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IT Projects Hub


Safari Encylopedia

2013


SRS of B
-
Tech Final Year Project

Page
1


















IT Projects Hub


Safari Encylopedia

2013


SRS of B
-
Tech Final Year Project

Page
2



1.
Introduction

Wild life lovers can look forward to a great time in India. It is the land of the tiger and the elephant, the
peacock and the rhinoceros. It has preserved vast tracts of forests and habitats in its 80 National Parks and
441 Wildlife Sanctuaries offering a
fascinating diversity of terrain, flora and fauna. The most pleasant
time to visit any sanctuary in the country is from October to March, except for the Dachigam National
Park in Kashmir which can be visited in summer All wild life sanctuaries are easily a
ccessible by car and
all have accomodation within their premises or nearby. So wherever you are travelling in India, do take a
break and visit a wildlife park and see some of India's abundance of animals and birds.

India has a rich heritage of wildlife as

well as a long history and tradition of conservation. The
conservation ethic was imbibed in the sylvan surroundings of the
ashramas

of our sages which were the
seats of learning in the country’s ancient past. The first recorded game laws were promulgated
by
Kautilya in his
Arthashastra

in the third century BC. Indian mythology is equally profuse in references to
our regard and love for wild animals. Different animals were associated with different Gods and were
thus provided with religious sanctity and ens
ured conservation. India is also unique in the richness and
variety of its wildlife. Though the love and regard for wildlife is a part of India’s culture, yet it is
confronted with the sad paradox of fast disappearing wildlife.

2.
Propose of
Safari Encyclo
pedia

Today there are 504 National Wildlife Refuges in all 50 states. Hunting is allowed in 272 of these
preserves, most allow fishing and all offer abundant opportunities for non
-
consumptive wildlife viewing
and other outdoor recreational activities which

pump money into local economies.

*According to the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, 108 million people, over age 16 take part in wildlife
related recreation each year. Annual expenditures by these participants in 1991 were $59 billion, with
over $40 million
spent on hunting and fishing.

*Americans spend $18 billion a year to watch wildlife, triple what they spend on movies or sporting
events. Birdwatchers alone spend $5.2 billion a year according to studies by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife
Service.

*A study of the

Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge in Hildago County, Texas found that birdwatchers
visiting the refuge pumped $14.4 million in to the local economy. A similar study found that birders spent
$9.7 million on their hobby while visiting Virginia's Chincoteag
ue National Wildlife Refuge.

*According to a 1994 Roper Survey on Outdoor Recreation, Fishing is the "favorite" recreational activity
among men (19%). In 1991, anglers spent $24 billion or an average of $674 each.

*In 1986 alone, 30 million fishermen in th
e U.S. spent $301 million on licenses and U.S. hunters spent
$322 million on licenses.

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*A 1988 study found that hunting, fishing and wildlife viewing results in $2.9 billion of annual spending
in California alone. This generates $1.6 billion in personal
income to California business owners and
employees.

*According to the California Office of Economic Research, campers spent over $2 billion in California in
1990. This spending particularly benefits rural areas.

*As open space areas, wetlands are ideal for

sports, recreation, education and wildlife viewing. The most
popular activities are fishing, boating, birdwatching, photography, swimming, hiking, and wildlife
viewing.

*A 1990 study conducted to measure the recreational value of 3 million acres of wetlan
ds in Louisiana
found that recreational users of the wetlands spend $118 million annually on wetland related activities

*A survey of expenditures associated with recreational use of Maine's St. Croix River found that anglers
spent over four times as much p
er person per day in the local economy as general vacationers. The
Economic Impact of Recreational Use of the St. Croix River, 1987


3.

The Requirements of a
Safari Encyclopedia

If
we

were of the opinion that cultivated plants and domesticated animals is w
hat wildlife consists of, you
are mistaken. Wildlife, in fact, comprises of the innumerous varieties of wild plants, animals, fungi and
microorganisms that exist on our planet earth, rather than just cultivated plants and domesticated animals.
Knowingly or

unknowingly, we largely depend on this wildlife for every elementary requirement in our
life. The food we eat, the clothes we wear, the medicines we consume, a variety of building materials
used for construction, numerous chemicals used for manufacturing
our necessities, all are extracted from
the wildlife existing around us. A study by the American Association for the Advancement of Science
indicates that as many as 40,000 species of plants, animals, fungi and microscopic animals benefit us in
some way or

the other. To know the various benefits that this wildlife provides us, read on further



3.1)
Benefits To People

Wildlife and nature have largely been associated with humans for numerous emotional and social reasons.
A simple stroll around the park amid
st some birds provides a fresh breath of life and charges our batteries.
Apart from a bird feeder in the backyard, we can also take up other active pastimes, such as hiking,
hunting, canoeing or wildlife photographing to relieve our parched nerves. Since p
rehistoric times,
animals have been highly useful to us in providing food, clothing and source of income.



3.2)
Benefits To Natural Processes

Wildlife plays an essential role in the ecological and biological processes that are yet again significant to
life. The normal functioning of the biosphere depends on endless interactions amongst animals, plants,
and microorganisms. This, in turn, maintain
s and enhances human life further. To add on, these ecological
processes are vital for agriculture, forestry, fisheries and other endeavors that support human life. Besides,
there are several biological processes wherein wildlife plays a key role, such as
pollinization,
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germination, seed dispersal, soil generation, nutrient cycling, predation, habitat maintenance, waste
breakdown, and pest control.



3.3)
Benefits to Science, Agriculture, & Medicine

Studies indicate that woodpeckers are capable of destroyin
g 90% of codling moth larvae residing under
the bark of trees. This shows the significance of wildlife and wildlife habitat for preserving genetic
diversity. Hence, places where agriculture, forests, and fisheries depend on crops or stocks can ensure that
such living resources are enough to withstand the ever
-
increasing list of threats. Further, in medicine,
development of new drugs and treatments are largely dependent on wildlife and wildlife habitat.
Interestingly, most pharmaceutical products are a resul
t of discovering or developing wildlife species and
not discoveries through the traditional chemistry principles. Today, most medicinal remedies contain at
least one ingredient derived from a wild plant or animal.


4)
Scope

Implementation, testing and docu
mentation of
Safari Encyclopedia

is as follows:

4.
1) Website Designing

Website shall contains static pages which contain the project information, login information
, creations a
new user

of the project.


4.
2)
SE
(Admin)

SE
(
Safari
Encyclopedia
) is a web based application, integrated with the website as mentioned above.
SE

contains
Animal Management
,
User Management
,
Online Adopt and Donate

and
Acts of Wildlife
.



4.
3)
SE(User
)

SE(User
) is a part of
SE
(Admin) and also integrated with the
Project. Th
is application facilitates the user
,
who
fill the registration part is

in the SE
(Admin) and a valid username and pass
word is to provided by the
form

to login for view his own details and

adopt/donate a animal and also view all acts about of wild
life
.


Functionality in Scope

This section lists for all functionality requested, whether it is in scope, e.g. Fully Complient(FC), or partly
in scope, e.g. Partly Compliant(PC), or not in scope
-

Non Compliant(NC). Dependencies(D) for defined
compliance,
e.g. FC/PC/NC like third party software will be described if any.

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Functionality

Compliancy (FC = Fully Compliant, PC =
PartlyCompliant, NC= Non Compliant) and D
= Dependency if any

1.

Functionality Descriptions


The general pages/link that has to be
integrated
with the project are:

a)

Home page with Project Details

1)

Home page information contains

2)

Header with logo.

3)

Menu
Links(Home, About US, Adopt,
Donate, Acts, Animal, Register
)
.

4)

Body content contains : Project Details
which is static

and search option for
animals

and login

b)

About Us

1)

Static Information about the projects


c)


Adopt


1)
Dynamic

information about the
user

who is
adopts the an
imal
s.

d)


Donate


1)
Dynamic information about the user who is
donates the animals.

e)


Acts


1)
Dynamic information about the animals acts.

f)

Animals

1)

Dynamic information about animals.


Admin login is fix
.

FC

2.

SE
(Admin)


Add New
Animal Category

FC

List /Update/Remove
Animal Category

FC

Add New
Animal

FC

List/Update/Remove
Animal

FC

View
User List

FC

Remove User

FC

Add New Acts.

FC

List
/Update/Remove Acts

FC

View Adoption List

FC

View Donation List

FC

Take Action about adoption and donation

FC

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3.

SE(user
)


Register

FC

Login to Application

FC

Update Profile

FC

Change Password

FC

Fill Form for adopt animal

FC

View adopt status

FC

Fill Form for donate animal

FC

View donate status

FC

L
ogout

FC


5.
Implementation Approach

Based on the compliant matrix in section 3 for functionally and requirements, we will follow the
implementation approach described in this section.

5.1 General Approach



All components will be developed using Java Techonogies with Netbeans 6.9 IDE.



The mysql 5.0 Server shall be used for RDBMS.



The Apache Server 2.2.11 shall be used



Application compatib
ility for all the application package with following environment:

1)

Windows XP (32 bit and 64 bit)

2)

Linux



All visible parts (GUI) are based on JSP/HTML Forms.



Architecture (Components, namespaces, interfaces, etc.) will be taken into account.



All the
passwords shall be stored into the database.











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5.
2

Approach

for Application

























Animals

Register

About Us

Home

Open the Url

Start

Adopt

Donate

Add to
Database


1

Error/Exception

No

Yes

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5.
3

Approach

for SE
(Admin)






















Y

Yes


Yes







Yes

Yes

Admin Login

Start

Is
Authenticate

Yes

No

Donate List

User List

Animal Category

Acts

Animal

Adopt List


Is Added

Yes


Act List


Is
Updated

Yes


Is Added


Category

List


Is
Updated


Is Added


Animal

List


Is
Updated

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5.
4

Approach

for
SE(user
)






















Y

Yes









Yes


Yes


User

Login

Start

Is
Authenticate

Yes

No

Change Password

New Donation

New Adoption

Act List

Animal List


Is Added

Yes


Adoption

List


Is
Updated

Yes


Is Added


Donation

List


Is
Updated

Insert Old Password

Insert New Password

Is old p
assword

Autheticate

Password changed

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4.
TECHNOLOGIES:

4.1
FRONT END:

4.1.1)
J2EE



Java 2 Enterprise Edition is a programming platform part of the Java Platform for developing and
running multitier architecture Java applications, based largely on modular software components running
on an application server.

4.1.2)
TOMCAT
-




It’s an application server which is mostly used in the web
-
applications. It implements the Servlet 2.5
&JSP
2.1 specifications. It’s a cross
-
platform application Server.

4.1.
3) JSP


Java Server Pages(JSP) is a server side Java technology that allows software developers to create
dynamically generated web pages, with HTML, XML or other document types. JSPs are c
ompiled into
Servlets by a JSP compiler.

4.1.
4) SERVLET


Servlets are Java programming language objects that dynamically process requests & construct responses.
The Servlet APIs are contained in the javax.servlet & javax.servlet.http packages. Servlets ca
n be
generated automatically by Java server Pages(JSP) compiler.

4.1.5)
NetBeans



NetBeans is the most comprehensive J2EE IDE() for the open Source netbeans platform.It incorporates
most innovative open standard technologies to provide a development environment for J2EE
WEB,XML,UML & database & a wide array of application server conne
ctors to streamline development
,deployment, testing & portability.It’s a cross
-
platform.

Introduction of Java:
-



Java is pure object oriented programming language, which has derived C syntax and C++ object oriented
programming features. Is compiled and
interpreted language and is platform independent and can do
graphics, networking, multithreading. It was initially called as OAK. Java was conceived by James
Gosling, Patrick Naughton, Chris Warth, Ed Frank, and Mike Sheridan at Sun Microsystems, Inc. in
1
991. Java can used to create two types of programs: application and applets. Application is a program
that runs on your computer, under the operating system of that computer. That is an application created by
Java is more or less like one created using C o
r C++. An applet is an application designed to be
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transmitted over the Internet and executed by a Java
-
compatible Web browser. Java provides the Java
Virtual Machine (JVM).

Java are following list of buzzwords:
-



Simple



Secure



Portable



Object
-
oriented



Robus
t



Multithreading



Architecture
-
neutral



Interpreted



High Performance



Distributed



Dynamic

Java supports the different types of editors are EditPlus, Eclips, NetBean, Notepad. EditPlus editor are
different types of used in editor such as Text, HTML, PHP, JAVA

Script, JAVA, JSP, XML, VBSscript,
C#, C/C++, Perl, .NET Config, CSS. Etc. Most of the Eclipse SDK is "pure" JavaTM code and has no
direct dependence on the underlying operating system. The chief dependence is therefore on the Java 2
Platform itself. The
3.1 release of the Eclipse Project is written and compiled against version 1.4 of the
Java 2 Platform APIs, and targeted to run on version 1.4 of the Java 2 Runtime Environment, Standard
Edition

Java technology are performed the different types of version
are JDK1.2, JDK1.3, JDK1.4, JDK1.5. etc.


4.2 Back

END:

Structure Query Language(SQL)


A query language for RDBMS based on. Non

procedure approach to retrieve record from RDBMS.

SQL was proposed by IBM and got its standardization by ANSI and adopte
d by different corporation
with bit modification.

SQL can be divided into three categories as given below:



DML


Data Manipulation Language.



DCL
-

Data Control language.



DDL


Data Definition language



DML :
-

Primarily used to retrieve the records fro
m RDBMS

SELECT [*|ALL] FROM <TABLE> [WHERE <CONDITION”] <ORDER BY [<FIELD>]

[HAVING<CONDITION>]

insert into <table> ( field1, field2, field3 ) values(values1, values2,values3);

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DDL:
-

Primary used to create tables/indexes etc.

Create table <table name> (

field name1 type1,

field name2 type2,

field name3 type3

);

Drop table < table name >;



DCL:
-

Primarily used for administrative /option operation like creating if user/assignment of
password updation of record/deletion of user/creation of roles/assignment
of access right.

Create user<user name>

Identified by <password>

Grant select, insert on EMP to demo;

Revoke select on EMP from Demo;

In a summarized way it could be concluded that SQL becomes the query engine that resides over the
database engine having
been designed on the client
-
server Approach and provided retrieval of data as
well as operation on RDBMS. By the Application package and web pages.

5.
Scope of The Future Application

This project is made in such a way that it can be easily modified in a m
ore advanced form if there will be
such need. The database of this software maintains the records of the details
, user
, and projects of the
Safari Encyclopedia

. Thus, this record will have a lot of use in future related to any defects. The defects
a
re also revealed in this project


Hence, this project covers all
-
important details regarding the “
Safari Encyclopedia
” therefore in future it
will help to gather such information about the management of the projects. The main scopes are as
follows
-




Any
field can be added & deleted to & from the database.



Storing large amount of data for future point of view.



Reducing manual efforts for maintaining the system.



Reducing the lead
-
time.



It gives correct information about the defect tracking system which has
to be further nterpreted
.

Thus, over all, this entire project has wide application in the future.

6.
Documentation

Documentation is a continuous task in a system development. The analysis and design methods discussed,
have produced documentation which hav
e been useful in both understanding and communicating the
problem area. Thus documentation prompts for action and is not just a record of actions.

NEED FOR DOCUMENTATION


6.1
Increase in the efficiency of training:
-

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The participants undergoing training
can read the documents before training, during training and after
training, which enhances the effectiveness of the training.

6.2
Standardize processing :
-

Procedures should be clearly written down and since everyone is expected to read and follow the same

set
of procedure, this leads to standardization.

6.3
Recover from personal loss :
-

In case some experienced personal quit the organization, other persons need to take over the opereations
without much disruption. In such situation, the existing documentat
iuon in a smooth transition over the
personnel.

6.4
Reduce the cost and the time spent on the maintenance work :
-

As software products need maintenance off and on, the maintenance personnel need to know the basic
design of the system in the shortest time p
ossible. Good documentation is effectively used here.

TYPES OF DOCUMENTATION :
-


1.

TRAINING DOCUMENTATION :
-

It is concerned with two principal tasks. Firstly, for easing the system from the current system into its
successor. Many of the users of the propose
d systems, can better understand its functions better, when it
is explained in the context of the current procedures. This before and after approach provides a commonly
understood reference point which should help to boost the confidence of apprehensive us
ers. Secondly, it
provides detailed tuition in the operations of the proposed system.

2.

USER DOCUMENTATION :
-

User manuals should be reference documents rather than learning ones. Such manuals should reflect the
expertise and vocabulary of the variety of
users involved in the system.


3.

OPERATIONS DOCUMENTATION :
-

The operations section of the data processing department is responsible for the day to day running of the
system. Hence they will need to know the normal operating procedure and how to respond to e
rrors.
Much of this information is to be derived from the detailed design and program documentation
.


7.
Evalution

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After the installation phase is completed and the users staff is adjusted to the changes created by the mall
shopping management system, eva
luation and maintenance begin. Like any system, there is an aging
process requires periodic maintenance of hardware and software. If the new information is inconsistent
with the design specification, then changes have to be made. Hardware also requires per
iodic maintenance
to keep in tune with design specification. The importance of maintenance is to continue to bring the new
system to standards.

User priorities, changes in organizational requirements, or environmental factors also called for system
enhance
ments. To contrast maintenance with enhancement, if a bank decided to increase its service
charges on checking accounts from $3.00 to $4.50 for a minimum balance of $300, it is maintenance.
However, if the same bank decided to create a personal loan on ne
gative balances when customer
overdraw their account, it is enhancement. This change requires evaluation, program modification, and
further testing.

CHARACTERISTICS

OF MAINTAINABLE SYSTEM :
-


It has been found that organizations spend more than 40% of the

total project cost on the maintenance,
modification and debugging of the system. As the average life of the system increases to more than six
years, this figure increases to almost 60%. Hence it makes good sense to dedicate extra effort and time in
the de
3sign phase, which would make the system more maintainable and easier to debug in the long run.

1.

SMALL MODULE SIZE :
-

By maintaining smaller modules, the impact of a change can be effectively isolated by provided that
modular independence is achieved.

2.

MODULAR INDEPENDENCE :
-

The lesser the dependence of the working of a modules on one another, the easier it is to maintain all of
them. A module’s dependence on its neighbors, is increased by the use of shared data, shared files, shared
devices and shared
control connection ( branches and calls to and from other modules).

3.

BLACK
-
BOX CHARACTERISTICS :
-

This characteristic applies to a module which can be viewed in terms of it inputs and outputs alone,
without worrying about the details of how the module proce
sses them. This also has a strong effort on the
readability of the code.



Analysis and Desing


SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES USED

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Two major principles of software development are used in this project:
-

(i)

Analysis

(ii)

Design

ANALYSIS


Analysis is a ph
ase which requires a lot of managerial skills. This phase starts with the Preliminary
Investigation and ends with Determination of Requirements. The resulting specification must be
complete, consistent, readable, and testable against reality and its purpos
e is to providing a model of the
desired behavior of the system that is to be built.

Preliminary Investigation


The first step in the analysis phase is Preliminary Investigation to determine the fisibility of the
undertaken project. The purpose of the Pre
liminary Investigation is to evaluate project requests. It is
neither a designed study nor dots it includes the collection of details to describe the business system in all
respect. Rather, it is collecting of information that help to evaluate the merits o
f the project requests and
make an informed judgment about the feasibility of the proposed project.

As System Analysis is conducted with the following objectives in the mind:



Identify the company/management’s need



Evaluate the system concept for
feasibility.



Perform economic, legal, alternatives and technical analysis.



Allocate fictions to hardware, software, users, database and other system elements.



Create system definition that forms the foundation for all subsequent engineering work
.


Identifi
cation of need:
-


Before starting any designing principle, I held several meetings with the management. I had described the
of the management earlier. Because I wanted the request to be clearly defined and make sure that

the
request is permanent and not going to change ones the design process begins. After assuarance that this is
not going to change in near future. The intent is to understand the project’s objectives and to define the
goal required to meet the objectives.

The main objectives and goals are :
-



To computerize the existing manual system.



Obtain the history report.



Obtain the details of working process.



Maintain the data of customers and items.


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Information gathered during the needs identification steps is spe
cified in this project report
.

Evaluate the system concept for feasibility




An important outcome of Preliminary Investigation is the determination that the project
requested is feasible. It is both necessary and prudent to evaluate the feasibility of a
project at the
earliest possible time.



A feasibility study is not warranted for this system because technical risk is low, few legal
problems are expected, and no reasonable alternative exist, for this basically four primary area of
interest.


2.

Perform econ
omical, legal, alternatives and technical analysis.




Economic feasibility

Because this is a part of my B.Tech. program so the evaluation of development cost to the firm is
zero against the ultimate benefit from the developed system work.




Technical feasibi
lity

It is the frequently the most difficult area to access at this stage of the project. Because objectives,
function and performance are somewhat hazy, anything seems possible if the “right” assumption
are made.



Legal feasibility

There are no any
fragment, violation or any liability that could result from development of the
system.



Operational feasibility

The operation or usage of the new application is considered here. It is found that right from the
Managing Director liked it.



Alternative

No alte
rnative approaches to the development of system or project work.



3.

COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS





System when completed is expected to give the following advantages :
-



This system will provide uniform practices for common function across the company resulting in

low cost of maintenance.



Better efficiency
-



The system will increase the information/communication through and rescue data inconsistency
and delay caused due to manual work and non
-
uniform software environment.

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Data security and integrity



As the system fe
tches and stores the information from and into the database of the department.
Doing the same through the manual system has the thwart of losing data anytime.




Invalid or unwanted data are not stored in the database. Validation and constraints check on eac
h
and every control.



Redundant data cannot be stored into the database otherwise it takes unnecessary storage space.



Any skilled or unskilled person is the user of this system of this system because of it being user
friendly.



Management can track the recor
ds and also get the information immediately and can take
appropriate action or decision making.


4.

Request Approval


It is not necessary that all requested projects are desirable. The management of the Mall put the project in
its priority list and gave the
approval of the project.

Determination of System Requirement



At the heart of analysis phase is the detailed understanding of the area/project inner investigation.

In this phase, following questions are raised :
-



What is being done?



How it is being done?



How frequently does it occur?



How great is the volume of transaction or decisions?



How well the task is being performed?



Does a problem exist?



If a problem exists, how serious is it? What is the underlying cause?


DESIGN

The most creative and challengin
g phase of the system life cycle is the system design. The term design
describes a final system and the process by which it is developed. It refers to the technical specification
that will be applied in implementing the candidate system. It also includes t
he construction of programs
and program testing. The key question here is : how should the problem be solved?

The major steps in design are




The first step is to determine how the output is to be produced and in what format. Samples of the
output and inp
ut are also presented.



Input data and master files have to be designed to meet the requirements of the proposed output.

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The operational phases are handled through program construction and testing, including a list of
the programs needed to meet the system
’s objectives and complete documentation.



Finally details related to justification of the system and estimate of the impact of the candidate
system on the user and the organization are documented and evaluated by management as a step
toward implementation.

The final report prior to the implementation phase includes procedural flowcharts, record layouts, report
layouts, and a workable plan for implementing the candidate system. Information on the personal, money,
hardware, facilities, and their estimated cos
t must also be available. At this point, projected costs must be
closed to actual cost of implementation.

In some firms, separate group of programmers do the programming whereas other firms employ analyst
programmers who do analysis and design as well as code programs. For this discussions , we assume that
analysis and programming are carried out by two separa
te persons. There are certain functions, though,
that the analyst must perform while programs are being written. Operating procedures and documentation
must be completed. Security and auditing procedure must also be developed.


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Testing

SYSTEM
IMPLEMENTATION

The implementation phase is less creative than system design. It is primarily concerned with the user
training, site preparation and file conversion. When the candidate system is linked to terminals or remote
sites, the telecommunication n
etwork and test of the network along with the system are also include under
implementation.

During the final testing, user acceptance is tested, followed by user training. Depending on the nature of
the system, extensive user training may be required. Conv
ersion usually takes place at about the same
time the user is being trained or later.

In the extreme, the programmer is falsely viewed as someone who ought to be isolated from other aspects
of the system development. Programming is itself a design work, ho
wever. The initial parameters of the
candidate system should be modified as a result of programming efforts. Programming provides a “
reality test” for the assumption made by the analyst. It is therefore a mistake to exclude programmers
from the initial sy
stem design.

System testing checks the readiness and accuracy of the system to access, update, and retrieve data from
the new files. Ones the programs become available, test data are read into the computer and processed
against the files provided for test
ing. If successful, the programs is then run with the “ live” data.
Otherwise, a diagnostic procedure is used to locate and correct errors in the program. In most
conversions, a parallel run is conducted where the new system runs simultaneously with the “
old”
system. This method, though costly, provides added assurance against errors in the candidate system and
also gives the user staff an opportunity to gain experience through operation. In some cases, however,
parallel processing is not practical. For ex
., it is not plausible to run parallel two online point
-
of
-
sale
system for a retail chain. In any case, after the candidate system proves itself, the old system is phased
out.

1.

UNIT TESTING

Unit testing focuses verification effort on the smallest unit of s
oftware design, software components or
module. Using the components level design description as the guide, important control parts are tested to
uncover errors within the boundary of the module.

In this software the module interface is tested to ensure th
at information properly flows into and out of the
program unit under test. The local data structure has been examined to ensure that data stored temporarily
maintains its integrity during all steps in an algorithm’s execution. Boundary conditions are teste
d to
ensure that the module operate properly at boundary established to limit or restrict processing. All
independent path through the control structure are exercised to ensure that all statement in a module have
been executed at least once. Finally all er
ror handling path are tested.


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2.

VALIDATION TESTING :

Validation can be define in many ways, but a simple definition is that validation succeeds when software
function in a manner that can be reasonably expected by the customer. Software validation is achie
ved
through a series of black box test that demonstrate conformity with requirement. A test plan outlines the
classes of tests to be conducted and a test procedure defines specific test cases that will be used to
demonstrate conformity with requirements. B
oth the plan and procedure are designed to ensure that all
functional requirements are satisfied, all behavioral characteristics and documentation is correct.

All important element of the validation process is the configuration review. The intent of the re
view is to
ensure that all elements of the software configuration have been properly develop are catalog.

The beta taste has been conducted on this software. The beta taste is a live application of the software in
an environment that cannot be control by
the developer. The customer records all the problems (real or
imagine) that are encountered during beta testing and reports these to developer at regular interval. As a
results of problems reported during beta tests, I have made modification made in the so
ftware.

3.

SYSTEM TESTING :

System testing is actually a series of different tests whose primary purpose is to fully exercise the
computer based system.

3.1

RECOVERY TESTING

It is a system test that forces the software to fail in a variety of ways and verify that

recovery is properly
performed. If recovery is automatic reinitialisation, check pointing mechanism, data recovery and result
are evaluated for correctness
.

3.2

SECURITY TESTING

Penetration spans a broad range of activities, hackers who attempt to penetrate
systems for sport,
disgruntled employees who attempt to penetrate for revenge; dishonest individuals who attempt to
penetrate for illicit personal gain. Security testing attempts to verify that protection mechanism built into
the system will protect it fro
m improper penetration.

3.3

TESTING FOR CONNECTION TO DATABASE

System is tested for connection with Oracle through THIN Driver by configuring services at sever and
DSN at the client machine.


3.4

TESTING GUI

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Graphical Use Interface (GUI) present interesting
challenges for Software Engineers. Because of
reusable components provided as a part of GUI development environments, the creation of the user
interface has become less time consuming and more precise. At the same time the complexity of GUI has
grown, lead
ing to the more difficulty in the design and execution of the test cases.

LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT


As we know that nothing can be hundred percent perfect. So in this aspect I can say that this project also
has got some limitations. The limitations of
this project are that it is highly customized according to the
requirement of the ………………………………….for which it is made. As the project has done
……………………………….. ,located at …………………. Hence It is not possible that it competes
with others. If the same software i
s required for other defect it will need some modification.


Since the application is developed in Java and MySql, it requires more hardware support compared to the
traditional executables made from languages such as C, C++, FoxPro 2.6, etc.

The cost of i
mplementing this software is lower because the tools such as Java, ODBC Driver, and MySql
are open source and free licensed software. This software also provides backup facilities.

BIBLIOGRAPHY



MASTERING VISUAL BASIC



EVANGELOUS PERTOUTSONS, (BPB)



BEGINNER
’S GUIDE TO VISUAL BSIC 6



REETA SAHOO & G.B. SAHOO (KPH)



ORACLE 9i PL/SQL POGRAMMING



SCOTT URMAN (TMH)



SOFTWARE ENGINEERING



ROGER S PRESSMAN (McGraw HILL)



PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES OF PROGRAMMING



T.M.RAMCHANDRAN (GALGOTIA)


Future

This project made in
such a way that it can be easily modified in more advance form if there will be such
need. The database of this software maintains the records of the details of customers who have book the
project from the project system. This record will have a lot of use

in the future related to any defects. The
transactions are also reveled in this project. Any financial enquiry can be satisfied through this software.
In future any fields can be added and deleted to and from the tables. Thus, overall this project has a w
ide
application in the future.