The Class D address class was created to enable multicasting in an ...

businessmakeshiftNetworking and Communications

Oct 29, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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1.

Link
-
state routers maintain a common picture of the network and exchange
link information upon initial
________

or
________
. Link
-
state routers do not
broadcast their routing tables
________
, like distance vector routing protocols
do.


2.

While
________

is
appropriate for small networks,
________

was written to
address the needs of large,
______

internetworks.


3.

An issue OSPF addresses s
peed of

________

---

With OSPF,
________

is faster
because only the routing changes (not the entire routing table) are floo
ded
rapidly to other routers in the OSPF network.


4.

RIP broadcasts full routing tables to all neighbors every
30

seconds. However,
this is especially problematical over slow WAN links because these updates
consume large amounts of bandwidth. Alternately, OS
PF
________

minimally
sized link
-
state updates and sends the updates only when there is a
________

in the network.


5.

In contrast, OSPF selects optimal routes using
________

as a factor (This is a
metric based on bandwidth).


The following list covers the v
arious terms that will be used in this chapter .


6.

________

---

A physical and electrical connection between
two network devices.

7.

_____

-
_____
---

The status of a link between two routers.
This status includes information about a router's interface
and its

relationship to neighboring routers.

8.

________

---

The value assigned to a link. Rather than hops,
link
-
state protocols assign a cost to a link, which is based on
the speed of the network connection.

9.

________

---

A collection of networks and routers that has
the same area identification. Each router within an area has
the same link
-
state information. A router within an area is
called an
internal

router.





10.

________

________

(
___
))
---

One router on an OSPF
multi
access network that is elected to represent all the
routers in that network. Each OSPF network has a DR and
BDR. These routers have special responsibilities that are
discussed later in this chapter.

11.

________

________

_______

(
___
)
---

A standby router
th
at becomes the DR, if the original DR fails.

12.

________

________

---

A listing of all the neighbors to
which a router has established bi
-
directional
communication.

13.

_____
-
___

________

(or
topological database
)
---

A list
of information about all other rou
ters in the network. It
shows the network topology. All routers within an area have
identical link
-
state databases.

14.

________

________

---

The routing table (also known
as the
forwarding database
) is generated when an algorithm
is run on the link
-
state da
tabase. Each router's routing table
is unique and contains information of how and where to
send packets to other routers.







15.

OSPF operations follow these steps:

Establish router
________
.


Elect a
________

________

and a
________

________

________
.


________

routes.


________

appropriate routes to use.


________

routing information


16.

Because OSPF routing is dependent on the status of a link between two
routers, neighbor routers must "
________

" each other on the network before
they can share informat
ion.


17.

Another noteworthy point about OSPF is that it does not perform
________

and
________
; these functions are performed at the IP layer.


18.


Every OSPF packet shares a common
____
-
byte protocol header


19.

________

packets are sent periodically out of each i
nterface using IP
multicast addresses.


20.

The Hello process also provides quicker detection of failed routers
because Hellos are exchanged every
____

seconds. Routers expect to hear
from their neighbors every 10 seconds. If a router is silent for
____

second
s, its
neighbors believe it is down.


21.

The
________

IP address on an active physical or loopback interface is
the Router ID


22.


Routers from the same
________

will each have the same link
-
state
database information.






23.

In a typical broadcast LAN environment suc
h as Ethernet or Token Ring,
the OSPF routers communicate with the DR by using multicast address
________


24.

The following are used to determine which routers are elected as DR and
BDR:


-
The router with the highest set
________

value is the
____

-
The router

with the second highest set priority value is the
_____

-
The default value for OSPF interface priority is
___
. In case of a tie, the
Router __
_

is used as a tie breaker.

-

The only time a DR or BDR will change is if one of them
________

________
.


25.

After
the DR and BDR have been elected, the routers are in the
________

state


26.

The process used to discover the network routes is called the
________

process
, and is performed to advance the routers to a
________

state of
communication.


27.

The routers must be in t
he
________

state before they can route traffic.


28.

To calculate the lowest cost to a destination, link
-
state protocols such as
OSPF use the
________

algorithm.


29.

Sometimes a link will go up and down rapidly. This is called
________
.






30.

The
___ ________
comma
nd was added to the Cisco IOS software to
prevent routers from computing a new routing table until
____

seconds after a
route change.


31.

When there is a change in a link
-
state, the router uses a
________

process to notify the other routers in the network of
the change.


32.

When a router notices a change in a link
-
state it
________

an LSU packet
that includes the updated LSA entry to
________
, the "all DR Routers" (& BDR)
address.


33.

Write the configuration entry to enable OSPF on a router:


_______________________
_________________



34.

________

-
____is a user defined number to identify multiple OSPF
processes running within a single router.


35.

For each network, you must identify the
_______
to which the network
belongs. The router knows how to interpret the address by comparing the
address to the
________

________
.


36.

Write a configuration to identify the network to the router:


________________________________________


37.

What is the command to reset the IP routing table?


_______________________________________________


38.

To debug a variety of OSPF operations:
_______________________________________________