and APELL for Accident Prevention

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Feb 22, 2014 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Inter
-
linkages between Process Safety
and APELL for Accident Prevention
and Preparedness

ING. NESTOR SPOSITO


DOW ARGENTINA

Argentina NFPA
Chapter

President

BAHIA BLANCA APELL PROCESS

Coordinator

UNEP/
Bs.As
.
Province
.


Promoting Safer Operations and
Emergency Preparedness Chemical Sector

26
-
27 April
-
2010


Zhangjiagang
-

CHINA

Notwithstanding… They Keep On
Happening


Notwithstanding the enormous ongoing
efforts and the significant progress so far
attained in the last few years to increase our
knowledge about the root causes of fires and
explosions in process plants and even in
spite of the remarkable technological
progress accomplished in the field of
materials and the development of safe
design methodologies, such disastrous
occurrences keep on happening


BASIC CONCEPT



FIRE AND EXPLOSIONS



Fires. Classification. Effects.



Explosions. Classification. Effects.


Learning experiences about accidents.


PREVENTION AND MITIGATION METHODS.


IMPORTANCE OF A SAFE DESIGN AND THE USE OF PROPER
STANDARDS.



Conclusions

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Topics

DOW RESTRICTED
-

For

internal

use
only

(
Upper Flammability Level
)

(
Lower Flammability Level
)

Lean
mixture

Rich
mixture

Explossive

Range

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Basic Concepts

DOW RESTRICTED
-

For internal use only



























comb
C
t
t
I
S
L
I
S
L
25
75
.
0
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
º
25
Concentration % vol.

Temperature ºC

L.L.I

L.S.I

400

0

Flammability

-

Variation

of
Temperature

Limits



























comb
C
t
t
I
I
L
I
I
L
25
75
.
0
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
º
25
Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Basic Concepts

DOW RESTRICTED
-

For internal
use only

L.S.I.
(p)

= L.S.I.
(1 atm)

+ 20.6(log P + 1)

L.I.I

L.S.I

@

atm press.

@

P press.

Slight
impact

Big increase

Variation

of
Flammability
-
Pressure

Limits

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Basic Concepts

DOW RESTRICTED
-

For internal
use only

Propane

L.S.I.

L.I.I.

9.5% (air)

55.0% (oxygen)

2.1% (air)

2.3% (oxygen)

R.I.(air)

R.I.(Oxygen)

Variation

of
Flammability

-

O2
Concentration

Limits

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Basic Concepts

DOW RESTRICTED
-

For internal
use only

Minimun

Ignition

Energy

(MIE)

IGNITION

MINIMUM IGNITION

ENERGY (MIE)

-

Characteristic for every material.

-
Varies with environmental conditions,
pressure and composition.

-

For HC is of about 0.25 mj

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Basic Concepts

DOW RESTRICTED
-

For internal
use only

0.5

0.2

0.02

MIE

MIE

Ignition Energy (mj)

Flammable Gas Concentration (% v/v)

10

20

30

40

CH
4

H
2

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Basic Concepts

Minimun

Ignition

Energy

(MIE)

Pool Fire


Begins with the release of flammable material from process
equipment.


Thermal effects depends on:


Type of fuel


Geometry of the pool


Duration of the fire



Location of the radiation receiver
.


Localized in their effects


Main concern domino effect/ setup employee safety zones.


Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Fire and Explosion

Jet Fire



Combustion of a material released from a
pressurized process unit.



Localized in their effects



Main concern domino effect.



Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Fire and Explosion

Vapor Cloud Explosion (VCE).




A release of energy that causes a blast”
AICheE
/CCPS
(1994) .




“Blast is a transient change in the gas density,
pressure and velocity of the air surrounding an
explosion point” NFPA 69.



“A rapid expansion of gases resulting in a rapidly
moving pressure or shock wave”.
Crowl

and
Louvar

(1990)

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Fire and Explosion

Vapor Cloud Explosion (VCE).



Material flammable. Suitable conditions P y T.



Cloud sufficient size prior to ignition ( Dispersion
phase).




Ignition delays 1 to 5 minutes ( more probable) .



Sufficient amount of the cloud must be within the
flammable range





Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Fire and Explosion

Vapor Cloud Explosion (VCE).


Sufficient confinement or turbulent mixing of a portion
of the vapor cloud must be present
.



Minimum mass of flammable material required:



1 ton (
Wiekema
, 1979) to 15 tons (Health &Safety Executive,
1979).



More reactive species such as hydrogen and acetylene
Gugan
(1988) with quantities as low as 100 kg.



Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Fire and Explosion


A Long and Sad History
of Fire and Explosion in
Process Industry


28
death

104injuries

Total
destruction

( 70 MMU$S)

1800
damages

home

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Lesson Learned

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Fire and Explosion


Importance of Management of Change (MOC).


The need to eliminate expansion joints in dangerous
services.


Control Room design concept in High Hazards Plants.



Structural design to withstand major hazardous
events


Plant Layout. Positioning of occupied buildings

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Lesson Learned

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Lesson Learned



MOC (Management of Change)



T
he change was about the inadequate state of the
facilities supporting the safe operation of the MIC
storage.



Layers of Protection Identified and installed in the
design/construction but out of operation.




There were 5 levels of protection available to
minimize the Release to atmosphere, all of which
failed.





Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Lesson Learned BHOPAL



American Institute of Chemical & Process Safety
organization & programs (
AIChE


CCPS).



UNEP Awareness Preparedness Emergency Local level
Process ( APELL Process).



Chemical Manufacturer’s Association Community
Awareness and Emergency Response (CAER).



Local Emergency Planning /Risk communication.



Community Engagement.

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Lesson Learned BHOPAL

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Lesson Learned

Effective safety culture leadership and oversight to prevent
catastrophic accident
.



Focus on process safety besides personal safety.





Personal safety metrics are important to track low
-
consequence,
high
-
probability incidents, but are not a good indicator of process
safety performance .




Create an effective reporting and learning culture.

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Lesson Learned BP



Provide adequate resources to prevent major accidents; budget cuts
impaired process safety performance at the Texas City refinery
.




Effective vehicle traffic policy to control vehicle traffic into hazardous
process areas.




Nonessential personnel must be removed from areas in and around
process units during the hazardous unit startup

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Lesson Learned



Effective mechanical integrity program to maintain instruments and
process equipment .



MOC guidelines that address the safe control of the following:


Major organizational changes including mergers, acquisitions
,
reorganizations.



Changes in policies and budgets.



Personal changes. Staffing during process


Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL


Lesson Learned



The occurrence of releases shall be minimized by
measures which include:


Proper operating and design conditions


Material selection


Preventive maintenance, procedures, alarm systems


No flanges shall be installed inside the skirt of a
vessel containing flammable materials.



Welded connections instead of flanged connection
.


Avoid or minimize releases
.

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Prevention and Mitigation



The occurrence of releases shall be minimized by
measures which include:


Proper operating and design conditions


Material selection


Preventive maintenance, procedures, alarm systems


No flanges shall be installed inside the skirt of a
vessel containing flammable materials.



Welded connections instead of flanged connection
.



The amount of released material within flammability
limits shall be minimized by:



Proper atmosphere control



Accelerated dispersion through water spray


Proper storage and installation of check valves,
remotely operated isolation valves and excess flow
valves


other systems where appropriate.



Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Prevention and Mitigation


The amount of released material within flammability
limits shall be minimized by:



Proper atmosphere control



Accelerated dispersion through water spray


Proper storage and installation of check valves,
remotely operated isolation valves and excess flow
valves


other systems where appropriate.



DOW RESTRICTED
-

For internal
use only

Avoid the use of
trhreaded

connections in critical
hazardous material services
.

Ignition Sources



Potential ignition sources should be eliminated. Where
they cannot be eliminated protection should be
provided by
:


Proper spacing.



Installing equipment which meet the area classification
standard (NFPA 70).



Installing water curtains to prevent flammable gas mixtures
from reaching ignition sources
.


Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Prevention and Mitigation

Ignition Sources




Static electricity is a potential ignition source.



It is crucial to prevent the simultaneous occurrence of a
flammable mixture and static spark.


Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Prevention and Mitigation

DOW RESTRICTED
-

For internal
use only

Safe Design of Storage Tanks

Containment dike

Fire protection

Grade:

1
-
2 %

Remote controlled
diked area

Sprinkler
System

DOW RESTRICTED
-

For internal
use only

Avoid small
connections at the
bottom and liquid
areas.

EBV

Buildings


Critical buildings (Control Room) shall be designed to
withstand the consequences of explosions.


CR cannot meet this requirement shall be


Relocation.



Strengthening for pressure effects.



Shielding the critical equipment with a blast wall.



Shielding the area where a release can occur from possible
ignition sources by providing properly grounded water or steam
spray
.

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Prevention and Mitigation

DOW RESTRICTED
-

For internal
use only

Adequate Buildings

Explosion proof control room

Explosion resistant
door

Demand closing
and opening

Awareness raising
and dissemination
Process Safety
knowledge


Risk analysis,
Consequence calculations,
inherently safe design more
reliable engineering
practices and standards

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Enhancement PS Knowledge


How to explain fire and explosion incidents in High
-
tech
plants :


Violations to or non compliance with safety regulations


Not using supposedly very well known safe procedures.


Layers of Protection disable.


Lacks of compromise with PS.


Lack of knowledge or commitment with Safe Design.


Other, other,……




Process Safety knowledge should be open.


Throughout all organizations


Control Agencies.



Technical schools and universities.


Contractors/EPCM





Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Enhancement PS Knowledge

We must break the paradigm



Good personal safety record is enough to ensure
that we are sufficiently safe to prevent all types of
major accidents
.


The lost time rate is not a measure of process safety”
(
Kletz
, 2003).

“An emphasis on personal safety statistics can lead
companies to lose sight of deteriorating process
safety performance (Hopkins, 2000)”



Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Enhancement PS Knowledge

We must break the paradigm




“Nothing bad will ever happen to us”
or that
any action made with impunity for some time against
Safety Process rules could be repeated forever with
the same lack of adverse results


Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Enhancement PS Knowledge

Another great challenge is to find a way to expand the
knowledge in a worldwide context characterized by


Global economical crisis.



A progressive expansion of plant capacities and inventories.



A progressive increase of investments in places where there is
not enough background and experience about the operation,
maintenance, Process safety and loss prevention (Middle East).



High labor turnover.



More reduced budgets.


Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Enhancement PS Knowledge

Our Proposal



Raising awareness.


Companies, local community, local authorities (APELL)


Commitment.


Promoted throughout the whole organization, all project
stages and the whole project life span.


Creativity.


To improve and expand even more the existing PS
knowledge and its dissemination, encouraging the universal
creation, expansion and application of a Process Safety
Culture in a world of continuous change.


Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Enhancement PS Knowledge


The study highlights the need for accident
forecasting, enhancement PS knowledge
consequence assessment, and development of up
-
to
-
date emergency preparedness and disaster
management plans in the chemical process
industries and raising community awareness
trough plan like APELL Process from UNEP



APELL Process must include Process Safety as a
key deliverable.

Our Proposal

Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Enhancement PS Knowledge

PROCESS SAFETY IS NOT

A MERE

INTELLECTUAL EXCERCISE

BUT THE

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN

LIFE AND DEATH


Inter
-
linkages Process Safety and APELL

Enhancement PS Knowledge

QUESTIONS?

nspósito@dow.com

ING. NESTOR SPOSITO


DOW ARGENTINA

Argentina NFPA
Chapter

President

BAHIA BLANCA APELL PROCESS

Coordinator

UNEP/
Bs.As
.
Province
.