Building Consensus for Change: Collaborative Teaming within an ...

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Feb 5, 2013 (4 years and 4 months ago)

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Laura L.
Feuerborn
, Ph.D., NCSP



Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports:
Facilitating Staff Buy
-
In


May 2011 NWPBIS Conference

Bellevue, WA

(
Feuerborn
, 2011)


The importance of staff perceptions & staff buy
-
in to
schoolwide positive behavior supports (SWPBS)


Staff perceptions as facilitators & inhibitors to staff buy
-
in


Developing a data
-
based understanding of staff
perceptions


Strategies for building staff buy
-
in

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Guiding Questions


Why are the perceptions of staff and staff buy
-
in important in
the implementation of SWPBS?


What are the
factors associated with staff
buy
-
in?


How do we assess/understand
staff
perceptions of SWPBS?


How do we foster staff buy
-
in?


(Feuerborn, 2011)

The Nature of Resistance



Resisters often have ideas that we might have missed,
especially in situations of complexity.



Resisters are crucial to the politics of implementation in
democratic organizations, such as schools.


“Respect those you wish to silence”

(Heifetz, 1994)





(
Beisse
, K. 2010)




(
Feuerborn
, 2011)

The importance of staff buy
-
in to
the Implementation of SWPBS

Why are the perceptions of staff and staff buy
-
in important in the
implementation of SWPBS?

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Impact of Staff Buy
-
In on SWPBS
Implementation


Misunderstandings and philosophical beliefs inconsistent
with SWPBS, poor knowledge of behavioral principles, and
low support for implementation were all reported factors
influencing staff implementation of SWPBS in their schools.


Lack of staff buy
-
in was identified as a barrier


Lack of staff buy
-
in was associated with low
implementation schools


Achieving staff buy
-
in was related to successful
implementation

(Kincaid, Childs, & Blasé, 2007)

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Impact of Staff Buy
-
In on SWPBS


Major barriers influencing implementation of
SWPBS at the universal level involved lack of
staff support:


staff perceptions of poor administrative leadership;


skepticism that SWPBS was needed;



feelings of hopelessness related to change;


philosophical differences with the core elements of SWPBS;


negative school climate in which staff felt disenfranchised


Twice as many statements reflected issues of staff support
than any other.


(
Lohrmann
, Forman, & Martin, 2008)

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Impact of Staff Buy
-
In on SWPBS


Team members reported that staff perceptions
were one of the most pervasive barriers to
implementation at the individual level.


perceptions of low administrative support and
involvement


philosophical beliefs inconsistent with SWPBS


limited knowledge of SWPBS principles


limited time to participate in problem solving

(
Bambura
,
Nonnemacher
, & Kern, 2009).

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Impact of Staff Buy
-
In on SWPBS


High school teams reported:


Support and buy
-
in from staff a key area of
concern


Only
30%

of teams reported that nearly 80% of
staff supported SWPBS.


Obtaining staff support a top priority


Teams linked lack of support for SWPBS to
inconsistent and lower levels of implementation


(Flannery,
Sugai
, & Anderson, 2009)

(Feuerborn, 2011)


The link between perceptions, level
of support, and implementation
fidelity has been documented with
classroom
-
based programs
(e.g. Beets
et al., 2008),
school
-
wide programs
(e.g.
Ransford
, Greenberg,
Domitrovich
,
Small, & Jacobson, 2009),
and large
-
scale educational reform efforts



(e.g.
Geijsel
,
Sleegers
,



van den Berg, &


Kelchtermans
, 2001).

Perceptions

Buy
-
In

Fidelity

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Change Requires Systemic Thinking


“Vision without systems thinking ends up
painting lovely pictures of the future with no
deep understanding of the forces that must be
mastered to move from here to there.”



(
Senge
, 1990, p. 12)

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Change is Individual…


Change is a
process
, not an event.


Systemic change begins at the
individual

level. When
the majority of individuals have changed, the system
has changed.


Change is a
personal

experience
-

Individuals change at
different rates and in different ways.


Individuals must change in to two important ways
-

knowledge and beliefs
.



Supports must be provided at an
individual leve
l
.


(
Fullan
, 1985; Hall &
Hord
, 2006)

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Fidelity, Readiness, & Perceptions

What are the factors important to SWPBS implementation?


School
-
wide
Evaluation
Tool


Designed to
assess and evaluate the critical features
of
school
-
wide effective behavior support across each
academic school year
.



Sources of data include a review of permanent products,
observations, and staff (minimum of 10) and student
(minimum of 15) interviews or surveys.


(Horner, Todd, Lewis
-
Palmer, Irvin,
Sugai
, & Boland, 2004)


(Feuerborn, 2011)

Everywhere High School:

Results from the SET.

SET

Domains

Percent in
Place

Expectations Defined

25%

Behavioral Expectations Taught

40%

On
-
Going

System for Rewarding Behavioral Expectations

17%

System for Responding to Behavioral Violations

88%

Monitoring and Decision

Making

63%

Management

50%

District
-
Level

Support

50%

Total

48%

(Feuerborn, 2011)

The Readiness Assessment Process

Systemic Readiness

Staff Readiness


Continuous assessment of
the current status and
needs of the system with
respect to implementation:


Focused on all readiness
domains


Guided by a core
leadership team


Conducted at least
annually



Following awareness training,
assessment of staff readiness
deserves special
consideration. Continuous
assessment of staff:


Knowledge and skills


Attitudes and beliefs


Conducted at least annually


Also guided by a core
planning team

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Understanding Staff Perceptions

What perceptions influence buy
-
in, and
how can we develop an understanding of
those perceptions?

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Assessing Staff Readiness


What?


Knowledge & Skills


Prior Training (Pre
-
service/ In
-
service)


Training needs


Beliefs & Attitudes


Perceptions of PBIS in the six domains


Levels of interest and support for
implementation

Following an awareness training…

(
Feuerborn
, 2011)

Understanding Staff Concerns


Awareness


Personal


Management


Impact


Collaboration


Surveys


Focus groups


One legged conferences


Open ended concerns
statements:
When you think
about implementing PBIS,
what concerns do you have?


Stages of Concern

Assessing Concerns

(Bailey & Palsha, 1992; Hall & Hord, 1987; Hall & Loucks, 1978; Cheung, Hattie,
& Ng, 2001)

(Feuerborn, 2011)

The Stages of Concern Questionnaire


Designed to assess staff perceptions of a generic change initiative.


Developed by Concerns Based Systems International



http://www.sedl.org/cbam



“Currently, other priorities prevent me from focusing my attention on
the innovation.”


“I would like to know how the innovation is better than what we have
now.”


“I would like to know how my role will change when I am using the
innovation.”


“I am concerned about my inability to manage all that the innovation
requires.”



“I would like to use feedback from students to change the program.”


(Feuerborn, 2011)

Staff Perceptions of Behavior and Discipline
Survey (SPBD)


Designed to assess perceptions of behavior,
discipline, and PBIS, including perceptions of…


The effectiveness of PBIS


The need for change in current discipline practices


Administrative direction and leadership


Supports for implementation


Personal confidence for managing behavior


Philosophical views of behavior and discipline

(Feuerborn& Tyre, 2010).






(Feuerborn, 2011)

Technical Properties of the SPBD:

Content Validity


Based on a comprehensive review of the systemic
change, consultation, and PBIS literature bases,


The six aforementioned domains of staff perceptions
were identified and defined,


Items were developed to assess staff perceptions in each
domain, and


Additional items were added to assess staff experience,
interest in participating, and support for
implementation.

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Technical Properties of the SPBD:

Internal Consistency Reliability


Preliminary analyses of 228 survey responses
revealed that the survey items consistently assess
staff perceptions of behavior, discipline, and PBIS.



Internal Consistency Reliability:

Cronbach

alpha coefficient of
.84


(Feuerborn, 2011)

SWPBS will be effective in our school.

Rationale


If staff believe that SWPBS is
likely to lead to socially
meaningful outcomes in
their

school with
their

students,
they will be more likely to
support implementation.
However, when staff feel
hopeless that change is
possible, a common barrier
to the implementation of
SWPBS exists.

Example Items


SWPBS is likely to be an
effective approach in our
school.


SWPBS may work in other
schools, but I have doubts it
will work in ours.


This school has successfully
implemented similar change
efforts in the past.


Behavior plans don’t seem to
work well.


(E.g. Bambara et al., 2009; Kincaid et al., 2007; Lane et al., 2009; Lohrmann et al.,
2008; Rogers, 2003; Von Brock & Elliott, 1987; Witt & Elliott, 1985).

(
Feuerborn
, 2011)

SWPBS is needed in our school.

Rationale


When staff perceive there is a
need for change
in the
discipline practices within
their school system, they will
be more likely to support
implementation of SWPBS.
However, staff are less likely
to support the
implementation of SWPBS
when they feel more or less
satisfied with the current
discipline system.

Example Items


I don’t see a need to do
anything differently in terms
of how we handle discipline.


Discipline is taking too much
time away from academic
instruction.


Students at this school need
to be held more responsible
for their behavior.


(E.g. Adelman & Taylor, 2007; Lohrmann et al., 2008; Rogers, 2003; Sugai & Horner,
2006)

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Our administration will provide the
necessary direction and leadership.

Rationale


Staff are more likely to
support implementation of
SWPBS when they perceive
that the school administrator
is committed to SWPBS,
actively involved in planning
and implementation, and has
the leadership skills to move
implementation forward in a
direction that will benefit the
school community.

Example Items


I have trust in my
administration’s ability to
lead us through change.


Behavioral support is one of
our top three school
improvement priorities.


This is likely to be yet
another fad or initiative that
comes and goes.


Staff should be included more
in decisions that affect the
whole school.

(E.g. Adelman & Taylor, 2007; Ervin & Schaughency, 2008; Fullan, 2001; Hall & Hord,
2011; Ransford et al., 2009; Rogers, 2003; Stollar et al., 2006)

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Support will be provided for
implementation.

Rationale


Staff are more likely to
support the adoption of
SWPBS when they perceive
the supports they need for
implementation will be
provided. Justifiably, they are
likely to resist the adoption of
SWPBS if they perceive they
will be asked to take on
additional responsibilities
without additional resources.

Example Items


Our administration will
provide the resources
needed to support
implementation.


I don’t have the time to
teach social and behavioral
expectations.


I resent being asked to do
one more thing in my
classroom.

(E.g. Adelman & Taylor, 2007; Bambara et al., 2009; Kincaid et al, 2007; Lohrmann et
al., 2008; McKevitt & Braaksma, 2008; Sugai & Horner, 2006).

(Feuerborn, 2011)

I can successfully implement SWPBS in
my job role.

Rationale




When school staff feel
confident in their ability to
implement proactive
behavior management
strategies, they are more
likely to do so. However,
when staff lack confidence in
their ability to implement
positive strategies, they are
prone to rely on emotional
and reactive approaches.

Example Items


I understand what is
involved with schoolwide
positive behavior supports.


I need more training to
support the behavioral
needs of my students.


I need more support in
dealing with behavioral
issues in my classroom.


(E.g. Bambara et al., 2009; Hastings, 2002; Oliver & Reschly, 2010; Tillery, Varjas,
Meyers, & Collins, 2010)

(Feuerborn, 2011)

I understand and believe in the
philosophy of SWPBS.

Rationale



Misperceptions and
misunderstandings of SWPBS
often result from insufficient
or poor professional
development. Yet, staff
members may fully
understand the philosophy of
SWPBS and fundamentally
disagree with it, representing
an implementation barrier.

Example Items


My

colleagues and I share a
common philosophy for
student discipline.


I don’t feel that teaching
social and emotional skills is
part of my job role.


As a teacher, I should not
have to deal with discipline
problems.


We should reserve rewards
for exceeding expectations,
not simply meeting them.

(E.g. Adelman & Taylor, 2007; Bambara et al., 2009; Lohrmann et al., 2008; Zins &
Ponti, 1990)

(Feuerborn, 2011)

7 STRATEGIES to Building Staff
Buy
-
In

How can we facilitate staff buy
-
in?

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Building Change

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Build a Case for Change


Reveal a need for change


Discuss school needs assessment data, both academic and
social
-
behavioral, to illustrate the limitations of current
disciplinary practices in meeting the needs of students,
staff, and the larger school community


Reveal a need for SWPBS


It should be clear that SWPBS is worth the investment
and will produce substantive social
-
behavioral and
academic outcomes for students, staff, and the school
community.
Remember: Half the staff believe behavior plans do
not work well!

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Provide the Evidence:

Use Data & Testimonials


An extensive body of research supports:


Reductions
in
office referrals,


Fewer reports of harassment,


Reductions
in
suspensions,


Fewer school safety violations,


Improved attendance and punctuality,


Positive behavior
in
school common
areas.


(
Kartub, Taylor Green, March, & Horner, 2000;
Luiselli
, Putnam, Handler, & Feinberg, 2005;
McIntosh, Chard, Boland, & Horner, 2006; Scott, 2001; Oswald, Safran & Johanson, 2005; Scott
& Barrett, 2004; Metzler,
Biglan
,
Rusby
, & Sprague, 2001; Todd, Haugen, Anderson, &
Spriggs
,
2002 Turnbull et al., 2002, White, Marr, Ellis,
Audette
, &
Algozzine
, 2001).

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Build Administrative Supports


The building
-
level administrator should be involved
in the planning process by participating as
an active
member of the building leadership team

and
establishing a system of regular communication
between the team, staff, and district
-
level
administration

regarding proposed changes


Sufficient supports must be allocated for a sustained
SWPBS implementation
Recall: “We may not have the
resources to make this as successful as other schools.”


(Feuerborn, 2011)

Build Knowledge


Creating readiness among staff requires building knowledge of
the
conceptual underpinnings
and the
procedural components
of
SWPBS.


When staff have a deep understanding of the principles of
SWPBS, it is likely they will have a
higher confidence in their
ability

to implement those principles.


Effective professional development adheres to best practices in
adult learning, e.g. modeling, opportunities for practice, peer
mentoring or coaching, and frequent performance feedback
(
Kratochwill
,
Volpiansky
, Clements, & Ball, 2007).


See also Handbook of Positive Behavior Support (
Freeman,
Lohrmann
,
Irvin, Kincaid,
Vossler
, & Ferro, J. 2009).

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Build on Existing Capacity


Inventory current practices to identify those that are
consistent with SWPBS.


Aligning current, effective practices to SWPBS not only
builds upon existing capacities and respects the activities of
staff, but it also reduces the amount of change necessary for
implementation

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Nature
vs

Nurture


Is it the ability to effectively
manage behavior innate or can it
be learned?


Professional development
significantly improves teacher
behavior management and student
behavior
(
Marzano
, 2003)

Oh, I’m just
not a natural
with behavior
management.

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Build a Shared Vision


School systems are comprised of many individuals with their
own unique set of personal experiences and goals for
students.


Identifying a shared vision or a common set of goals is a
critical, unifying step to implementing systemic change such
as SWPBS (George, White, &
Schlaffer
, 2007).



The creation of a shared vision should involve the whole
staff.


Recall the statement, “I feel like I am doing what I need to do, but I
wonder about the level of implementation schoolwide.”


(Feuerborn, 2011)

Build Opportunities for Dialogue


Misperceptions, misunderstandings, and outright
disagreement with the philosophy of SWPBS may
be particularly complex barriers to
implementation (
Flanery
, et al., 2009;
Lohrmann
,
et al., 2008).


We suggest identifying and addressing these
misperceptions, misunderstandings, and theoretical
differences and
proactively
by addressing them
through
open conversations about behavior
and SWPBS.

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Possible Topics for Discourse


“… effective and ineffective teachers
do not differ

much with
respect to
how they handle discipline
problems. Instead, they
differ with respect to the number of discipline problems they
encounter, the
effective teachers having fewer problems.
..Effective teachers are likely to focus on antecedent control
and establish a structure such that problems are less likely to
occur”
(Elliot, Witt,
Kratochwill
, &
Stoiber
, 2002. p. 244).

If there is anything that we wish to change in the child, we
should first examine it and see whether it is not something
that could better be changed in ourselves.
--
Carl Jung

(Feuerborn, 2011)

The Effectiveness of encouraging social
-
behavioral expectations


Teacher reaction &
tangible recognition


effect sizes range from



-
.82 to
-
.997

(
Marzano
, 2003)

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Build Ownership


I
NFORM
--
staff are kept abreast of new
information and possible changes.


I
NVOLVE

--
staff know their voices will be heard,
and they will be part of the decision
-
making
process.


A
CKNOWLEDGE
--
the efforts of staff are
acknowledge and both small and large successes
are celebrated

(Feuerborn, 2011)

Resources:


Positive Behavior Intervention and Support
http://pbis.org


Florida:
http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/


llinois
:
http://pbisillinois.org



Arizona:
www.pbisaz.org/



Maryland:
www.pbismaryland.org/



Nebraska:
www.npbis.org/



Northwest:
http://www.pbisnetwork.org/



Stages of
Concern:
http
://
www.sedl.org
/
cbam




(Feuerborn, 2011)

Contact

Laura
Feuerborn


University of Washington,
Tacoma


feuerl@u.washington.edu

(Feuerborn, 2011)

References available upon request

feuerl@u.washington.edu


(Feuerborn, 2011)