INDIAN DOMESTIC COAL TRANSPORT LOGISITCS AND TECHNOLOGY

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Feb 22, 2014 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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INDIAN DOMESTIC COAL

TRANSPORT LOGISITCS AND TECHNOLOGY



by

Sid Sridhar

Seabulk

Systems Inc.

Richmond, British Columbia, Canada


&


S
. K. Grover


Geological Coal Resources


India (as on 31.3.2012)

1

Existing Domestic Coal Transport: Obstacles

Conveying

overland

a

practical

solution

for

power

plants

adjacent

to

the

coalfield,

say

distances

on

the

order

of

about

50

km
.

MGR

ideal

for

handling

5

million

tes
/an

&

above
.


Trucking

requires

road

upgrades

and

vehicle

fleets

and

could

be

a

transport

solution

for

distances

up

to

200

km,

but

is

likely

inefficient

&

costly

for

longer

haul

transport
.

Also

a

pollution

hazard
.


Railways

require

upgrade

including

new

trackage

and

rolling

stock

and

supporting

infrastructure

and

would

be

a

transport

solution

for

distances

up

to

2000

km
.



Railway

gearing

up

to

meet

the

challenge
.


2

Test Case For Transport Logisti
cs



Ideal

case

study



North

Karanpura

Coalfield

(NK)



Expected

Coal

Resource

over

12
.
5

billion

tes



Production

Capabilities

>

250

million

tes
/an



Need

for

Multi
-
modal

Transport

Logistic

such

as

Conveyor/Road/MGR/Rail

may

still

be

a

challenge

for

Coal

evacuation

from

NK



Innovative

Solution



Slurry

Pipeline

Transport

a)
For

Plants

200

km

or

so

with

more

than

5

million

tes
/an

requirement

b)
For

Plants

>

200

km

with

Higher

tonnage

over

longer

distance



supplement

Indian

Railway

System

specially

on

Dedicated

Freight

Corridor

(DFC)
.

At

an

appropriate

location

30

to

40

million

tes
/an

of

coal

may

be

loaded

in

DFC
.

We

can

have

such

concepts

on

DFC

in

future

from

this

&

other

coalfields

like

IB,

Talcher
,

Mand

Raigarh
,

Hasdeo

etc
.

3

In

consideration

of

the

noted

transportation

obstacles

,

slurry

pipelines

are

proposed

as

an

alternative/supplement

approach

for

Indian

domestic

coal

transport
.

Slurry

pipeline

systems

have

some

distinct

advantages

over

existing

transport

infrastructures,

including
:




Practical

for

long

haul

distances

of

200

km

or

longer



Secure

enclosed

transport

isolated

from

the

environment



Extensive

technology

exists

to

create

slurry

pipeline

systems



Water

can

be

recycled



Integrates

coal

beneficiation

such

as

marginal

ash

reduction

specially

clay



Spontaneous

combustion

risks

mitigated



Storage

typically

in

tanks




Dewatered

coal

may

be

briquetted

enabling

trans
-
loading

by

rail


Alternative Coal Transport: Slurry Pipelines

4

Slurry Pipeline Systems

Slurry pipelines convey many commodities world wide including coal.

5

Process

integration

at

certain

stages

of

coal

transportation

improves

overall

delivery

economics

by

enabling
:




reduction

of

ash

and

impurities

at

the

mine



pumping

a

fine

coal

slurry

through

an

overland

pipeline



coal

storage

in

slurry

tanks

at

the

power

plant

or

trans
-
load

after

briquetting



dewatering

by

centrifuge

and

hyperbaric

filters

yields

over

99
%

recovery

of

coal

from

the

slurry


Steam

atmosphere

drying

and

briquetting

can

enable

re
-
handling

as

a

dry

bulk

commodity
.

Briquettes

are

stable

and

not

susceptible

to

spontaneous

combustion
.


Water

is

recyclable

within

the

system

and

is

not

discharged

to

the

environment
.



Coal : Slurry Pipeline Process

6

Coal Slurry Production: Sizing

Coal sizing, cage impaction


example shown.

2 mm minus crushed coal
sample.

7

Coal Slurry Production: Ash Reduction

Cyclones are an example of
technology that may be used
to separate clay from fine
coal
.

8

Pipeline Terminus: Slurry Storage

Tank storage of slurry coal depicted at a thermal power plant

Highlights:



hydraulic reclaim avoids the need for tank agitation



tank storage is more contained than open stockpiles



rain and wind dispersion of the product is avoided



slurry storage avoids spontaneous combustion risk

9

Dewatering and Drying: Coal Moisture

Coal moisture and conventional dewatering and drying of fine
coal.

10


1.
Dried

hot

filter

cake

is

at

risk

of

spontaneous

combustion

if

stored

for

long

but

this

can

usually

be

avoided

by

briquetting

which

stabilizes

the

agglomeration
.


2.
The

agglomeration

of

fine

coal

filter

cake

into

briquettes

enables

it

to

be

handled

and

transported

as

a

dry

bulk

material

by

conventional

means

or

dried

coal

is

not

fed

immediately
.


3.
Briquettes

are

compacted

at

high

pressure

and

therefore

potentially

denser

than

loose

fine

coal,

this

makes

for

more

efficient

transportation
.


4.
Briquettes

mitigate

the

creation

and

propagation

of

coal

dust
.

Coal Briquetting: Rationale

11

Objective

-

Binderless

Briquetting
:


1.
Binderless

briquetting

avoids

the

cost

of

expensive

binders
.



2.
Important

variabl
13
es

for

binderless

briquetting

of

coal

are
:



Moisture

content


Temperature


Compaction

pressure


Particle

size

distribution


Coal

properties


3.
The

system

proposed

herein

pushes

the

moisture

content,

temperature

and

compaction

pressure

variables

all

in

a

direction

favourable

for

briquette

production
.

Coal Briquetting: Binders

12

Variables

Influencing

Binderless

Briquetting
:


1.
Moisture

Content
:

Surface

moisture

and

some

inherent

moisture

is

vaporized

from

the

fine

coal

as

it

passes

through

the

steam

atmosphere

of

the

fluidized

bed

drier
.



2.
Temperature
:

Steam

atmosphere

drying

occurs

above

the

boiling

point

of

water,

typically

at

about

120
°

C,

so

the

fine

coal

is

rapidly

heated
.

The

dried

fine

coal

is

briquetted

before

it

cools

significantly

so

compaction

takes

place

at

an

elevated

temperature
.


3.
Compaction

Pressure
:

Pressure

is

high

and

maintained

by

roll

compaction

briquetting

presses

specially

designed

for

hot

product
.

Coal Briquetting: Variables

13

Particle

Size

Distribution
:


1.
The

PSD

that

is

optimal

for

conveyance

of

coal

by

slurry

may

not

be

exactly

the

same

as

the

PSD

that

is

optimal

for

briquette

production
.


2.
PSD

at

2

mm

minus

for

coal

slurry

enables

the

material

to

be

easily

suspended

in

turbulent

pipeline

flow
.

Briquetting

specialists

estimate

that

this

PSD

is

a

possible

for

binderless

briquette

production,

however,

testing

would

be

required

to

confirm
.


Coal Briquetting: Variables

14

Coal Briquetting: Production

A number of firms specialize in coal briquette production and have roll
compaction presses designed for the purpose.

Double Roll Press Briquette Machine

(
Koppern

Photo)

15

Quality Factors:


1.
Briquettes

are

typically

pillow

shaped

and

the

size

can

be

specified
.

Typical

dimensions

are

40

mm

square

pillow

briquettes
.


2.
A

multitude

of

tests

are

available

to

assess

the

robustness

of

briquettes

for

handling

as

a

conventional

dry

bulk

material
.


3.
Briquettes

should

avoid

breakage

during

handling

and

storage

and

resist

absorption

of

moisture
.



Coal Briquetting: Quality

16

Why Slurry Pipelines?


1
.

Economics



Slurry

pipelines

have

attractive

economics

for

longer

haul

distances

and

large

tonnage
.



2
.

Scalability



Slurry

pipeline

systems

can

be

scaled

with

single

pipes

handling

about

10

Mtpa

of

commodity
.


3
.

Implementable



The

technology

required

to

implement

slurry

pipeline

systems

exists

and

is

with

well

established

companies

and

with

proven

installations

worldwide
.


17

Why Slurry Pipelines?


4
.
Beneficiation


The

use

of

slurry

systems

and

the

use

of

fine

coal

integrates

with

existing

beneficiation

technologies
.



5.
High Recovery

The system utilizes fine coal which means more coal
recovery from the mine.


6.
Ash Mitigation


Ash is marginally reduced at the mine.


7.
Isolation From the Environment


The

slurry

system

is

fully

enclosed

from

the

environment,

securely

buried

beneath

the

overland

transport

route

and

process

water

is

recycled

within

the

system

without

discharge

to

the

environment
.

18

Why Slurry Pipelines?


8
.

Spontaneous

Combustion

Mitigation



Transport

of

coal

as

slurry

and

production

of

coal

briquettes

after

drying

avoids

spontaneous

combustion

risk
.


9
.

Power

Plant

Feed



Dewatered

and

dried

slurry

filter

cake

can

also

be

fed

directly

into

the

power

plant
.


10
.

Trans
-
loadable

Commodity



Briquettes

are

a

stable

beneficiated

dry

bulk

fuel

that

can

be

trans
-
loaded

by

rail

for

example
.


19

Example Transport System: Costs and Financial

1.

Key assumptions:



Annual transport of 6
Mtpa

briquettes at 25% TM



Coal sizing and scrubbing at the mine



Overland transport by 220 km long slurry pipeline



Positive displacement pumping



Coal slurry at 48% weight concentration



Slurry and return water pipe diameter 610 mm



Storage, reclaim, dewatering, drying, briquetting,
stockpiling

2.
Static financial calculation and cost assumptions:



Costs million $USD



Interest rate 7%



Period 25 years



Fixed Asset IRR 12%



Depreciating Asset IRR 20%



All estimates are exclusive of import duties, brokerage or
taxes

20

Example Slurry System: Costs and Financial

* to exclude when no briquetting


For

plants

about

200
km

away

from

coal

source

cost/
te

would

be

about

USD

9
.
79

i
.
e
.

Rs
.

525

without

briquetting

etc
.

&

with

briquetting

the

cost/
te

would

be

about

USD

13
.
50

i
.
e
.

Rs
.

725
.

Longer

the

distance,

higher

the

tonnage

more

cost

effective

since

terminal

costs

are

high
.

Subsystem Description

CAPEX


(M $USD)

OPEX


(M $USD)

Annual Cost


(M $USD/ yr)

Delivery Rate

($USD/tonne)

Coal Sizing and Slurry Production

$14

$5

$6

$1

Coal Scrubbing

$28

$5

$8

$1

Mine Water System

$3

$1

$1

$0

PD Pump Station

$52

$5

$9

$2

Scrubbings Disposal

$1

$0

$0

$0

Pipeline Corridor Development

$41

$0

$4

$1

Slurry Pipe Supply & Install

$93

$2

$10

$2

Slurry Storage and Reclaim

$27

$2

$4

$1

Dewatering Plant

$22

$3

$5

$1

Drying Plant

$35

$3

$6

$1

Briquetting Plant *

$81

$5

$12

$2

Power & Control Systems *

$3

$0

$0

$0

Terminus Water System *

$2

$0

$1

$0

Birquette Stockpiling *

$13

$1

$2

$0

Stockpile Reclaim *

$12

$5

$6

$1

Integrated Total Costs

$427

$37

$74

$14

21

Implementation and Operation


The

slurry

pipeline

proposal

shown

here

has

multiple

systems

to

implement

and

operate,

these

include
:



1.
Coal

sizing,

slurry

production

and

scrubbing


2.
Overland

slurry

pipeline

3.
Coal

slurry

storage

and

reclaim

4.
Coal

slurry

dewatering

and

drying

5.
Coal

filter

cake

briquetting

6.
Briquette

stockpiling

and

reclaim

&

loading

into

Railway

System

22

Implementation: Management


The

scale

and

complexity

of

the

type

of

integrated

transportation

system

proposed

is

fairly

significant
.

Successful

implementation

requires

the

management

of

a

design/

build

contractor

or

a

joint

venture

team

comprised

of

specialist

firms

in

these

key

areas
:


1.
Coal preparation

2.
Slurry pipeline

3.
Dewatering and drying filter cakes
upto

200/250
kms
.

4.
* Briquetting

5.
* Materials handling and loading into railway wagons



*
for various end users situated at long distance from Coal
Source


23

Implementation: Bankability


1.
A

novel

approach

that

integrates

existing

technologies
.


2.
Major

technology

suppliers

are

qualified

companies

with

proven

capability

in

their

fields
.


3.
Studies

and

tests

are

required

to

refine

the

system

design

and

assess

issues

and

risks
.


4.
A

tonnage

guarantee

would

be

required
.


5.
Implementation

under

the

control

of

a

design
-
build
-
operate

contract

for

commodity

transport

from

the

mine

to

end

users

would

enable

a

‘take

or

pay’

contract

model

to

be

implemented



totally

bankable
.



24

Implementation: Business Plan


1.
Tonnage

guarantee

required

to

support

financial

plan
.


2.
Coal

handled

on

a

rate

per

tonne

basis
.


3.
Take

or

pay

form

of

contract

if

project

implemented

as

a

single

design
-
build
-
operate

venture
.


4.
Operation

subcontracted

to

regional

firms
.



25

Conclusions


Slurry

pipelines

used

to

transport

Indian

domestic

coal
:


1.
Avoid

the

issues

and

bottlenecks

existing

transport

systems

face

2.
Have

high

utilization

of

mine

output

as

it

uses

fine

coal

3.
Transport

a

beneficiated

coal

product

4.
Isolate

the

coal

transport

from

the

environment

5.
Offer

a

competitive

capital

and

operating

cost

in

comparison

to

the

alternatives

6.
Can

be

implementable

as

a

design
-
build
-
operate

venture


7.
Can

be

set

up

contractually

to

be

bankable

8.
Studies

including

coal

testing

is

required

to

affirm

feasibility

and

economics


26

Thank you



Questions?