SmartGrid White Paper

burpfancyElectronics - Devices

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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The

Smart
Grid
White Paper

Our Next Generation Electrical Power Network


TABLE OF CONTENTS


I. Executive Summary

II. Introduction

III. DOE Roadmap

IV. Microgrids

V. Smart
-
Grid Players

VI. The SGS Advantage


I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


A paradigm shift is occurrin
g in power generation. This shift is
spearheaded by the Department of Energy’s
Grid 2030

which
defines our next
-
generation power grid as a network of microgrids
that generate power locally and manage power generation
intelligently.


There are many players
with varied agendas. Smart Grid Systems
has developed the critical technology to make the microgrid
network of the future. Our advanced turbine design becomes a
bridge technology to the entire spectrum of renewable energy
technologies, as well as a stand
-
a
lone power
-
plant in remote,
inhospitable environments.


Our microgrid design meets the expectations and requirements of
all of the diverse players in the power sector; the DOE’s Grid 2030,
DOD, renewable energy advocates, developing nations, remote
communi
ties and even the utility companies.


Tags:

smartgrid,
smart panel, smart meter,
microgrid, Grid 2030, micro
-
turbines, co
-
generation, alternative energy, renewable resources,
solar power, photo
-
voltaic, wind power, wave power, small
-
scale
hydroelectric, bi
omass, bio
-
fuels, waste
-
to
-
energy, crops
-
to
-
energy, hybrid vehicles, superconductors


II. INTRODUCTION


If today’s grid is a mainframe computer,

the smart
-
grid of tomorrow is the Internet.


This is the paradigm that will create America’s future smart grid
. In
the mainframe networks of the 1960’s, all computation was done at
a central location, the mainframe. This massive computer was
directly connected to a number of dumb terminals with no
processing power, just data entry. All processing was done centrall
y
with the results distributed downstream. All control was from a
single node, the mainframe, and flowed in one direction.


Similarly, today’s electrical grid is composed of several thousand
centralized power plants, which generate the power and then
distr
ibute it down to substations which in turn distribute it to
individual dumb meters. The power is generated at a single location
and distributed downstream. All control happens at the power plant
and substation flowing in one direction to the point of use.


The Internet flipped the mainframe paradigm on its head.
Processing is now shared between servers and a wide variety of
corporate, private and government intranets, computers, mobile
and gaming devices. There is processing at every node of the
network and

communication between virtually any of the nodes in
the network, upstream and downstream and from peer to peer.


Similarly, the proposed smart grid will be composed of a backbone
(macro
-
grid) of super
-
conducting transmission lines connecting a
wide array
of small
-
scale nodes (mini and micro
-
grids), with
distributed power generation and communication with the other
nodes in the grid as well as with the substations and primary power
stations of the existing grid.



III. DOE ROADMAP


The Department of Energy
, along with consensus from the major
players in electrical power generation, has created a road map for
our country’s next
-
generation electrical power grid. This document
is entitled
Grid 2030
.


The new smart grid outlined in this document will operate mu
ch
more efficiently, handling significantly higher demand. Distributed
power generation will assist in meeting peak demand and provide
stand
-
alone nodes of operation during emergency conditions.


In essence,
Grid 2030

boils down to two basic concepts. The
first
concept is a network of superconducting transmission lines
connecting coast to coast, and from Canada to Mexico
-

forming a
macro
-
grid spanning the continent. The idea here is that peak
demand in one region, can be met by excess capacity in another
re
gion. This macro
-
grid will be able handle higher peaks and be
somewhat fault
-
tolerant.


The second tenet of Grid 2030 is a vast network of smart mini and
micro grids connected to this superconducting macrogrid. These
smart micro grids have the following fe
atures:



Local power generation and control



Smart interface to the main grid



Receives real
-
time pricing data from main grid



Sell power to the main grid during peak demand



Integrate local renewable energy resources



Stand
-
alone operation indefinitely



IV. M
icrogrids


What exactly is a microgrid? While the DOE has provided the
roadmap to a network of these microgrids across the country, there
are not many solid design concepts on the table to date. There are
a just a handful of experimental systems in the fie
ld today
employing a variety of different strategies.


Today’s grid, while antiquated, is still our best example of just
-
in
-
time delivery. All of our power is generated based on the
instantaneous demand
-

with no storage of excess. Storage of power
introduc
es many obvious and hidden cost to a power generation
system.


Unfortunately, virtually all of the current microgrid designs utilize
storage batteries, ultra
-
capacitors or some other exotic storage
technology to handle the inevitable mismatch between local

generation and local demand. Storage adds unacceptable costs to a
local generation system making it economically unfeasible.


20 years may seem like a long time, however replacing the existing
grid with microgrid technology is a tremendous undertaking. Th
e
decisions that shape our future smartgrid are being made today.

V. The Players


To complicate matters considerably, there are multiple players in
the energy sector with vastly different agendas. Each organization
envisions a unique version of this micro
grid network.


Department Of Energy

The DOE is the dominant player by virtue of controlling the
country’s power blueprint. The microgrids they envision will be able
to communicate to the main grid and assist in supplying power to
meet peak demand. They wil
l be able to operate in a stand
-
alone
mode indefinitely in case of war, natural disaster or terrorist attack.
These microgrids will be able to take advantage of hot water co
-
generation and local renewable energy sources to provide green
energy.


Their smar
t macro grid will be able to shuttle excess electrical
power across the country economically to meet far
-
off demand. The
macro
-
grid would essentially become a buffer for quick fluctuations
in demand and provide a means of distributing power as needed.
The
power companies would also be able to easily expand their
energy markets into Canada, Mexico and eventually Central
America.


The DOE is the primary customer for smart
-
grid technology, as they
have the mandate to build the new smartgrid. They also have the

ability to fund promising technologies.



Department Of Defense

Our military is interested in mobile power grids that can be
deployed rapidly. The local power generation and stand
-
alone
capability make the micro
-
grid concept ideal for bases, particularly
on foreign soil with little or no intact infrastructure.


The DOD already has an initiative to convert combat vehicles to
turbine power, like the M1 tank.

Each combat vehicle could be
converted into a mobile microgrid, set up at a moments notice
under adv
erse battle conditions.


The DOD is also a major customer, as they see mobile, redundant,
self
-
contained microgrids as a vital component of our 21st century
military force.


Utility Companies

The utility companies have a huge investment in the existing gri
d,
including megawatt turbine
-
generators, substations and
transmission lines. Their idea of a smart
-
grid is just an extension of
the existing centralized control system, smart
-
meters. They simply
want to extend control to the residential level, but no real

paradigm
shift. The utilities still favor a centralized generation scheme
-

with
their huge vested interest. Oahu recently rejected a project to
install smart
-
meters.


The utility company’s smartgrid would automate the many manual
resets required after an
outage and smart meters installed at point
-
of
-
use to control smart appliances. The smart
-
panel would tell you
when to wash your clothes and when to take a bath.


Their renewable energy plan is based on large
-
scale systems (1+
MW) which is the antithesis of

the renewable energy paradigm. it
almost looks like alternative energy has been tacked onto the end
of their various schematics as an afterthought.


As bad as their concept of the future power grid is, the utilities are
and will be a big player. They own
most of the existing grid
infrastructure and have the capital to own the new infrastructure.
The utilities have a lot of the
particular

manufacturing capacity that
will be required to re
-
tool our power grid.


Developing Nations

Developing nations in Africa
, South America, Southeast Asia and
China have notoriously poor electrical systems. These countries,
along with rural areas in our country have a somewhat single
-
minded perspective
-

they are looking for reliable electrical power
solutions. Their micro
-
grid

is a self sufficient node that powers a
village or outlying community, taking advantages of local renewable
resources and available fuel stock. Their micro
-
grid requires
consistent power indefinitely, economically and reliably.


Alternative Energy Systems

This group has been pitching wind, solar and water power, along
with biomass/bio
-
fuels and wave power for the past 50 years; the
promise of renewable energy resources has been around for at least
as long as the promise of a super battery.


Their microgrid

would be a hybridized collection of various available
local renewable energy resources. Functioning renewable power
systems today need to be grossly over
-
sized to accommodate wide
fluctuations in the amount collected energy, and usually require
some type
of very expensive storage system.


The problem is that managing a wildly fluctuating micro
-
grid based
only on unreliable, renewable resources is a detriment to the
macro
-
grid as a whole. This has been the primary obstacle in
“selling
-
power
-
back
-
to
-
the
-
util
ity
-
company” concept. The macrogrid
requires stable, solid power supplies to function effectively.


Storage Group

This diverse group basically integrates their pet technology into a
micro
-
grid design and then fill
s

in all the blanks with batteries,
ultra
-
c
apacitors, and a variety of chemical, mechanical, pumping
and compression schemes for storing energy. While a microgrid of
this type seems to be the most common and would add some
“ballast” to the macro
-
grid, batteries in all forms are expensive,
have loss
es and they always seem to be running out of
power at
inopportune times
.


Once again, batteries are just a band
-
aid on the old paradigm. One
of the exquisite features of the national electrical grid is that it is a
perfect model of just
-
in
-
time (JIT) deliv
ery, meeting energy
demand in real time.

VI. The SGS Advantage


Smart Grid Systems proposes a microgrid design that meets the
needs of just about all the major players, besides the storage
group. The heart of our system is a small, reliable, economical
po
wer plant that can respond to dynamic loads.


We have developed a small
-
scale turbine (100 Kw) with an
incredible turn
-
down ratio of 10:1. This basically means that power
generation is efficient throughout the range from 10% to 100%
power output
-

much like

your car’s engine.


Smart Energy Management


The brains of our system is our smart panel. The smart panel
interfaces to the main grid via the Internet, receiving real
-
time
energy costs at point
-
of
-
use. Based upon this data, and the known
costs of local po
wer generation, the smart
-
panel makes decisions
on whether to buy power from the grid, generate the power locally
or sell power back to the grid.


The smart
-
panel also interfaces to the smart
-
meters downstream
via the Internet, again basically providing re
al
-
time energy cost
data. The smart
-
meters would function like the smart
-
meters in the
utility company schemes, scheduling erergy tasks based upon real
-
time cost.


Bridge Technology for Alternative Energy


Perhaps the most exciting thing about our smart mi
crogrid is that it
is an enabling technology for the full spectrum of renewable energy
resources, from photovoltaic, wind power, small
-
scale hydroelectric
and wave power to biomass/bio fuels, crop
-
to
-
energy and waste
-
to
-
energy. Unlike other proposals, our
system does more than pay lip
service to alternative energy.


A micro
-
grid backed by a micro
-
turbine can add alternative energy
incrementally, without the high costs associated with storage of
these dynamic power sources. Traditional development of
renewab
le resources has been waiting for the battery technology to
come around for 40 years.


Alternative energy is now freed from this battery restriction. A solar
array, water wheel or wind turbine can be added piecemeal to an
operating micro
-
grid. The smart
-
pa
nel integrates the new source
into its own microgrid. The energy is tagged with data and added to
the mix.


Cost
-
effective Operation

Our turbine can operate on various low
-
quality fuels, like those
available in developing nations and out
-
lying areas. Our m
icrogrid
design can also be run on a variety of bio
-
fuels and can be adapted
to operate crop
-
to
-
energy and waste
-
to
-
energy schemes.


Furthermore, based upon the application, hot water co
-
generation
can effectively double the thermal efficiency of the syste
m. And
adding in a waste
-
to
-
energy component in a residential application
would also add considerable savings.


The energy stored in a 55 gallon

drum of gasoline (or biofuel)
costing $200US is equivalent to a battery array costing $12,000
dollars, without

adding in housing and maintenance of the batteries.


The bottom line is that this technology can be implemented today
without relying on future economies of mass
-
production or
government subsidies to be cost
-
effective.


Stand
-
alone Operation


Our smart mi
crogrid has many advantages over the myriad of
configurations being presented. Not only is reliable power
generated locally, but our 100 KW turbine provides indefinite stand
-
alone operation for the equivalent of 50 residential homes. The
unmatched turn
-
dow
n ratio can match power demand from peaks
all the way down.


The Competition

while most of the players are looking for a flag to rally around, a
design similar to ours was installed in France. A hybrid gas
turbine/photovoltaic micro
-
grid was created, utili
zing 3 Capstone
30kW turbines to make up the demand beyond the photovoltaic
capacity.


The Capstones have a relatively small turn
-
down ratio (3:1) so the
supply curve followed the demand in a step
-
wise manner resulting
in gross inefficiencies. Their final
recommendation was agai, to add
batteries or ultra
-
capacitors to handle the fluctuations between
supply and demand.


The SGS Solution

A micro
-
grid backed by our micro
-
turbine is the ideal solution for
the DOE. Intelligent micro
-
grids that generate crisp 22
0VAC 60Hz
power kick in during peak loads and outages.


Of course, the DOD and developing nations are attracted to the
stand
-
alone aspect. It is much easier to obtain a drum of gasoline
than 2400 lbs of Lithium
-
Hydride deep
-
draw batteries when your
village

is on an African plain or your base is in some Iraqi desert. A
further advantage to our concept is the ability to run on available
low
-
grade fuels and bio
-
fuels.


The renewable energy contingent can finally realize the dream of
clean, green local energy o
n a human scale, without waiting for the
super
-
battery to be invented, or without megalithic installations.


SGS has the missing puzzle piece for the DOE, DOD, developing
nations, the renewable energy advocates and even the utility
companies. Get on board
or get out of the way.