CHAPTER 12 - TeacherWeb

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Dec 11, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

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Instructor's Manual: Chapter 12

103

Chapter
1
2

Food, Soil, and Pest Management

Summary

1.

Even though food production has leveled off in the last 25 years, the world still produces enough food to meet
the basic nutritional needs of people. However, the food cannot be evenly dis
tributed throu
ghout the world
,

leading to malnutrition and starvation.
Many of these deaths come from malnutrition
, which

lead
s

to a

lack of
resistance to diseases. Modern agricultural techniques
create significant

environmental
harm
,

but the green
revolution is also re
sponsible for large increases in agricultural productivity
.



2.

Three systems produce foods for human consumption. Croplands produce mostly grains, about 77% of the
world’s food. Rangelands provide meat, about 16% of the world’s food. Ocean fisheries supp
ly about 7% of
the world’s food.


3.

Soils are degraded and eroded by water, wind, and people. Soil erosion is primarily caused by flowing water
and wind.
Human activities
,

such as farming, logging, construction, off
-
road vehicles, etc.
,

also disturb soi
l and
hasten

erosion. In much soil there is also salt buildup and waterlogging. Crops can be planted today
with less

soil

disturbance

through conservation
-
tillage, tillage, contour farming
,

and strip farming. Farmers may also use
cover crops to help hold t
he soil in place. Several crops planted between trees and shrubs, alley cropping, help
preserve soil and its productivity. And windbreaks are used to prevent soil

from

being blown away.
Conservation and fertilization can be used to restore soil fertility
,

but fertilizing with commercial pesticides
brings its own set of problems.


4.

The green revolution uses particular methods to raise crops. Monocultures are developed and planted, bred
selectively
,

or genetically engineered to produce high yields of partic
ular crops. Large amounts of fertilizer,
pesticides
,

and water are added to the crops. Yields of crops are increased through multiple cropping
throughout the year. The second green revolution since 1967 involved using fast
-
growing dwarf varieties of
wheat
and rice in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Traditional agriculture
:

uses interplanting,
several crops grown together on the same area of land; uses agroforestry
,

which grows crops and trees
together; and applies polyculture
,

where variou
s plants are planted together but mature at different times.


5.

Food production can be increased by using crossbreeding techniques on similar organisms and using genetic
engineering on different organisms. Genetic engineering, including using advanced tis
sue culture techniques, is
growing in use; but many people are concerned about the potential harm such crops may cause. Irrigating more
land and cultivating more land are additional solutions but they may not prove sustainable. Rangelands can be
managed mo
re efficiently
,

with the land area better protected; but
a meat
-
based diet requires substantially more
resources than a plant
-
based diet
. Overfishing and habitat degradation dominate the marine environment; better
management of this food source and protect
ion of the marine environment would ensure continued availability
of fish worldwide.


6
.

More sustainable agricultural systems can be created by reducing resource throughput and working with
nature. Technologies based on ecological knowledge are used to
increase crop production, to control pests
,

and
to build soil fertility. Such low
-
input organic farming is
often
more friendly to the environment by
u
sing
less
energy than
conventional farming demands,

and
by
improving soil fertility. Low
-
input organic far
ming is also
more profitable for farmers.


104

Food, Soil, and Pest Management

7.

Pesticides are chemicals that kill or control populations of organisms we consider undesirable. Types include
insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides. The advantages of using pesticides includ
e the fact that
they save lives, increase food supplies, lower food cost, increase profit for farmers, and work fast. The
disadvantages include the acceleration of pest resistance to pesticides and pesticides dispersing widely,
harming wildlife, and threat
ening human lives. The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
established in 1947 and amended in 1972, as well as the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act regulate pesticide
use in the United States. Alternatives to pesticides include integrated p
est management, cultivation practices,
food irradiation, genetic engineering, biological control, hot water, and pheromones. These all reduce pesticide
use but may prove timely, costly, and not as reliable.



Key Questions and Concepts

12
-
1
What is
f
ood
s
e
curity and why is it difficult to attain?

A.

Global food production has stayed ahead of population growth, but one in six people in developing
countries cannot grow or buy the food they need.

B.

Some people cannot grow or buy enough food to meet their basi
c energy needs and to get enough protein
and other key ingredients. People need fairly large amounts of macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates, fats)
and smaller amounts of micronutrients (vitamins such as A, C, E) and minerals (iron, iodine, calcium).

C.

One in three people has a deficiency of one or more vitamins and minerals, especially vitamin A, iron, and
iodine.

D.

Droughts, floods, wars, and other catastrophic events can lead to severe food shortages that cause mass
starvation, many deaths, and econo
mic and social disruption.

E.

In the developed world, the problem is overnutrition
, which

leads to obesity,
reduced life quality, poor
health, and premature death.


12
-
2 How is food produced
?

A.

Food production from croplands, rangelands, ocean fisheries,

and aquaculture has increased dramatically.

B.

Wheat, rice
,

and corn provide more than half of the calories in the food consumed by the world’s people.

C.

About 80% of the world’s food supply is produced by industrialized agriculture.

D
.

Many farmers in d
eveloping countries use low
-
input agriculture to grow a variety of crops on each plot of
land.

E. The large increases in crop production over the last half of the 20
th

century are the result of the green
revolution. This includes selective breeding of cro
ps, use of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation
,

and
multiple cropping systems.


CASE STUDY
:

The United States uses industrialized agriculture

and green revolution tec
h
niques

to
produce about 17% of the world’s gr
ain.


CORE CASE STUDY
:

New techniques in
genetic engineering offer new possibilities for improving
nutrition and productivity
,

but these techniques also generate
concerns (see

T
eaching
T
ips

below)
.


12
-
3 What environmental problems arise from food production?

A.

Soil erosion lowers soil fertility

and can overload nearby bodies of water with eroded sediment. Soil is
eroding faster than it is forming on more than one
-
third of the world’s cropland.

B.

About one
-
third of the world’s land has lower productivity because of drought and human activities
that
reduce or degrade topsoil.

C
.

Repeated irrigation can reduce crop yields by causing salt buildup in the soil and waterlogging of
croplands.

D.

Industrialized food production requires large amounts of energy
.

E.

New genetically modified food crops c
ould have unintended negative ecological consequences including
the creation of

superweeds


that are resistant to herbicides (see
T
eaching
T
ips

below
)
.

F.

Agriculture has cause
d

large declines in biodiversity
.

G.


Meat and
a
quaculture systems have numero
us environmental impacts
.



Instructor's Manual: Chapter 12

105

12
-
4 How can we protect crops from pests more sustainably?

A.

Organisms found in nature control populations of most pest species as part of the earth’s free ecological
services.

B.

We use chemicals to repel or kill pest organis
ms as plants have done for millions of years. To help control
pest organisms we have developed a variety of pesticides.

C.

Pesticide use has increased 50
-
fold and toxicity has increase 10

100 times. Many pesticides are persistent
in the environment and hav
e
significant
impacts on human and animal
health (
See Rachel Carson
Biography pg
.

295
)
.

D.

Modern pesticides save lives, increase food supplies,

and

increase profits for farmers.

E.

Pesticides do no
t

work forever
,

as pest species evolve resistance to par
ticular chemicals (coevolution)
.

F.

Pesticides can promote genetic resistance to their effects, wipe out natural enemies of pest species, create
new pest species, end up in the environment, and sometimes harm wildlife and people.

G
.

There are cultivation,
biological, and ecological alternatives to conventional chemical pesticides. A number
of methods are available.

1.

Fool the pest using cultivation practices such as crop rotation.

2.

Provide homes for pest enemies.

3.

Implant genetic resistance.

4.

Bring i
n natural enemies.

5.

Use insect pheromones to lure pest insects into traps or to lure natural predators to crop fields.

6.

Use hormones that disrupt the normal insect life cycle and prevent them from reaching maturity. The
disadvantages are that they take

weeks to kill an insect, are often ineffective if the infestation is large
,

and must be applied at the right time in the life cycle.

7.

Scald them. Hot water sprayed on crops has worked well on cotton, alfalfa, and potato fiends and citrus
groves.

H
.

Inte
grated pest management (IPM) is an ecological approach to pest control

that

uses a mix of cultivation
and biological methods, and small amounts of selected chemical pesticides as a last resort.


12
-
5 How can we improve food security?

A. Use government pol
icies to improve food production and security.

B.

Simple and relatively inexpensive actions can have large impacts. One
-
half to two
-
thirds of nutrition
-
related childhood death could be prevented for $5

10 per child per year.


1.
Provide i
mmunization
.


2.
E
ncourage breast
-
feeding
.


3.
P
revent dehydration
.


4.
P
revent blindness with a vitamin A capsule twice a year
,

at a cost of 75 cents per child
.


5.
P
rovide family planning services
.


6.
I
ncrease education for women
.


12
-
6 How can we produce food more
sustainably?

A.

Sustainable
a
griculture through
s
oil
c
onservation

Soil conservation seeks ways to reduce soil erosion and
restore soil fertility, mostly by keeping the soil covered with vegetation.




CASE STUDY
:

Soil erosion in the United States during
the dust bowl years lead to dramatic changes in
agricultural policy
.


B
.

Restore soil fertility using organic fertilizers, reduce soil salinization and desertification, use sustainable
aquaculture techniques.

C
.

Eat lower on the food chain and slow popul
ation growth
.


SCIENCE FOCUS
:

Develop new agricultural techniques

sustainable polycultures
.



106

Food, Soil, and Pest Management

Teaching Tips


Large Lecture Classes:



Use individual response systems (clickers) or show of hands to poll the class on whether they favor the use of
genetical
ly modified organisms. Repeat poll after presenting the pros and cons of this technology. Have students
discuss their opinion with their neighbor in the class for
two

minutes. Poll the class again.


Ask the class using response systems (as above) if we in
the U
.
S
.

would
have an ethical or moral obligation to
prevent hunger if the cost was $5000 per U
.
S
.

resident per year. Ask again if the cost was $5 per U
.
S
.

resident per
year. Pose the question of how to balance moral obligations against practical consider
ations. Link this back to policy
and ethics chapter.


Smaller

Lecture

Classes:



Ask for thoughts on the use of genetically modified organisms. Have a
three
-
minute mini
-
debate between two
students by assigning each student a pro or con GMO perspective. Set

ground rules about how the debate should
occur (e.g.
,

no raised voices
,

etc
.
).


Have the class develop a sustainable agricultural system for their location. What would be involved in this system?
How would fertilizers be added? Where would the water co
me from? What kind of crop rotation and IPM system
would be appropriate to the class location?



Key Terms

animal manure

(p.
305
)

a
quaculture

(p.
285
)

chronic undernutrition


(p. 27
7
)

chronic
mal
nutrition

(p. 277)

commercial inorganic
fertilizer

(p.
305
)

compost

(p.
305
)

desertification
(p.
288
)

famine
(p. 27
8
)

fisheries

(p.
285
)

food security

(p. 27
6
)

food
in
security

(p. 276)

green manure

(p.
305
)

green revolution

(p. 282
)

high
-
input agriculture

(p. 27
9
)

hunger

(p. 27
7
)

industrialized agriculture

(p. 27
9
)

integrated pest management

(
IPM
) (p. 300)

organic fertilizer

(p.
305
)

organic agriculture
(p. 307)

overnutrition

(p. 278)

pest

(p. 29
3
)

p
esticides
(p. 294)

plantation agriculture
(p. 279)

polyculture

(p. 2
80
)

salinization
(p. 28
8
)

s
lash
-
and
-
burn agricul
ture
(p.280)

soil
(p. 281)

soil conservation

(p.
302
)

soil erosion

(p. 2
87
)

traditional intensive agriculture

(p. 2
80
)

traditional subsistence
agriculture

(p. 280
)

waterlogging

(p. 28
9
)

windbreaks

(p.

282)

Term Paper
Research
Topics

1.

Agricultural system
s: inorganic fertilizers, history of development of one crop or livestock species, green
revolution, crops with designer genes, politics of American agriculture, feedlot beef cattle production in the
Corn Belt, range livestock production in the American We
st, urban growth and the loss of prime cropland,
modern food storage and transportation, comparisons of environmental impacts of traditional and industrial
agricultural practices.


2.

Human impact on the soil: overgrazing and desertification, acid depositi
on as a threat to soil quality, sediment
as a water pollutant, irrigation impacts.


3.

Soil conservation and fertility strategies: conservation
-
tillage farming, organic and inorganic fertilizers,
agroforestry.


Instructor's Manual: Chapter 12

107

4.

Hunger and food distribution: history of g
reat famines, malnutrition and learning, the geography of
malnutrition.


5.

Fishing: overfishing, aquaculture, the Peruvian anchovy story.


6.

Pesticides: pesticides as hazardous waste; pesticide hazards to agricultural workers; chlorinated hydrocarbons;
o
rganophosphates and carbamates; pyrethroids and rotenoids; biological amplification of persistent pesticides;
DDT and malaria control; Agent Orange; the Bhopal accident; pesticide residues in foods; pesticide runoff as a
threat to agriculture.


7.

Pesticid
e alternatives: integrated pest management; food irradiation; genetic control by sterilization: the
screwworm fly; pheromones;

Bacillus thuringensis
.


8
.

Sustainable agriculture
:

organic home gardening
,

neglected edible plants
,

composting
,

crop rotation
,

o
rganic
fertilizers
,

windbreaks.


9
.

Global

p
olicy
:

UN food conferences; 1982 UN Conference on the Law of the Sea; agricultural training and
research centers in the developing countries; Georges Banks: conflict between Canada and Spain.


10
.

National

p
olicy
: Soil Conservation Service; policies, such as farm bills, which affect soil quality.



Discussion

Topics

1.

What is the best way to manage food distribution for foreign aid?


2.

Is using lifeboat ethics the best way to decide who gets to eat?


3.

What are

the pros and cons of Aldo Leopold's land ethic?


4.

Is the rapid deterioration of agricultural soils in the United States a sufficiently serious problem to warrant
strict federal laws with heavy fines for farmers or ranchers failing to employ wise soil
-
co
nservation methods?
Arrange a class debate on this issue.


5.

Evaluate pesticide advertising. What does it tell? What doesn't it tell?


6.

Which do you prefer: unblemished fruits and vegetables that may contain pesticide residues or blemished fruits
and ve
getables without pesticide residues?


7.

Rachel Carson's
Silent Spring.


8.

Which is better: a broad
-
spectrum or a narrow
-
spectrum pesticide?


9.

Should pesticides banned in the United States be exported to other countries?


Activities and Projects

1.

Have

your students locate and bring to class photographs, paintings, or history passages describing the effects
of hunger and starvation.


2
.

Take a class field trip to several farms or ranches in your locale that offer you the opportunity to contrast
excellen
t soil management practices with poor ones.


3
.

With your class, visit several construction sites in your locale. Look for evidence of human
-
accelerated soil
erosion and methods or practices employed to minimize it.

108

Food, Soil, and Pest Management

4
.

Invite a county agricultural agent to

your class to discuss local agricultural problems and opportunities. What
major changes in agricultural practices are likely to occur in the coming decades? With what consequences?
What types of farming activities are carried on in your locale? What is th
e balance between large and small
farms? What are the major products? How much of the produce is used in local areas? How much is shipped
out and where does it go?


5
.

Invite an organic farmer or experienced organic gardener to address your class on the su
bject of alternatives to
energy
-
intensive agriculture. If possible, arrange a field trip to investigate organic farming practices.


6
.

As a class, plan a daily menu for a family of four receiving minimum welfare payments (consult local welfare
agencies for

current payment levels and use current food prices). Ask your students how they would like
subsisting solely on this diet.


7
.

As a class exercise, determine what percentage of your diet

as individuals and as a group

consists of meat.
What are some ecolog
ical implications of this amount of meat in the diet? What are the health implications?
What are the alternatives?


8
.

Arrange a class debate on the proposition that food
-
exporting nations should use population control and
resource development as criteria
to determine which of the food
-
importing nations will receive top priority.
Conduct a mock tria
l

and follow it with mock appeals hearings for denied nations.


9
.

With the help of a chemist or other appropriate consultant, have your students evaluate the in
gredients, uses,
and warning labels of a representative sample of pesticides sold for home and garden applications. Are the
instructions for use, storage, and disposal adequate? How much additional information should be supplied to
further reduce the likel
ihood of harm to people and wildlife?


1
0
.

Are people generally aware of and concerned about the hazards of using pesticides on a large
-
scale, long
-
term
basis? As a class project, conduct a survey of students or consumers to address these and related quest
ions.
What do the results imply for the role that education should play in dealing with pesticide
-
related problems?


1
1
.

Have your students interview the college landscaping staff about which pesticides, if any, they use on campus.
What tradeoffs did they
consider when deciding to use those pesticides?



Attitudes and Values

1.

Do we have a moral obligation to prevent malnutrition and starvation? If so, how should we act on this
obligation?


2
.

Was the green revolution worth it? In what ways has it improved

the human condition and in what ways has it
hurt human society? On balance, is our agricultural system improving the quality of life on earth?


3
.


What obligation do we have to prevent environmental harm in our practice of agriculture? How do you
persona
lly balance the need to produce food against the potential environmental costs of agriculture?


4.

What are the ethical issues associated with creation of genetically modified organisms? How does the
precautionary principle play into consideration of GMO
use?



ABC News Videos


Desertification in China
;

Biology in the Headlines, 2005; DVD; ISBN 0534405894


Fat Man Walking
;

Biology in the Headlines, 2006; DVD; ISBN 0495016020

Food Allergy Increase
;

Biology in the Headlines, 2006; DVD; ISBN 0495016020

The

Problem with Pork
;

Biology in the Headlines, 2005; DVD; ISBN 0534405894


Instructor's Manual: Chapter 12

109

Additional Video resources

American Experience: Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring

(PBS Documentary Series)

“Her warning sparked a revolution in environmental policy and created a new ec
ological consciousness.”


American Experience: Surviving the dust bowl

(PBS Documentary Series)

A look at the
catastrophic drought, the farming techniques, and environmental impact.

Main website:
http
://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/dustbowl/

Teacher’s Guide:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/dustbowl/



Cane Toads: An Unnatural Histor
y (Documentary, 1988)

A documentary detailing the spread of Hawaiian sugar
-
cane toads through Australia in a botched effort to introduce
them as counter pests
.


Fed Up! Genetic Engineering, Industrial Agriculture and Sustainable Alternatives

(2002
)

Using Interviews and archival footage
,

this documentary provides an overview of c
urrent American food
production
.

http://www.wholesomegoodness.org/movies.html



Frontline: World,
Tortillanomics

(Web
-
based slide shows with audio, 2008
,

Online
)

How did the surge in American co
rn
-
based biofuel research affect the staple food supply of Mexico
?

http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/fellows/mexico_2008/


The Future of Food

(2005)

This documentary takes a look at th
e economic and political forces behind genetically modified foods.

http://www.thefutureoffood.com/


The Meatrix Series

(Animated, 2003
,

Online
)

An a
nimated series about factory farms,
which focuses

on
how an
imals for meat, dairy, and eggs
are raised.

http://www.themeatrix.com/


NOVA/Frontline: Harvest of Fear
(Video series
,

PBS, 2001)

This episode explores the debate over genetically modified foods.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/harvest/


NOVA/Frontline: The Desert Doesn't Bloom Here Anymore
(Video series
,

NOVA
,

,

PBS, 2001)

This episode examin
e
s

water and irrigation policies and how they affect soil quality

and can lead t
o desertification
.


Putting Aside Pesticides

(Documentary, 1987)

EPA film on the
long
-
term effects of pesticides and exploration of alternatives
.


Common Ground: Farming and Wildlife

(National Audubon Documentary, 1987)

The debate between dividing farmer
s and environmentalists over the use of chemicals.


Web Resources

U
niversity of
C
alifornia

Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education
Program
http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/Concept.htm


U
.
S
.

Govern
ment


C
itizen resources for agricultural questions, agricultural statistics and other issues.

http://www.usa.gov/Citizen/Topics/Environment_Agriculture/Agriculture.
shtml

110

Food, Soil, and Pest Management

Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education



Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program funded by the the
Cooperative State Research,
Education and Extension Service
, U.
S. Department of Agriculture. Contains video and photo links for use in the
classroom
.

http://www.sare.org/coreinfo/educators.htm



Suggested Answers to End of Chapter Questions

The following are
examples of the material that should be contained in possible student answers to the end of
chapter Critical Thinking questions. They represent only a summary overview and serve to highlight the core
concepts that are addressed in the text. It should be an
ticipated that the students will provide more in
-
depth and
detailed responses to the questions depending on an individual instructor

s stated expectations.


1.

List three ways you could apply
material from this chapter

to make your lifestyle more environment
ally
sustainable.


Answers will vary but could include buying organic foods, supporting local agriculture
,

and purchasing foods
from organizations that support sustainable ag
r
iculture.


2.

What two safeguards would you want in place before planting large area
s of the world with golden rice (
Core
Case Study
)?


First, a cost
-
benefit analysis should be undertaken. Is it better to plant areas with this monoculture or should we
continue to plant diverse crops and find a way to fund the distribution of Vitamin A tab
lets to children? This
question has to be researched and looked at from every angle before any decision is made.


Second, conduct tests to determine just how much Vitamin A is absorbed by the body and enters the
metabolism by eating the rice. If the answer

is very little, then the mass planting should not be undertaken and
other ways to provide Vitamin A to the population should be considered.


3.

What are the three most important actions you would take to reduce
chronic
hunger

and malnutrition
:

(a)
in the
cou
ntry where you live
,

and
(b)
in the world?


(a) In the U
.
S
.

I would: provide more food subsidy programs to underprivileged people, especially those with
children in the household; educate about good nutrition and try to move people away from eating “junk”

food
;

and provide free health care and immunizations especially for children and the elderly.


(b) Globally I would: initiate programs that alleviate poverty; increase education of women
,

including nutrition
and family planning programs
;

and provide sourc
es of clean drinking water for children and adults.


4.

Explain why you support or opposed greatly increased use of
:

a) genetically modified food
,

and b) polyculture
.


Answers will vary but may include potential nutritional benefits of GMOs, decreased use of
pesticides and
potential increases in agricultural productivity. Note that none of these are completely clear
-
cut. Polyculture
can aid biodiversity, promote genetic diversity in food croups
,

and may benefit smaller farms.


Instructor's Manual: Chapter 12

111

5.

Suppose you live near a coastal

area and a company wants to use a fairly large area of coastal marshland for an
aquaculture operation. If you were an elected local official, would you support or oppose such a project?
Explain. What safeguards

or regulations

would you impose on the opera
tion?


Supporting or opposing the project will depend on student perspectives. Issues include such things as mangrove
destruction, water pollution
,

and potential escape of organisms (genetically modified or otherwise) from the
operation. Safeguards would b
e aimed at addressing these issues by protecting native mangroves and wetlands
and improving management of wastes.


6.

Explain how widespread use of a pesticide can
:

(a)
increase the damage done by a particular pest
,

and
(b)
create
new pest organisms.
If incr
eased mosquito populations threatened you with malaria or West Nile virus, would
you spray DDT in your yard and inside your home to reduce the risk? Explain. What are the alternatives?


(a) The target pest could develop resistance to the pesticide. All the

susceptible members would be killed
,

but a
small number may be genetically resistant to the pesticide and over several breeding generations could become
a bigger problem than the initial outbreak. This is called a resurgence of the pest.


(b) The pesticid
e could wipe out a species that may be a natural predator of another organism. Without the
natural predator to hold the other organism population in check, their numbers could increase to the point that
they now become a problem. This way an organism that
previously was not considered to be a pest has now
been turned into a “pest
.



No, I would not spray DDT. I would use mosquito nets to sleep under in bedrooms, put screens on all doors and
windows, make sure that there are no containers outside where stand
ing water could collect, install many bat
houses around the property, use an insect repellant like DEET, and wear long sleeves and long pants when I go
outside.


7.

According to physicist
and philosopher
Albert Einstein, “Nothing will benefit human health and

increase
chances of survival of life on Earth as much as the evolution to a vegetarian diet.” Are you willing to eat less
meat or no meat? Explain.


Answers will depend on the student

the argument to eat less meat (or different types of meat) however make
s
a great deal of sense from an environmental and resource use perspective.


8.

Imagine that everyone in the world began eating only locally produced foods tomorrow. Describe a benefit and
a harm that would arise from such a change to
(a)
yourself,
(b)
your c
ommunity, and
(c)
the world.


Benefits of locally produced foods include reduced energy and expense of transport, support for smaller, local
agricultural activities and less potential for illnesses such as E.Coli contamination that have been associated
wit
h large commercial farming activities.


Some drawbacks of locally produced foods might include limited supply of foods, particularly in certain areas
and more potential for shortages in food supply related to local conditions such as drought or disease. S
tudent
answers should have some combination of the factors above (or others) in the responses.


9.

Congratulations! You are in charge of the world. List the three most important features of
:

(a)
your agricultural
policy,
(b)
your policy to reduce soil erosion
,
(c)
your policy for more sustainable harvesting and farming of
fish and shellfish, and
(d)
your global pest management strategy.


(a) Agriculture: crop rotation
,

efficient irrigation, and use of organic fertilizers.


(b) Soil erosion: limit grazing; pro
mote contour farming and strip cropping; use no
-
till agriculture, and many
other soil conservation strategies.


112

Food, Soil, and Pest Management

(c) Fisheries: eliminate government subsidies on commercial fishing
,

mandate fish catches below the maximum
sustainable yield, and establish a g
lobal monitoring organization.



(d) Global pest management: use biological controls
,

introduce integrated pest management (IPM) strategies,
and move towards polycultures rather than monocultures.


10.

List two questions that you would like to have answered as

a result of reading this chapter.


Student answers will vary and provide a good starting point for class discussion.