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Feb 5, 2013 (4 years and 9 months ago)

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INTERNET: HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT

Ana
Valendiano
,
Antonette

Tamayo, Aimee Zenarosa

7E

FACTS ABOUT THE INTERNET


1. Who coined the phrase 'World Wide Web'?



Tim Berners
-
Lee in 1990. He's also considered by most
people as the person who started the whole thing rolling.


2. How did the Internet Start and Why?



It all started with the time
-
sharing of IBM computers in the
early 1960s at universities such as Dartmouth and Berkeley
in the States. People would share the same computer for
their computing tasks. The Internet also received help from
Sputnik! After this Russian Satellite was launched in 1957,
President Eisenhower formed ARPA to advance computer
networking and communication.


Plus, we won't even mention that whole industry where
people show their naughty bits.


3. Who was J.C.R.
Licklider
?



Licklider

is often referred to as the father of the
Internet because his ideas of interactive
computing and a "Galactic Network" were the
seeds for the Internet. His ideas would be
developed thru DARPA,(Defense Advanced
Research Projects Agency) in 1962. Later he
would help form ARPANET and the Internet was
on it's way.



Vinton Gray Cerf was another founding father of
the Internet. He played a key role in the creation
of the Net by developing the TCP/IP protocols
we use for the Internet.


4. What was ARPANET?




ARPANET stands for 'Advanced Research Projects
Agency Network' Came about in the arena of Sputnik
and the cold war. The military needed a method of
communicating and sharing all the information on
computers for research and development. It would
also be a handy communication system if all
traditional ways were wiped out in a nuclear attack!


5. What was the First long distance Connection?



In 1965 using a low speed dial
-
up telephone line,
MIT researcher Lawrence G. Roberts working with
Thomas Merrill, connected the TX
-
2 computer in
Massachusetts to the Q
-
32 in California. The phone
lines weren't quite up to the task!


6. Who was Leonard
Kleinrock
?



Kleinrock

came up with the theory of packet
switching, the basic form of Internet
connections. With a group of UCLA graduate
students on Oct. 29, 1969,
Kleinrock

connected with the Stanford Research Institute
but as they typed in the G in LOGIN
--

the
system crashed!



7.What is an Ethernet?




It's a protocol or system for a set of computer
networking technologies for local area networks
(LANs), the origins of which came from Bob
Metcalfe's Harvard's dissertation on "Packet
Networks."


8. When was the first mouse introduced?

The first
computer mouse was introduced in 1968 by Douglas
Engelbart

at the Fall Joint Computer Expo in San
Francisco.


9. Did Al Gore really invent the Internet?

No
, but give
credit where credit is due. He did the most of any elected
official to actively promote the Internet. However, he
wasn't even in Congress when ARPANET was formed in
1969 or even when the term 'Internet' came into use in
1974. Gore was first elected in 1976.


Gore himself may be the cause of this Urban Legend or
Internet myth
-

during a Wolf Blitzer CNN interview on
March 9, 1999
-

Al Gore did say: "During my service in the
United States Congress, I took the initiative in creating
the Internet.“



Causing himself some ridicule but also paving the way for
such future one
-
liners as: "I invented the environment!"


10. Who coined the phrase 'information
superhighway'?



Wikipedia says Nam June Paik coined the phrase
"information superhighway" in 1974.



Al Gore popularized the phrase in the early 1990's.

11. Which decade really saw the explosion of the net?



The 1990s. The Internet exploded into the
mainstream with the release of the first popular web
browser Mosaic in 1993.

12. How fast is the Internet growing?

Very fast! It took
38 years for radio to reach 50 million users, 13 years
for TV, and only 5 years for the Internet. Source:
CyberAtlas.com


13. Number of Internet Users and Breakdown.

The Internet is roughly 35% English, 65% Non
-
English with the Chinese at 14%. Yet only 13%
of world's population, 812 million are Internet
users as of Dec. '04. North America has the
highest continental concentration with 70% of
the people using the Internet.



14. Country with the highest percentage of net
users?




Sweden at 75%.


15. How big is the Internet's surfing world?

Google's index now stands at over 8 billion
pages. There are now over a Billion Internet
Users and that number is growing
rapidily
.


16. What was the Net's first index called?




Archie, other than library catalogs, this was the first index
created in 1989 by Peter Deutsch at McGill in Montreal.
Although it spouted such others as Veronica and
Jughead
, Archie was short for
Archiver

and had nothing to
do with the comic strip.


Backrub was the original name for Google! Larry Page
and Sergey
Brin

used this term for their search engine in
1996, Google as we know it debuted in 1998. The name
Google is a twist on the word Googol, a number
represented as 1 followed by 100 zeros.


17. What does HTTP stand for?




HyperText

Transfer Protocol
-

it's the protocol for moving
files across the net; it requires two client programs. The
HTTP client and the server


18. What is an ISP?




Internet Service Provider
-

This is the service or
company you use to access the Internet.


19. What is HTML?




Hypertext Markup Language
-

it's the coded format
language for transmitting and creating hypertext web
pages.


20. What are your average surfing habits according
to Nielsen
NetRatings
?




Each month you usually visit 59 domains, view 1,050
pages allocating 45 seconds for each page and
spend about 25 hours doing all this net activity! Each
surfing session lasts 51 minutes.

ORGANIZATIONS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTERNET


Networking: Organizations involved in coordinating and developing
online communication technologies


IANA: Internet Assigned Numbers Authority; works on coordinating
functions for the Internet


ICANN: Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers; the
corporation that is responsible for the IP address space allocation,
protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management,
and root server system management functions of the Internet


IETF: The Internet Engineering Task Force; a large open international
community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers
concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth
operation of the Internet


IRTF: Internet Research Task Force; promotes research for the evolution
of the future Internet by creating focused, long
-
term and small research
groups working on topics related to Internet protocols, applications,
architecture and technology



ISC: Internet Software Consortium; develops and
maintains production quality Open Source reference
implementations of core Internet protocols


ISOC: Internet Society; a professional membership
society; provides leadership in addressing issues that
confront the future of the Internet, and is the
organization home for the groups responsible for
Internet infrastructure standards, including the Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet
Architecture Board (IAB)


W3C: World Wide Web Consortium; develops
interoperable technologies (specifications, guidelines,
software, and tools) for the World Wide Web


CAIDA: Cooperative Association for Internet Data
Analysis; provides tools and analyses promoting the
engineering and maintenance of a robust, scalable
global Internet infrastructure




Standards: Organizations and resources related to
technology standards


ACM: Association for Computing Machinery Technical
Standards
Commitee
; coordinates all official ACM
participation in standards
-
related activities; ACM is an
educational and scientific computing society


ANSI: American National Standards Institute; a private
organization that administers and coordinates the United
States voluntary standardization and conformity assessment
systems


BSI: British Standards; the National Standards Body of the
UK, responsible for facilitating, drafting, publishing and
marketing British Standards and other guidelines


CSR: Communications Standards Review; reports on formal
telecommunications standards work
-
in
-
progress (US and
International) covering multimedia and
wireline

access
technology standards



DISA: Data Interchange Standards Association; home for
the development of cross
-
industry electronic business
interchange standards; serves as the Secretariat for ASC
X12 and their X12 EDI and XML standards development
process


Doc
Ctr
: Document Center; search for standards


EIA: Electronic Industries Alliance; a national trade
organization that includes US manufacturers
representing the electronics industry; a partnership of
electronic and high
-
tech associations and companies
whose mission is to promote market development and
competitiveness of the US high
-
tech industry through
domestic and international policy efforts


ETSI: European Telecommunications Standards Institute;
an organization whose mission is to produce the
telecommunications standards for Europe and beyond



IEC: International
Electrotechnical

Commission; a global
organization that prepares and publishes international standards
for all electrical, electronic and related technologies which serve as
a basis for national standardization


IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; an
international membership organization serving industry with
standards programs


IAB: Internet Architecture Board; a committee of the Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF); responsible for oversight of IETF
activities, Internet Standards Process oversight and appeal, and is
responsible for the management of publication of the RFC Series
and the management of the IETF protocol parameter registry,
operated by the IANA


IMTC: International Multimedia Telecommunications Consortium; a
corporation comprising approximately 100 organizations around the
globe to promote and facilitate the development and
implementation of interoperable multimedia conferencing solutions
based on open international standards; a source of conferencing
-
related information for its members, other vendors, media and the
public



ISO: International Organization for Standardization; a network
of the national standards institutes of some 140 countries,
with a central office in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates
the system and publishes the finished standards


ITU: International Telecommunication Union; an international
organization within which governments and the private sector
could work together to coordinate the operation of
telecommunication networks and services and advance the
development of communications technology


NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology;
develops and promotes measurement, standards, and
technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and
improve the quality of life; a non
-
regulatory federal agency
within the US Department of Commerce


T1: Committee T1; sponsored by the Alliance for
Telecommunications Industry Solutions and accredited by the
American National Standards Institute to create network
interconnections and interoperability standards for the United
States



TIA: Telecommunications Industry Association; trade
association representing providers of
communications and information technology
products and services


WSSN: World Standards Services Network; a
network of Web sites of standards organizations
around the world; provides information on
international, regional and national standardization
and related activities and services; links from the
WSSN site are provided to the Web sites of
international standardizing bodies, regional
standardizing bodies, national members of ISO and
IEC, and other international/regional organizations
with related activities


INTERNET TIMELINE


1969




ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) goes online in
December, connecting four major U.S. universities. Designed for
research, education, and government organizations, it provides a
communications network linking the country in the event that a
military attack destroys conventional communications systems.


1972




Electronic mail is introduced by Ray Tomlinson, a Cambridge,
Mass., computer scientist. He uses the @ to distinguish between
the sender's name and network name in the email address.


1973




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is
designed and in 1983 it becomes the standard for
communicating between computers over the Internet. One of
these protocols, FTP (File Transfer Protocol), allows users to log
onto a remote computer, list the files on that computer, and
download files from that computer.


1976




Presidential candidate Jimmy Carter and running mate
Walter Mondale use email to plan campaign events.
Queen Elizabeth sends her first email. She's the first
state leader to do so.


1982




The word “Internet” is used for the first time.


1984




Domain Name System (DNS) is established, with network
addresses identified by extensions such as .com, .org,
and .
edu
. Writer William Gibson coins the term
“cyberspace.”



1985
.



Quantum Computer Services, which later changes its
name to America Online, debuts. It offers email,
electronic bulletin boards, news, and other information.



1988




A virus called the Internet Worm temporarily shuts
down about 10% of the world's Internet servers.



1989




The World (world.std.com) debuts as the first
provider of dial
-
up Internet access for consumers.
Tim Berners
-
Lee of CERN (European Laboratory for
Particle Physics) develops a new technique for
distributing information on the Internet. He calls it
the World Wide Web. The Web is based on hypertext,
which permits the user to connect from one
document to another at different sites on the Internet
via hyperlinks (specially programmed words, phrases,
buttons, or graphics). Unlike other Internet protocols,
such as FTP and email, the Web is accessible
through a graphical user interface.




1990


The first effort to index the Internet is created by Peter Deutsch at
McGill University in Montreal, who devises Archie, an archive of FTP
sites.


1991




Gopher, which provides point
-
and
-
click navigation, is created at the
University of Minnesota and named after the school mascot. Gopher
becomes the most popular interface for several years. Another indexing
system, WAIS (Wide Area Information Server), is developed by Brewster
Kahle

of Thinking Machines Corp.


1993




Mosaic is developed by Marc
Andreeson

at the National Center for
Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). It becomes the dominant
navigating system for the World Wide Web, which at this time accounts
for merely 1% of all Internet traffic.


1994




The White House launches its website, www.whitehouse.gov. Initial
commerce sites are established and mass marketing campaigns are
launched via email, introducing the term “spamming” to the Internet
vocabulary. Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark start Netscape
Communications. They introduce the Navigator browser


1995




CompuServe, America Online, and Prodigy start providing dial
-
up
Internet access. Sun Microsystems releases the Internet
programming language called Java. The Vatican launches its own
website, www.vatican.va.



1996




Approximately 45 million people are using the Internet, with
roughly 30 million of those in North America (United States and
Canada), 9 million in Europe, and 6 million in Asia/Pacific
(Australia, Japan, etc.). 43.2 million (44%) U.S. households own a
personal computer, and 14 million of them are online.


1997




On July 8, 1997, Internet traffic records are broken as the NASA
website broadcasts images taken by
Pathfinder

on Mars. The
broadcast generates 46 million hits in one day. The term
“weblog” is coined. It’s later shortened to “blog.”


1998



Google opens its first office, in California.


1999



College student Shawn Fanning invents Napster, a computer application that
allows users to swap music over the Internet.

The number of Internet users worldwide reaches 150 million by the beginning of
1999. More than 50% are from the United States.

“E
-
commerce” becomes the new buzzword as Internet shopping rapidly
spreads. MySpace.com is launched.


2000



To the chagrin of the Internet population, deviant computer programmers begin
designing and circulating viruses with greater frequency. “Love Bug” and
“Stages” are two examples of self
-
replicating viruses that send themselves to
people listed in a computer user's email address book. The heavy volume of
email messages being sent and received forces many infected companies to
temporarily shut down their clogged networks.

The Internet bubble bursts, as the fountain of investment capital dries up and
the
Nasdaq

stock index plunges, causing the initial public offering (IPO) window
to slam shut and many dotcoms to close their doors. America Online buys Time
Warner for $16 billion. It’s the biggest merger of all time.



2001



Napster is dealt a potentially fatal blow when the 9th U.S. Circuit
Court of Appeals in San Francisco rules that the company is
violating copyright laws and orders it to stop distributing
copyrighted music. The file
-
swapping company says it is
developing a subscription
-
based service.

About 9.8 billion electronic messages are sent daily. Wikipedia is
created.


2002



As of January, 58.5% of the U.S. population (164.14 million
people) uses the Internet. Worldwide there are 544.2 million
users.

The death knell tolls for Napster after a bankruptcy judge ruled in
September that German media giant Bertelsmann cannot buy
the assets of troubled Napster Inc. The ruling prompts
Konrad

Hilbers
, Napster CEO, to resign and lay off his staff.


2003



It's estimated that Internet users illegally download about 2.6
billion music files each month.

Spam, unsolicited email, becomes a server
-
clogging menace. It
accounts for about half of all emails. In December, President
Bush signs the Controlling the Assault of Non
-
Solicited
Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003 (CAN
-
SPAM Act), which is
intended to help individuals and businesses control the amount
of unsolicited email they receive.

Apple Computer introduces Apple iTunes Music Store, which
allows people to download songs for 99 cents each. Spam,
unsolicited email, becomes a server
-
clogging menace. It
accounts for about half of all emails. Apple Computer introduces
Apple iTunes Music Store, which allows people to download songs
for 99 cents each.


2004



Internet Worm, called
MyDoom

or
Novarg
, spreads through
Internet servers. About 1 in 12 email messages are infected.
Online spending reaches a record high

$117 billion in 2004, a
26% increase over 2003.


2005



YouTube.com is launched.


2006



There are more than 92 million websites online.


2007



Legal online music downloads triple to 6.7
million downloads per week. Colorado Rockies'
computer system crashes when it receives 8.5
million hits within the first 90 minutes of World
Series ticket sales. The online game, World of
Warcraft
, hits a milestone when it surpasses 9
million subscribers worldwide in July.


2008



In a move to challenge Google's dominance of search and
advertising on the Internet, software giant Microsoft offers to buy
Yahoo for $44.6 billion. In a San
Fransisco

federal district court,
Judge Jeffrey S. White orders the disabling of Wikileaks.org, a
Web site that discloses confidential information. The case was
brought by Julius Baer Bank and Trust, located in the Cayman
Islands, after a disgruntled ex
-
employee allegedly provided
Wikileaks

with stolen documents that implicate the bank in asset
hiding, money laundering, and tax evasion. Many web
communities, who see the ruling as unconstitutional, publicized
alternate addresses for the site and distributed bank documents
through their own networks. In response, Judge White issues
another order to stop the distribution of bank documents.
Microsoft is fined $1.3 billion by the European Commission for
further abusing its dominant market position, and failing to
comply to their 2004 judgment, which ordered Microsoft to give
competitors information necessary to operate with Windows.
Since 2004, Microsoft has been fined a total of $2.5 billion by
the Commission for not adhering to their ruling.

THE GROWTH OF THE INTERNET


The growth rate of the
Internet

exceeds that of
any previous technology. Measured by users
and bandwidth, Internet has been growing at a
rapid rate since its conception, on a curve
geometric and sometimes exponential.



Today, the Internet is growing exponentially in three different
directions
--

size, processing power, and software sophistication
--

making it the fastest growing technology humankind has ever
created:


Size
. The graphs in the
historical statistics

section show the
exponential rate of growth in the number of people that use the
Internet. Soon more than half the world's population will have
access to the Internet.


Power
. As first appreciated at the
Dartmouth AI Conference

in
1956, computer processors and storage continue to double in
power and capacity about every 18 months, providing steadily
more powerful computers for use by increasing sophisticated
software.


Functionality
. Software applications from routing programs to
browser applications continually build on previous technology to
become more sophisticated with every release, continuously
evolving to incorporate new features and capabilities.


LIST OF WEB APPLICATION FRAMEWORKS


Perl


PHP


Java


Python


Ruby


CFML (ColdFusion)


ASP.NET


IDENTIFICATION


1. Which country has the highest percentage
of net users?


2. Give 1 web application framework.


3. What year did Queen Elizabeth sent her
first email?


4. What year was YouTube launched?


5
-
6. What are the 2 types of organizations
that are responsible for the development of
the internet?


7
-
10. What are the 3 different directions that
the internet is growing exponentially in?


ANSWER KEY



1. Sweden


2. Perl, PHP, Java, Python, Ruby, CFML
(ColdFusion), ASP.NET


3. 1976


4. 2005


5
-
6. Networking and Standards


7
-
10. Size, Power and Functionality


SOURCES


http://www.bizwaremagic.com/quick_intern
et_history.htm


http://www.december.com/cmc/info/organi
zations.html


http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0193167.h
tml


http://www.livinginternet.com/i/ip_growth.ht
m


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of
_web_application_frameworks