SAT: A Security Architecture Achieving Anonymity and Traceability in Wireless Mesh Networks

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Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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SAT: A Security Architecture Achieving Anonymity and


Traceability in Wireless Mesh Networks






A
BSTRACT





Anonymity has received increasing attention in the literature due to the
users’ awareness of their privacy nowadays. Anonymity provides protection for users to
enjoy network services without being traced. While anonymity
-
related issues h
ave been
extensively studied in payment
-
based systems such as e
-
cash and peer
-
to
-
peer (P2P)
systems, little effort has been devoted to wireless mesh networks (WMNs). On the other
hand, the network authority requires conditional anonymity such that misbehav
ing
entities in the network remain traceable.

Here
, we propose a security architecture to
ensure unconditional anonymity for honest users and traceability of misbehaving users
for network authorities in WMNs. The proposed architecture strives to resolve th
e
conflicts between the anonymity and traceability objectives, in addition to guaranteeing
fundamental security requirements including authentication, confidentiality, data
integrity, and norepudiation. Thorough analysis on security and efficiency is
incor
porated, demonstrating the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed
architecture.


OBJECTIVE





Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is a promising technology and is expected
to be widespread due to its low investment feature and the wireless broadband
services it supports, attractive to both service providers and users. However,
security issues

inherent in WMNs or any wireless networks need be considered
before the deployment and proliferation of these networks, since it is unappealing
to subscribers to obtain services without security and privacy guarantees. Wireless
security has been the hot t
opic in the literature for various network technologies
such as cellular networks, wireless local area networks (WLANs), wireless sensor
networks, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), and vehicular ad hoc networks
(VANETs). Anonymity and privacy issues have ga
ined considerable research
efforts in the literature, which have focused on investigating anonymity in different
context or application scenarios. One requirement for anonymity is to unlink a
user’s identity to his or her specific activities, such as the a
nonymity fulfilled in the
untraceable e
-
cash systems and the P2P payment systems, where the payments
cannot be linked to the identity of a payer by the bank or broker. Anonymity is also
required to hide the location information of a user to prevent moveme
nt tracing, as
is important in mobile networks and VANETs. In wireless communication systems,
it is easier for a global observer to mount traffic analysis attacks by following the
packet forwarding path than in wired networks. Thus, routing anonymity is
in
dispensable, which conceals the confidential communication relationship of two
parties by building an anonymous path between them. Nevertheless, unconditional
anonymity may incur insider attacks since misbehaving users are no longer
traceable. Therefore, t
raceability is highly desirable such as in e
-
cash systems,
where it is used for detecting and tracing double
-
spenders.



























2
. SYSTEM ANALYSIS















2. SYSTEM ANALYSIS


2. 1
LITERATURE SURVEY

Literature survey is the most important step in software development
process. Before developing the tool it is necessary to determine the time factor,
economy n company strength. Once these things r satisfied, ten next steps are to
determine which operatin
g system and language can be used for developing the
tool. Once the programmers start building the tool the programmers need lot of
external support. This support can be obtained from senior programmers, from
book or from websites. Before building the syst
em the above consideration r
taken into account for developing the proposed system.

While we started to do this project, we referred the following papers of
Mobile Ad Hoc multicasting and we decided to do this project with the existing
system, and came to
a conclusion that what can be done in the proposed
system
.

.





2.1.1
EXISTING SYSTEM


In wireless communication

systems, it is easier for a global observer to
mount

traffic analysis attacks by following the packet forwarding

path
than in
wired networks. Thus, routing anonymity

is indispensable, which conceals the

confidential communication relationship of two parties by

building an anonymous
path between them. Nevertheless,

unconditional anonymity may incur insider
attacks since

mi
sbehaving users are no longer traceable. Therefore,

traceability
is highly desirable such as in e
-
cash systems


where it is used for detecting and
tracing

double
-
spenders.







.


2.1.2.
PROPOSED SYSTEM



W
e are motivated by resolving the above security conflicts, namely
anonymity and traceability, in the emerging WMN communication systems. We have
proposed the initial design
of our security architecture
,

where the feasibility and
applicability of the architecture were not fully understood. As a result, we provide
detailed efficiency analysis in terms of storage, communication, and computation in
this paper to show that our SAT is a practically viable solu
tion to the application
scenario of interest. Our system borrows the blind signature technique from payment
systems, and hence, can achieve the anonymity of unlinking user identities from
activities, as well as the traceability of misbehaving users. Furthe
rmore, the
proposed pseudonym technique renders user location information unexposed.



Advantage
:



Our work differs from previous work in that WMNs have unique
hierarchical topologies and rely heavily on wireless links, which have to b
e
considered in the anonymity design. As a result, the original anonymity scheme for
payment systems among bank, customer, and store cannot be directly applied. In
addition to the anonymity scheme, other security issues such as authentication, key
establis
hment, and revocation are critical in WMNs to ensure the correct application
of the anonymity scheme. Moreover, although we employ the widely used
pseudonym approach to ensure network access anonymity and location privacy, our
pseudonym generation does not

rely on a central authority, e.g., the broker , the
domain authority , the transportation authority or the manufacturer, and the trusted
authority , who can derive the user’s identity from his pseudonyms and illegally trace
an honest user. Our system is n
ot intended for achieving routing anonymity, which
can be incorporated as an enhancement.


2.2 FEASIBILITY

S
T
U
D
Y



The feasibility of the project is analyzed in this phase and business
proposal is put forth with a very general plan for the project and some

cost
estimates. During system analysis the feasibility study of the proposed system is
to be carried out. This is to ensure that the proposed system is not a burden to
the company. For feasibility analysis, some understanding of the major
requirements fo
r the system is essential.

Three key considerations involved in the feasibility analysis are




ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY



TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY



SOCIAL FEASIBILITY



2.2.1 ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY




This study is carried out to check the economic
impact that the system will
have on the organization. The amount of fund that the company can pour into the
research and development of the system is limited. The expenditures must be
justified. Thus the developed system as well within the budget and this
was
achieved because most of the technologies used are freely available. Only the
customized products had to be purchased.


2.2.2 OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY


The aspect of study is to check the level of acceptance of the system by
the user. This inc
ludes the process of training the user to use the system
efficiently. The user must not feel threatened by the system, instead must accept
it as a necessity. The level of acceptance by the users solely depends on the
methods that are employed to educate th
e user about the system and to make
him familiar with it. His level of confidence must be raised so that he is also able
to make some constructive criticism, which is welcomed, as he is the final user of
the system.


2.2.3 TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY



Thi
s study is carried out to check the technical feasibility, that is, the
technical requirements of the system. Any system developed must not have a
high demand on the available technical resources. This will lead to high demands
on the available technical r
esources. This will lead to high demands being placed
on the client. The developed system must have a modest requirement, as only
minimal or null changes are required for implementing this system.










3
. SYSTEM SPECIFICATION






4.3.
1.

W
ireless
mesh networks (WMNs)



The wireless mesh backbone consists of mesh routers (MRs) and gateways
(GWs) interconnected by

ordinary wireless links (shown as dotted curves). Mesh routers
and gateways serve as the access points of the WMN and the l
ast resorts to the
Internet, respectively.

Each

WMN

domain, or trust domain

(to be used interchangeably) is managed by a domain administrator that serves as a
trusted authority the central server of a campus WMN
.


4.3.2.
Blind Signature





In general, a blind signature scheme allows a receiver to obtain a signature on a
message such that both the message and the resulting signature remain unknown to
the signer. We refer the readers for a formal definition of a blind signature scheme,
wh
ich should bear the properties of verifiability, unlinkability,

and unforgeability.

B
lind
signature scheme, where the restrictiveness property is incorporated into the blind
signature scheme such that the message being signed must contain encoded
informati
on. As the name suggests, this property restricts the user in the blind signature
scheme to embed some account
-
related secret information into what is being signed by
the bank (otherwise, the signing will be unsuccessful) such that this secret can be

recov
ered by the bank to identify a user if and only if he double
-
spends. The
restrictiveness property is essentially the guarantee for traceability in the restrictive blind
signature systems.


4.3.3.
Ticket Issuance


In order to maintain security o
f the network against attacks

and the fairness
among clients, the home
server manager

may control the

access of each client by
issuing tickets based on the

misbehavior history of the client, which reflects the
server
manager
’s

confidence about the client t
o act properly. Ticket issuance

occurs when the
client initially attempts to access the

network or when all previously issued tickets are
depleted.

The client needs to reveal his real ID to the
server manager

in order to

obtain
a ticket since the
server ma
nager

has to ensure the authenticity of

this client.


4.3.4.
Fraud Detection


Fraud is used interchangeably with misbehavior in this

paper, which is
essentially an insider attack. Ticket reuse

generally results from the client’s inability to
obtain tickets

from the TA when network access is desired, primarily due

to the client’s
past misbehavior, which causes the
server manager

to

constrain his ticket requests
.


4.3.5
Fundamental security objectives




It is trivial to show that our security architecture satisfies the security requirements
for authentication, data integrity, and confidentiality, which follows directly from the
employment of the standard cryptographic primitives, message authenti
cation code, and
encryption, in our system. We are only left with the proof of nonrepudiation in this
category. A fraud can be repudiated only if the client can provide a different
representation, he knows of message from what is derived by the server mana
ger. If the
client has misbehaved, the representation he knows will be the same as the one derived
by the
server Manager

which ensures nonrepudiation.


4.4 SYSTEM DESIGN

Data Flow Diagram / Use Case Diagram / Flow Diagram



The DFD is also called as bubble

chart. It is a simple graphical
formalism that can be used to represent a system in terms of the input data to the
system, various processing carried out on these data, and the output data is
generated by the system.


4.4.1 Architecture.


Fig:










3. SYSTEM SPECIFICAT
ION

3.1 HARDWARE REQUIRE
MENTS:



System



: Pentium IV 2.4 GHz.



Hard Disk


: 40 GB.



Floppy Drive


: 1.44 Mb.



Monitor


: 15 VGA Colour.



Mouse



: Logitech.



Ram



: 256 Mb.


3.2 SOFTWARE REQUIRE
MENTS:



Operating system

: Windows XP Professional



Front End


: JAVA, Swing(JFC),J2ME



Tool

: j2me wireless toolkit 2.5.2