breeding
-

the process
of breeding organisms with
desired traits


Inbreeding
-

crossing two
individuals that have similar
characteristics


Inbreeding increases the
probability of having genetic
disorders


Hybridization
-

breeders cross
two genetically different
individuals trying to get the best
of both organisms


CLONING


Clone
-

an organism that has
the exact same genes as the
organism from which it was
produced


You can clone some plants
easily because all you do is
cut a piece off and plant it
-

new plant is genetically
identical to the original plant


Animals are more difficult to
clone, they take the nucleus
out of a body cell and use it
to produce a new animal


GENETIC ENGINEERING


Genes have been inserted into animals (example
-

creating
blood clotting protein to help people with hemophilia


Genes have been inserted into plants (example
-

creating
crops that are resistant to pesticides


Gene therapy
-

inserting copies of a gene into a human’s cells


Concerns about the long
-
term effects of genetic engineering
(crops harm environment or health problems in people )


Genetic engineering
-

genes from
one organism are put into the DNA
of another


Genetic engineering can produce and
improve medicines and foods.


GENETIC ENGINEERING

Scientists use genetic engineering to create bacterial cells
that produce important human proteins such as insulin.

LEARNING ABOUT HUMAN GENETICS


Key concept: “Applications of DNA
technology include studying the human
genome in detail and identifying people.”


Genome
-

all the DNA in one cell of an
organism


DNA finger printing is used to show if
people are related using


Except for identical twins every person
has different DNA fingerprints


Scientists use mitochondrial DNA,
because it is almost identical to the
mother, to determine the person’s
identity

HUMAN GENOME PROJECT

Project

goals

were to…


identify

all the approximately 30,000
-
35,000 genes in human DNA


determine

the sequences of the 3
billion chemical base pairs that make
up human DNA


store

this information in databases


improve

tools for data analysis

Scientists now know the DNA sequence
of almost every human gene

Section 3:

Advances in Genetics

What are three ways of producing
organisms with desired traits?

What are two applications of DNA
technology in human genetics?