Specification Template - Main Roads Western Australia

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MAIN ROADS Western Australia

Specification 820 Concrete for Structures

Page
1

of
28

Contract xxx/xx

Document 04/10134 Issue 17
/
06/13








SPECIFICATION
820

C
ONCRETE
F
OR
S
TRUCTURES

Copyright MAIN ROADS Western Australia



MAIN ROADS Western Australia

Specification 820 Concrete for Structures

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Contract xxx/xx

Document 04/10134 Issue 17
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SPECIFICATION
820

CONCRETE FOR STRUCTU
RES

REVISION REGISTER

Date

Clause

Number

Description of Revision

Authorised

By

17
/06/2013


820.30

Volume of Permeable Voids
added

A/SDSE

23
/10/2012

820.11

Part 3 of Clause amended

A/SES

24
/06/2011

820.02


820.07

Replaced r
eference

WSS
-
SP43 to ATIC


Specification
SP43

Replaced all references WSS


SP43 to ATIC Specification
SP 43

Added last line to Clause (3)
which refers to ap
plication
form for CMRS

Moved clause description
‘Certification’ from Clause (2)
to Clause

(3)


A/SDSE

28
/05/2009

820.02

Reference to WSS


SP43

SDSE


820.07





820.07

Added Certification Clause (3)
& Hold point Clause (4)



820.28 (2)

Hold point



A
nnexure
820B

Added
Concrete Request for
Registration Form


12
/06/2008

820.11.1

Total mass l
imit increased to
2.
8

kg/m
3

SDSE

0
6
/06/2008

820.11

&

820.26
,

820.54.03.
2

Amendments to
AAR
requirements and bridge deck
surface finish

SDSE

18
/04/2008

820.07 &
820.28

Clauses amended

SDSE

28
/02/2008

820.28

Inclusion of S40 Aggregate
Grading Envelope at Figure 2

SDSE



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CONTENTS


Clause










Page No


GENERAL

................................
................................
................................
......................

5

820.01

SCOPE

................................
................................
................................
...........

5

820.02

REFERENCES

................................
................................
...............................

5

820.03

DEFINITIONS

................................
................................
................................
.

6

820.04


820.05

NOT USED

................................
................................
.....................

7

PRODUCTS AND MATERIA
LS

................................
................................
.....................

7

820.06

GENERAL

................................
................................
................................
......

7

820.07

CEMENT

................................
................................
................................
........

7

820.08

AGGREGATE

................................
................................
................................
.

8

820.09

WATER

................................
................................
................................
..........

8

820.10

ADMIXTURES

................................
................................
................................

8

820.11

ACTION REQUIRED FOR
THE CONTROL OF ALKAL
I AGGREGATE
REACTIVITY (AAR)

................................
................................
.................

9

820.12

SOLUBLE SALTS

................................
................................
.........................

10

820.13

LIMITATIONS ON SHRIN
KAGE

................................
................................
...

10

820.14


820.25

NOT USED

................................
................................
...................

10

DESIGN OF CONCRETE M
IXES

................................
................................
.................

10

820.26

GENERAL

................................
................................
................................
....

10

820.27

DURABILITY

................................
................................
................................

11

820.28

CLASS OF CONCRETE FO
R MIX DESIGN

................................
.................

11

820.29

TRIAL MIXES

................................
................................
...............................

13

820.30


TRIAL MIXES FOR VOLU
ME OF PERMEABLE VOID
S (VPV)

..................



14

SUPPLY AND DELIVERY
OF CONCRETE

................................
................................
.

14

820.31

CONCRETING PLANT

................................
................................
.................

14

820.32

BATCHING AND MIXING

................................
................................
.............

14

820.33

TRANSPORT

................................
................................
...............................

15

820.34

TEMPERATURE AT

POINT OF DELIVERY

................................
.................

15

820.35

MIX CONSISTENCY

................................
................................
....................

15

820.36

ADDITION OF WATER TO

THE MIX AFTER MIXING

................................
.

15

820.37

SAMPLING OF CONCRETE

FOR STRENGTH

................................
...........

15

820.38

STRENGTH OF CONCRETE

DELIVERED

................................
..................

16

820
.39

CURING AND TESTING O
F SPECIMENS FOR DETE
RMINATION OF
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

................................
................................

16

820.40


820.50

NOT USED

................................
................................
...................

17

OPERATIONS

................................
................................
................................
..............

17

820.51

GENERAL

................................
................................
................................
....

17

820.52

PLACING CONCRETE

................................
................................
.................

17

820.53

CONSTRUCTION
JOINTS

................................
................................
...........

17

820.54

COMPACTION

................................
................................
.............................

18

820.55

FINISHING OF UNFORME
D SURFACES

................................
....................

19

820.56

CURING OF CONCRETE

................................
................................
............

19

820.57

PROTECTION OF CONCRE
TE SURFACES

................................
...............

20

820.58


820.80

NOT USED

................................
................................
...................

20


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AS BUILT AND HANDOVE
R REQUIREMENTS

................................
..........................

20

820.81


820.90

NOT USED

................................
................................
...................

20

CONTRACT SPECIF
IC REQUIREMENTS

................................
................................
...

20

820.91


820.99

NOT USED

................................
................................
...................

20

ANNEXURE 820A

................................
................................
................................
........

21

CLASS OF CONCRETE

................................
................................
............................

21

ANNEXURE 820B

................................
................................
................................
........

22

CEMENTITIOUS MATERIA
LS FOR CONCRETE

................................
......................

22

REQUEST FOR REGISTRA
TION BY MANUFACTURER

................................
.........

22





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SPECIFICATION
820

CONCRETE FOR STRUCTU
RES

GENERAL


820.
01

SCOPE


1.

The work under this specification consists of

the mix design,
the supply and delivery, placi
ng, compaction, finishing, curing and
protection of high strength concrete for the following structures:


a)

Bridgeworks


b)

Pedestrian Overpasses/Underpasses


c)

Manufacture of Box Culverts

and


d)

Other m
ajor structural works


2.

Concrete for g
eneral non
-
structural works is covered in
Specification 901 CONCRETE
-

GENERAL WORKS.


820.
02

REFERENCES


1.

Australian Standards
,

M
AIN ROADS Western Australia
Standards and MAIN ROADS Western Australia

Test Methods are
referred to in abbreviated form (e
.g. AS 1234
, MRS 67
-
08
-
43

or WA
123). For convenience, the full titles are given below:


Australian Standards


AS 1012

Methods of Testing Concrete


AS 1141

Methods for Sampling and Testing Aggregates


AS 1379

Specification and Supply of Concrete


AS 1478

Chemical Admixtures for Concrete, Mortar and Grout


AS 2758.1

Aggregates and Rock for Engineering Purposes
-

Concrete Aggregates


AS 3582.2

Supplementary Cementitious Materials for use with
Portland and Blended Cement
-

Slag
-

Ground
Granulate
d Iron Blast Furnace


AS 3799

Liquid Membrane
-
Forming Curing Compounds for
Concrete



AS 3972

Portland and Blended Cement
s


Australian
/New Zealand

Standards


AS
/NZS

3582
.
3


Supplementary Cementitious Materials for use
with Portland and Blended Cement



Amorphous
Silica


MAIN ROADS
Test Methods


WA 910.1

Chlorides and Total Soluble Salts in Soil and Water



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Specification 820 Concrete for Structures

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Other

Standards



Cement & Concrete Ass
ociatio
n of N
ew
Z
ealand






Report No TR3, Alkali
Silica Reaction

Australian Technical Infrastructure
Committee (ATIC) Specification
SP43
-

Cementitious Materials
f
or Concrete


M
AIN ROADS

Specifications


Specification 201


QUALITY

SYSTEMS


Specification 819

FALSEWORK


Specification 821

FORMWORK


Specification 822

STEEL REINFORCEMENT


Specification

901

CONCRETE
-

GENERAL WORKS


820
.03

DEFINITIONS


820.03.01

DESIGN


1.

For the purpose of this Specification the following definitions
apply:


a)

Concrete in general shall consist of a mixture of cement,
water
,

and coarse and fine aggregate. Where

specified
o
n
the Drawings, blended cement as defined in Clause
820.
07

(paragraph 1) shall be used.


b)

Water/cement ratio is the ratio by mass of the total water
content of the mix available for hydration to the total
cement in the mix.


c)

Aggregate/c
ement ratio is the ratio by mass of the total
aggregate in the mix (measured in the saturated surface
dry state) to the total cement in the mix.


d)

The compressive strength of concrete shall be defined
as the average 28
-
day crushing strength of a minimu
m
of three standard 100 mm diameter by 200 mm long
cylinders taken from the same sample and made, cured
and tested in accordance with AS 1012.


820.0
3.02


SPECIAL PROCESSES


1.

The placing, compacting, finishing and curing of concrete
are identified as
SPECIAL PROCESSES in accordance with
Specification 201 QUALITY

SYSTEMS
.

Special
Processes

820.0
3.03


ADDITIONAL QUALITY S
YSTEM REQUIREMENTS


1.

The information to be submitted by the Contractor as part of
their Quality Plan shall include, but not be lim
ited to, the following:
-

Quality Plan

a)

Details of the methods to be used in maintaining
evidence generated during each special process. The
number of personnel required together with proof of any
relevant training and experience shall be included.


b
)

Verification of the compliance of any proposed heat
accelerated curing method with the Specification
requirements
such as steam curing.



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820.
0
4



820.
05

NOT USED


PRODUCTS AND MATERIA
LS


820.
06

GENERAL


1.

Concrete required under this Contract shal
l be supplied from
either an approved off
-
site batching plant and delivered by truck agitator
or an on
-
site batching plant.


2.

In its finished state concrete shall be sound and dense and
durable and free from honeycombing and shall have the strength and

other properties specified.


3.

Concrete shall comply with AS 1379, except as varied by
this Specification.


820.
07


CEMENT


1.

Unless specified otherwise,
all

cement used in the Works
shall comply with the requirements of Type GP cement as specified

in
AS 3972

and
Australian Technical Infrastructure Committee (ATIC)
Specification
-
SP43.

The Contractor shall provide manufacturer's test
certificates showing all cement has been sampled
,

tested and conforms
in all respects with the
AS 3972

and

ATIC


Specification SP43

Testing

2
.


Blended cement shall be a combination of
Type GP

cement

and ground granulated
iron
blast
-
furnace slag complying with AS 3582.2

and

ATIC


Specification SP43
. The densified silica fume to be added
to the blended cement sha
ll be finely divided and comply with AS
/NZS
3582.3

and
ATIC


Specification SP43
.

3.

Cement for manufacture of concrete shall comply with the
requirements of

ATIC


Specification SP43.

The Cementitious Material
Registration Scheme (CMRS) shall be used to
confirm that the cement
complies
with

ATIC


Specification SP
43.

The standard
application
form for CMRS registration is given in Appendix 820B.

Blended
Cement


Certification

4.

Prior to manufacturing of concrete the Contractor shall
confirm that the cem
ent complies
with
ATIC


Specification SP43

and shall provide the CMRS registration number for the cement to
the Superintendent for approval of the cement.

5
.

The Contractor shall use cement in approximately the
chronological order in which it is delivere
d from the manufacturer.
Transportation units and storage bins for bulk cement shall be
weatherproof and shall be constructed so that there is no dead storage.
The Contractor shall demonstrate that the storage bins for bulk cement
do not have any dead st
orage. If dead storage exists the bins shall be
emptied completely at least once every three months. Cement delivered
in bags shall be stored in weatherproof structures having floors raised
above the ground. Cement that is more than three months old sha
ll not
be used.

HOLD
POINT

6
.

Concrete manufactured from cement not conforming to this
Specification or from cement that has deteriorated and become
unsuitable for use shall be rejected.



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820.
08


AGGREGATE


1.

Fine aggregates for concrete shall be nat
ural sand and shall
comply with the requirements of AS 2758.1. The maximum amount of
water absorption for fine aggregates shall not exceed 1.5 percent.

Testing

2.

Coarse aggregates for concrete shall be crushed igneous
rock or crushed or screened river
gravel conforming to the requirements
of AS

2758.1. All coarse aggregates shall be single
-
sized. Graded
coarse aggregates shall not be used. The maximum amount of water
absorption for coarse aggregates shall not exceed 2.5 percent.


3.

The durability o
f coarse aggregates shall be assessed
according to test methods of AS 2758.1. The acceptance criteria for
these tests shall be that for a concrete exposure classification C unless
otherwise specified.


4.


A
ll
aggregates proposed for use in the Works sha
ll comply
with the requirements of the "Alkali
-
Reactive Materials" clause of
AS

2758.1.
.


5
.

The Contractor shall provide proper means of storing the
aggregates. Each nominal size of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate
shall be kept separated and suit
able precautions shall be taken to
prevent the aggregates from being contaminated by the ground or by
wind blown dust or other foreign matter.


6
.

The grading of the individual aggregates shall conform to the
overall limits for these materials given in A
S

2758.1. Sampling for the
purposes of carrying out tests shall be in accordance with AS 1141.


820.
09


WATER


1.

Water used in concrete manufacture and curing shall be
clean
,

potable and free from amounts of suspended material or organic
matter or alk
ali salts or any other impurities which may adversely affect
the properties of the concrete or have harmful effects on any
reinforcement or prestressing system or other fixture embedded therein.


2.

Water for concrete shall have a total soluble salts con
tent of
not greater than 1 500 milligrams per litre when tested in accordance
with MRWA Test Method WA 910.1.

Testing

3.

The Contractor shall arrange that a suitable supply of water
is available at the batching plant.

Contractor
to Supply

820.10

ADMIXT
URES


1.

Admixtures may be used in concrete to modify workability
but will not be permitted for the purpose of reducing cement content.
However, the admixture shall have no harmful effect whatsoever upon
the quality of the concrete or upon any reinforce
ment or prestressing
system or other fixture embedded therein.


2.

Any admixture shall comply with the requirements of and be
used in accordance with AS

1478.


3.


Calcium chloride and other chloride
-
bearing admixtures shall
not be used in concrete cont
aining any type of steelwork or steel
reinforcement.



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4
.


Where two or more admixtures are proposed for
incorporation into a concrete mix, their compatibility shall be certified by
the manufacturers and the certificates shall be provided to the
Superinten
dent before use of the admixtures
.


820.11

ACTION REQUIRED FOR
THE CONTROL OF
ALKALI

AGGREGATE REACTIVITY

(AAR)



1.

The total mass of reactive alkali in the concrete, including
any admixtures, shall not exceed 2.
8

kg/m
3
. The method of determining
the

alkali content shall be in accordance with
Appendix C

of Report
3
(
TR3
)

by the Cement & Concrete Association of New Zealand.

Testing

2.

All

aggregates for use in concrete shall be
tested for their
susceptibility to AAR
in accordance with MR
W
A test method

WA624.1
or RTA T363 (Roads and Traffic Authority, NSW).


3.

Where the aggregate source has previously been classed as
acceptable in accordance with WA624.1 or RTA T363, may be exempt
from re
-
testing at the discretion of the Superintendent.

4.

Aggregate
s shall be classified in accordance with
Table

820.1.

a)

For aggregates classified as non
-
reactive by WA624.1,
no action for control is required


b)

For course aggregate classified as having potential for
slow/mild AAR by WA624.1 with mortar bar expansion
between 0.10% and 0.40% at 21 days (fine aggregate
between 0.15% and 0.45%), the concrete mix shall either:

i.

incorporate a proportion of fly ash that is 25% by
mass of the total

cementitious

materials: or

ii.

be a blended cement (65% Ground Granulated
Iron Blas
t
-
Furnace Slag + 35% Type GP cement).

Fly ash and ground granulated iron blast
-
furnace slag shall comply with
the requirements of AS3582.1 and AS3582.2 respectively.

c)

Aggregates classified by WA624.1 as having potential for
substantial AAR
shall not be u
sed
.


% Expansion at 21 Days


Aggregate Reactivity
Classification

Coarse Aggregate

Fine Aggregate

< 0.10
,

< 0.15
,

Non Reactive



0.10

to

< 0.40



0.
15 to

< 0.45

Having Potential for
Slow/Mild AAR



0.40
,



0.45
,

Having Potential for
Substantial AAR

Table 820.1

AGGREGATE REACTI
VI
TY CLASSIFICATION





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5
.

The manufacture of concrete shall not occur before the
aggregate source t
o be used ha
s

met the test requirements

with respect
to AAR and approved by the Superintendent.

Hold Point

6
.

The Contractor shall provide the Superintendent
with
certified test results for both the coarse and fine aggregates for each
aggregate source to

be used for the manufacture of concrete.

The
Contractor shall not change the aggregate source without the approval
of the Superintendent.


7.

The Contractor shall not attempt to produce manufactured
fine
aggregate

from an approved coarse
aggregate, unles
s this action
has been shown to have no detrimental effect with respect to AAR.

Note
:

some glassy basalt aggregates are non
-
reactive in the coarse
aggregate form, but can become reactive in crushed fine aggregate
form.
The

incorporation of basalt dust may

significantly increase the
alkali content of the concrete, and cause deleterious AAR expansion in
the presence
of a reactive aggregate, in an otherwise non expansive
concrete.


820.12

SOLUBLE SALTS


1.

Sulphate and chloride ion contents shall be deter
mined by
testing of hardened concrete in accordance with AS 1012 Method 20.

A representative sample of at least 20 grams of crushed and ground
concrete shall be used, with the titrating solution being 0.01 to 0.02 N
(normality). The Volhard method calib
rated using a concrete with known
chloride content shall be used for the test.


2.

The sulphate content of concrete as placed expressed as
the percentage by mass of acid
-
soluble
SO3 to cement shall not be
greater than 5%.


3.

The mass of acid
-
soluble c
hloride ion per unit volume of
concrete as placed shall not exceed 0.4 kg/m
3
.


820.13

LIMITATIONS ON SHRIN
KAGE


1.

Concrete specimens shall be prepared from the nominated
mix in accordance with AS 1012.13 for the purpose of shrinkage testing.
The shri
nkage of the specimens shall be measured in accordance with
AS 1012.13. The shrinkage strain of the concrete specimens after 56
days of drying shall not exceed 600 x 10
-
6
.


820.
14



820.
25

NOT USED


DESIGN OF CONCRETE M
IXES


820.26

GENERAL


1.

The C
ontractor shall design a mix for each class of concrete
specified and shown
o
n
the Drawings. The locations for these classes
are summarised in Annexure 820A.



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2.

The Contractor shall not change the sourc
e and / or the
formulation of the binder and the mi
x proportions of the concrete, unless
they have been tested and approved by the Superintendent.



820.27

DURABILITY


1.

The intent of this Specification is to provide durable concrete
in the permanent works.


820.28

CLASS OF CONCRETE FO
R MIX DESIGN


1.

All concrete for the Works shall be as specified in
Table

820.1 except that blinding concrete
and make
-
up concrete
shall
be Class N20 in accordance with AS

1379.


2.

Type GP

cement

only shall be used in all classes of
concrete except for class S50M.

HOLD
POINT

3.

Class S50M concrete shall use blended cement consisting
of 32% Type GP cement, 60% ground granulated iron blast
-
furnace slag
and 8% silica fume.


4
.

The combined grading shall be within the limits given in
Figure
s

820.1
or

820.2

or 820.3

after making allowance for the
permissible tolerances on individual aggregate grading specified in
Clause
820.
08
.



CONCRETE CLASS

S35

S40

S50

Nominated strength

35 MPa

40 MPa

50 MPa

Target strength for mix design

42 MPa

48 MPa

58 MPa

Maximum aggregate

size

10 mm

20 mm

20 mm

Minimum aggregate/cement ratio

3.2

4.0

3.0

Maximum water/cement ratio

0.45

0.43

0.40

Minimum Cement Content

350 kg/m
3

400 kg/m
3

420 kg/m
3

TABLE 820.
2


NOTE: Concrete Class S35 is to be used in the
m
anufacture
of Precast Parapet

Panels
only.



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0
20
40
60
80
100
0.075
0.15
0.3
0.6
1.18
2.36
4.75
9.5
19
P
E
R
C
E
N
T
A
G
E
.
P
A
S
S
I
N
G
SIEVE SIZE mm
2
2
12
24
31
35
42
65
45
30
23
16
9
2


FIGURE 820.1

S50
AGGREGATE GRADING ENVELOPE 20mm

2
9
16
23
30
45
6 5
3 7
4 2
3 5
2 9
12
2
2
0
20
40
60
80
100
0.15
0.3
0.075
0.6
1.18
2.36
4.75
9.5
19
P
E
R
C
E
N
T
A
G
E

P
A
S
S
I
N
G
SIEVE SIZE mm

FIGURE 820.
2

S40
AGGREGATE GRADING ENVELOPE
2
0mm


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0
20
40
60
80
100
0.075
0.15
0.3
0.6
1.18
2.36
4.75
9.5
5
14
28
37
46
60
30
20
16
12
4
SIEVE SIZE mm
P
E
R
C
E
N
T
A
G
E
.
P
A
S
S
I
N
G


FIGURE 820.
3

S35

AGGREGATE GRADING ENVELOPE 10mm


820.2
9


TRIAL MIXES


1.

The Contr
actor shall prepare a trial mix for each class of
concrete to be used in the Works. Each mix shall use such aggregates
that have been tested and approved by the Superintendent. The mixes
shall be made using the plant and degree of quality control propose
d for
the Works.


2.

Where the concrete is supplied by an off
-
site batching plant
the Contractor shall arrange for the trial mix to be delivered to the site in
a truck agitator or mixer truck of the type to be used for the supply of
concrete to the Works
. Surplus trial mix concrete may be placed as
blinding
or make
-
up
concrete.


3.

The Contractor shall measure the slump of the trial mix in
accordance with AS 1012.3
.1

and the value of the slump shall be
agreed by the Superintendent. The slump shall be
determined prior to
the addition of any approved
high range water reducer
(superplasticiser)
.

Slump Test

4.

Once a mix design for a specific class of concrete is adopted
the slump of the trial mix shall be deemed to be the slump for that class
of concret
e and all concrete of this class supplied to the Works shall
have the same slump

(prior to addition of any superplasticiser)
, within a
tolerance

as detailed in AS 1379
.


5.

The maximum slump of any concrete mix shall be 100mm
unless a super
-
plasticising
admixture is used in which case 100mm shall
be the maximum slump before addition of the admixture. For concrete
containing high range water reducer (HRWR), the initial slump prior to
its addition shall not be less than 40 mm unless otherwise approved by
t
he Superintendent.



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6.

The Contractor shall cast not less than
9

and not more than
21

compressive strength test specimens from the trial mix which shall be
tested to determine that the strength requirements of this Specification
are met.


7.

The averag
e 28 day compressive strength of all specimens
made from a trial mix shall be not less than the target strength and 70%
of all test results shall have compressive strengths within 3MPa of the
mean.



820.30

Trial Mixes for Volume of Permeable Voids

(VPV)


1.

The maximum VPV values, as determined according to
AS1012.21, shall not exceed the values given in Table
820.3
0
.



Concrete Class

Maximum VPV values at 28 days (%)


Test cylinders
compacted by
vibration


Test cylinders
compacted by
rodding

S35/
10

14

15

S40

13

14

S50

12

13

S50M

11

12


Table 820.3
0

VPV limits for various concrete classes

2.

Unless otherwise specified, test cylinders shall be cured in
accordance with AS 1012.


A minimum of 2 cylinders per sample per
trial mix shall be taken.


Each

cylinder shall be tested for VPV at 28 days
in accordance with test method AS 1012.21.


The average value of the
test cylinders shall not exceed the values given in Table
820.3
0
.


3.

Should the VPV value exceed as shown in Table
820.3
0
,


the
Contractor shall

take steps to modify the concrete mix design and re
-
test to ensure that the maximum specified VPV value is not exceeded.



SUPPLY AND DELIVERY
OF CONCRETE


820.31

CONCRETING PLANT


1.

The batching plant shall be capable of producing the
quantities o
f concrete at the rates necessary for the efficient and proper
placement of concrete in the Works.


820.32

BATCHING AND MIXING


1.

The Contractor shall provide and maintain and operate the
batching equipment so as to accurately determine and control th
e
amount of each separate ingredient entering the concrete to the
tolerances specified in AS 1379. The amounts of cement and sand and
each size of aggregate entering each batch of concrete shall be
determined by weighing and the amount of water shall be d
etermined by
weighing or by volumetric measurement.


2.

Mixing of concrete shall comply with the requirements of
AS

1379.



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820.33

TRANSPORT


1.

Concrete shall be transported to the Works in a manner
preventing contamination, segregation or loss of in
gredients.
Containers for transporting concrete shall be cleaned at the end of each
day's work and whenever concreting is interrupted for more than 40
minutes.


2.

In continuous pours the maximum time lag between truck
loads on site shall not exceed 20
minutes.


3.

Concrete shall be continuously agitated from the time of
adding water to the mix until discharge is completed. The use of non
-
agitating equipment to transport concrete will not be permitted.


820.34

TEMPERATURE AT POINT

OF DELIVERY


1.

Placement of concrete will only be permitted providing:

Hot Weather

Concreting

a)

The concrete mix temperature during placement shall at
no time exceed 32°C.


AND, EITHER


b)

The ambient shade temperature is less than 38°C and
falling.


OR


c)

The
ambient shade temperature is less than 38°C and
rising, but placement can be completed before the
ambient temperature exceeds 38°C.


2.

To keep the concrete maximum temperature below 32
°
C it
may be necessary to shield and/or wet the aggregate stockpiles,

chill
the mixing water or schedule concrete placement at night.


3.

When the ambient shade temperature is greater than 32
°
C
suitable means shall be provided by the Contractor to avoid premature
stiffening of concrete placed in contact with hot dry surfa
ces. Where
necessary the surfaces against which concrete is to be placed including
reinforcement and formwork shall be sprayed with water to prevent
excessive absorption of water from the fresh concrete.


820.35

MIX CONSISTENCY


1.

The Contractor shal
l check the consistency of all concrete by
measurement of the slump in accordance with AS 1012.3.1. The
Contractor shall supply a minimum of one full set of Slump Testing
equipment for this purpose for the period of the Contract. In general,
slump tests
shall be carried out close to the concrete discharge point.

Slump Test

820.36

ADDITION OF WATER TO

THE MIX AFTER MIXING


1.

Excessive over
-
mixing shall not be permitted and any
concrete which has been retained in the mixer so long that it requires
add
itional water to permit satisfactory placing shall be rejected.


820.37

SAMPLING OF CONCRETE

FOR STRENGTH



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1.

Sampling procedures for concrete shall conform to AS

1012
and from each sample of concrete taken for the purpose of checking the
28 day compre
ssive strength not less than 3 test specimens shall be
cast.


2.

The Contractor shall have available not less than fifteen
steel moulds for making concrete compression test specimens. For the
period of large concrete pours the Contractor shall supply
adequate
extra moulds to meet the increased frequency of sampling required.


3.


Where it is required to determine the compressive strength
of concrete prior to 28 days, e.g. to determine stripping times for
formwork or to assess when prestressing force m
ay be applied, the
Contractor shall cast additional test specimens and they shall be cured
under similar conditions to the concrete they represent.


820.38

STRENGTH OF CONCRETE

DELIVERED


1.

Concrete from any class shall be deemed to conform with
the s
trength requirements of this Specification if:


a)

Every concrete sample has a 28 day compressive
strength greater than 95% of the nominated strength,


AND


b)

The average 28 day compressive strength for any group
of four consecutive samples is equal
to or greater than
the nominated strength.


2.

Consecutive samples for the same class of concrete are not
restricted to a single pour.


3
.

For a group of samples failing to comply with sub
-
clause
1(b) above that concrete represented by the lowest stren
gth sample
shall be liable to rejection.


4
.

If at any time during the progress of the Works any mix is
found to be unsatisfactory or it becomes necessary to use materials
differing from those originally approved then the Contractor shall
prepare revised

mix designs and prepare trial mixes for testing in
accordance with Clause 820.2
9

prior to their use being approved.
Otherwise for any particular class of concrete the Contractor shall not
vary the properties of the materials used or their relative propor
tions
from those of the approved trial mix.


820.39

CURING AND TESTING O
F SPECIMENS FOR

DETERMINATION OF COM
PRESSIVE STRENGTH


1
.

Within 36 hours all test specimens taken for the purpose of
checking compressive strength shall be placed under standard m
oist
-
curing conditions as defined in AS 1012. Continuous standard moist
-
curing conditions shall be maintained on the test specimens, until the
required curing period has elapsed and the test specimens are removed
for the purpose of compressive strength te
sting.

Curing

2
.

If the requirements of sub
-
clause 1 above can not be
satisfied through the utilisation of off site testing facilities then the
Contractor shall be required to establish on
-
site curing and testing
facilities.

On
-
site
facilities


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820.40


820.50

NOT USED


OPERATIONS


820.51

GENERAL


1.

Requirements for falsework shall be in accordance with
Specification 819 FALSEWORK.

Falsework

2.

Requirements for formwork shall be in accordance with
Specification 821 FORMWORK.

Formwork

3.

Requirem
ents for steel reinforcement shall be in accordance
with Specification 822 STEEL REINFORCEMENT.

Reinforcement

820.52

PLACING CONCRETE


1.

Concrete shall be deposited as near as possible in its final
position and shall be placed in a manner which will p
revent segregation.
It shall be spread in horizontal layers with the first layer not exceeding
350 mm in compacted thickness and the thickness of subsequent layers
limited to 75% of the length of the immersion vibrators being used.
Placing shall be conti
nuous between specified or approved construction
joints.


2.

Where chutes are used to convey concrete their slopes shall
be such as to avoid segregation. Concrete shall not be allowed to fall
freely more than 2.0 m unless suitable chutes or baffles or o
ther devices
are provided to prevent segregation.


3.

Screeding of the deck or top surface of the structure shall
progress in a longitudinal direction with the screed boards operated at
right angles to the centreline of the deck or top surface. Screed g
uides
shall be accurately set and rigidly fixed in position. Guides shall be of
robust construction and shall be capable of sustaining construction
loadings without undue or permanent deflection.


4.

Concrete shall not be placed in standing water.


5.

All concrete in a batch shall be placed in its final position and
compacted within 90 minutes of adding water to the mix.


6.


Prior to the placement of any concrete, the Contractor
shall certify to the Superintendent that all falsework, formwork,
reinfo
rcement and other embedded items, levels, placement
procedures and curing procedures to be employed comply with the
requirements of the Specification.

HOLD
POINT

820.53

CONSTRUCTION JOINTS


1.

The location of all construction joints shall be as indicat
ed on
the Drawings. Construction joints shall be made on true vertical and
horizontal planes, or as otherwise shown on the Drawings. The surface
of the hardened concrete shall be treated to remove all laitance and
expose the aggregate so as to provide a
thorough bond with concrete
cast subsequently. The roughened surface shall be thoroughly cleaned
to remove loose chips and any foreign matter.



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2.

Immediately before fresh concrete is cast against the joint
the hardened concrete surface shall be thoroug
hly wetted.


820.54

COMPACTION


820.54.01

MINIMUM EQUIPMENT


1.

Before commencement of each concrete pour, sufficient
vibrators and spares shall be available and tested. The number of
working vibrators required shall be not less than one for each 4
cubic metres of concrete placed per hour. The number of standby
vibrators shall be not less than 25% of the number of working
vibrators with a minimum of 1.

HOLD
POINT

2.

The required number of vibrators for a given rate of placing
concrete shall be con
tinuously used during the pour.


3.

Immersion vibrators shall be of the rotary out of balance type
with a frequency of not less than 150 Hertz and, where the specified
concrete finish is Class 2 or 3, shall be fitted with approved rubber caps.
The large
st practical size of vibrator should be used.


820.54.02

OPERATION


1.

The concrete shall be properly compacted throughout the full
extent of each layer so as to produce a concrete that is uniformly plastic
,

dense
,

free of all entrapped air and the fin
ished work shall be a dense
and uniform mass free of voids
,

segregation
,

honeycombing and
showing a uniform face as specified when the forms are removed.
Layers of concrete shall not be placed until layers placed previously
have been thoroughly compacted.


2.

Compaction of concrete shall be carried out by approved
power
-
driven immersion vibrators applied in such a manner as will
ensure the concrete is satisfactorily and uniformly compacted.
Immersion vibrators shall penetrate the full depth of the layer

and where
the underlying layer is of fresh concrete
,

shall penetrate that layer a
minimum of 100mm to ensure that successive layers are well knitted
together. Immersion vibrators shall be withdrawn slowly to prevent the
formation of voids. Vibrators sha
ll not be used to work the concrete
along the forms or in such a way as to damage formwork.


820.54.03

ADDITIONAL REQUIREME
NTS FOR BRIDGE DECK
CONCRETE


1.

Compaction of deck concrete shall be carried out using
approved vibrating screeds in addition to

immersion vibrators followed
by screeding with a "bull float" and finishing with a mechanical trowelling
machine.


2
.

Concrete at the top surface of bridge decks must
be a
rough
-
textured surface

suitable for bituminous surfacing.
This surface
can be pr
oduced with a rough mechanical trowelling or any method that
is approved by the Superintendent.
A smooth finish will not be permitted
except at the locations to be covered with a preformed waterproof
membrane
.



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820.55

FINISHING OF UNFORME
D SURFACES


820
.55.01

GENERAL


1.

The type of finish and surface texture required in each part
of the Works shall be as shown on the Drawings.


820.55.02

ALLOWABLE TOLERANCES


1.

Unformed concrete surface finishes shall be as designated
on the Drawings with refere
nce to the classifications given in Table
820.
4
.




Designated
Finish

Type of Concrete Finish

Maximum Allowable
Surface

Irregularities

U1

A wood floated finish to produce a
uniform surface without surface pitting
or cavities.

5mm abrupt or 15mm in a
3m t
emplate.

U2

A high quality steel trowelled finish
having a dense smooth impervious
finish without surface pitting or cavities.

Nil abrupt or 5mm in a 3m
template.

U3

A high quality mechanical steel
trowelled finish having a dense
impervious finish withou
t surface pitting
or cavities.

2mm abrupt or 5mm in a
3m template.

U4

A wood floated surface with a broomed
finish.

3mm abrupt or 5mm in a
3m template.


TABLE 820.
4


UNFORMED SURFACE FINISHES FOR CONCRETE

820.
55
.03

BROOMED FINISH


1.

Broomed surfaces
shall be obtained by finishing with a wood
float followed by brooming transversely to the principal slope direction,
or perpendicular to the edges. The broomed finish shall contain
grooves between 1mm and 3mm deep spaced between 2mm and 6mm
apart so as to

provide a non
-
slip surface.


820.
56


CURING OF CONCRETE


1.

Freshly placed concrete shall be protected from the sun,
wind and rain and prevented from drying out too quickly.


2.

Curing shall commence immediately after the concrete has
achieved its fi
nal set.


3.

The minimum curing period for structural concrete shall be 7
days. The minimum curing period for concrete Class S50M and any
other concrete incorporating ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica
fume or fly ash shall be 14 days.



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4.

A
ll concrete surfaces shall be cured by one of the following
methods:


a)

By covering with sand or hessian or foam which is kept
permanently wet.


b)

By wrapping with polythene or similar film to provide an
airtight cover.


c)

By maintaining the formw
ork in position for the required
curing period.


d)

By spraying with an approved curing compound
complying with the requirements of AS

3799. Such
curing compound shall be applied in accordance with the
manufacturer's published recommendations.


5.

If
the Contractor proposes to use a spray
-
on curing
membrane on the top surface of the bridge deck the Contractor shall
remove it by an approved means immediately before application of the
surfacing.


6.

Concrete deck slabs shall also be treated with an app
roved
aliphatic
-
alcohol based evaporation retardant coating applied according
to the manufacturer's
published
recommendations immediately after the
surface has been initially screeded.


7.

The Contractor shall ensure that the method of curing shall
not r
esult in any staining of exposed surfaces of concrete.


820.
5
7


PROTECTION OF CONCRE
TE
SURFACES


1.

The Contractor shall protect all completed surfaces from
damage and staining from any source including rain water and concrete
spillage and grout spillag
e and contact with hardwoods and ferrous
metals. Where a delay is likely prior to casting the next concrete pour
such that reinforcement bars protruding from completed sections may
cause staining to exposed parts of the finished Works, then the bars
shall

be suitably treated to prevent rusting.


2.

Where any damage or staining has occurred to completed
concrete surfaces the affected section shall be deemed to be non
-
conforming. The method of repair or removal shall in no way harm or
damage the adjacent
section of the Works.


820
.
58



820
.80

NOT USED


AS BUILT AND HANDOVE
R

REQUIREMENTS


820
.8
1



820
.90

NOT USED


CONTRACT SPECIFIC RE
QUIREMENTS


820
.9
1



820
.99

NOT USED




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ANNEXURE
820
A

CLASS OF CONCRETE


Class of Concrete

Works Component

S35/10

Prec
ast parapet panels

S40

Normal superstructures

and substructures in
non
-
marine environments

Approach slabs

End treatments and base slabs for major box
culverts

S50

Special superstructures

S50M

Reinforced concrete substructures in marine
environments



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A
NNEXURE 820
B

ATIC

CEMENTITIOUS MATERIA
LS FOR CONCRETE

REQUEST FOR REGISTRA
TION BY MANUFACTURER

Cement or Blend Details

Product Name


Type


Proportions


Manufacturer


Place of Manufacture


Source of Constituent Materials

Cement Clinker


Fly Ash


Slag


Limestone


Gypsum


Grinding Aids


Supply Details

Dispatching Supplier


Contact Name


Contact Phone No.


Contact Address


Suppliers ABN



Send this form with the sample to:






RTA Chemical and Materials
Laboratory


Att: Laboratory Officer


Un
it H, 75 St. Hilliers Rd,

Auburn NSW 2144

For RTA Laboratory Use Only:


Date of Registration:



Registration No:


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S
PECIFICATION
820

GUIDANCE

NOTES

DELETE
THESE

GUIDANCE
NOTES

FROM FINAL DOCUMENT AFTER USING FOR
REFERENCE

All edits to downloaded TD
P

documents shall be tracked (most word processing
software allows this to be done automatically). Deletions shall be struck through e.g.
example
. Insertions shall be in italics e.g.
example
. If

all

information relating to a clause
is deleted then the clause number should be retained and the words "
NOT USED
"
should be inserted.

The proposed documents with tracked changes shall be submitted to
the Project
Manager

for review, prior to p
rinting the final batch of documents. When this final
printing is carried out, the tracked changes option is to be
turned off
.

The Custodian of this specification is
the
Structures Design and Standards Engineer
.

1.

CLASS OF CONCRETE

1.1

The description in
Annexure 820A
may
need to be modified to clarify where
each class of concrete applies. Class S50M concrete is a class that has been used for
marine environments. Its performance is being monitored. Where this does not apply,
the words
, “


except for cl
ass S
50M … (through to and including) … material with
silica fume’

in Clause
820.
2
8
.2

should be deleted
.

2.

STEAM CURING (Clause 820.91)

2.1

Clause 820.
91

Steam Curing
refers to

precasting operations
, and should be
added if applicable.

2.2

This clause may
be useful when the steam curing of PSC beams, piles,
culverts or other concrete elements is required
.

3.

TRAFFIC RESTRICTIONS

3.1

If applicable, r
estrictions to traffic to allow maturation of concrete may need
to be
included



insert as Clause 820.92 where

applicable
.

4.

LIMITATIONS ON MAXIMUM COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

4.1

Subject to investigation for special projects



insert as
Clause 820.93 where
applicable
.

5.

LIMITATIONS ON SHRINKAGE

(Refer also

CLAUSE 820.13)

5.1

Subject to investigation for special projec
ts



insert as
Clause 820.94 where
applicable
.

5.
2

Delete clause
820.13
if the specific value of shrinkage has been nominated
and used in the design as given on the Drawings
. Amend “Not Used” clause range
accordingly.

6.

VARIATION OF NOMINATED MIXES

6.1

S
ubject to investigation for special projects



insert as
Clause 820.95 where
applicable
.


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7.

CLAUSE 820.35 MIX CONSISTENCY

7.1

For rural Contracts where mobile concrete batch plant facilities are used,
one (1) slump test must be carried out on each truck de
livered to Site.




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CONTRACT SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS TO ADD OR DELETE



The following clauses are to be placed under the CONTRACT SPECIFIC
REQUIREMENTS as required. Note that
if more than 1 Clause is required
the Clause
number
s

may be varied within the rang
e allocated to this section to suit the
requirements of the project and the remaining “Not Used” numbers adjusted
accordingly. Also the Clause number and heading style should be altered to, “H2

DSB

so that it will be included in the specification Content
s page.





820
.
9
1

STEAM CURING


820.91.01

GENERAL


1.

This section of the Specification covers the curing of precast
concrete units in an atmosphere saturated with water vapour at a
pressure not exceeding atmospheric pressure.


2.

The method of cont
rol and the proposed curing cycle to
achieve the specified concrete compressive strength are the
responsibility of the Contractor, but shall be in accordance with this
Specification.


3.

The Contractor shall take measures to allow for the potential
lower

28
-
day compressive strength obtained from test cylinders cured
initially under in
-
situ conditions, as compared to those cured in
accordance with the requirements of AS

1012.


820.91.02

STEAM COVERS


1.

To prevent drying out, steam covers shall be plac
ed over the
units immediately following the casting and screeding operations in such
a manner as to ensure free circulation of the steam around the concrete
mass.


820.91.03

CURING CYCLE


1.

After an initial "maturity " of 40°C hours, but not less than

2

hours after batching the last batch of concrete for the units, steam shall
be admitted to the steam covers at such a controlled rate that the
maximum average temperature rise shall not exceed 24°C per hour and
the temperature rise in any one
15

minute p
eriod shall not exceed 6°C.
(Note: The initial "maturity" period is calculated by dividing 40°C hours
by the concrete temperature of the last batch of concrete placed in the
unit. The concrete temperature is as measured on an indicating
thermometer).



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2.

If the admission of steam to the steam covers is delayed by
more than the initial specified "maturity" of 40°C hours after the
completion of placing of concrete, water curing, shall be applied until
steaming commences.


3.

Steaming shall continue at
a rate such that the temperature
rise shall not exceed 24°C per hour, until a temperature under the steam
covers of not greater than
7
5
°C has been reached. The steam supply
shall then be reduced to maintain the temperature at 70°C
±

5°C.


4.

After the e
lapse of sufficient time at the maximum
temperature for the required concrete properties to have been reached,
steam shall be completely shut down. Steam covers shall not be
removed nor any part of the concrete units and test cylinders disturbed
in any wa
y until the temperature under the steam covers has fallen to
within 30°C of the ambient temperature. The rate of loss of temperature
under the steam covers after shutting off steam shall not exceed 24°C
per hour.


820.91.04

TEMPERATURE CONTROLS


1.

Te
mperature shall be recorded by means of recording
thermometers. The temperature sensitive parts of the thermometers
shall be so positioned under the steam covers as to record the minimum
temperature under the covers. One recording thermometer shall be
us
ed for each unit or group of units in line up to a total length of 25m.
For greater lengths, additional recording thermometers shall be used
and the distance between the temperature sensitive parts of the
thermometers shall not exceed 25m.


2.

The recor
ding thermometers shall be set in operation
immediately upon completion of casting and screeding.


3.

Charts shall not be removed from any recording
thermometers, nor the recording thermometers disturbed or moved in
any way until after the removal of the

steam covers.


4.

Charts from temperature recording thermometers shall be
retained.


5.

The following information shall be recorded on the chart:


a)

date on which steaming commenced;


b)

unique identification and description of concrete unit;


c
)

temperature correction, if any;


d)

time correction, if any;


e)

batching of concrete;


f)

temperature of concrete when placed;


g)

ambient temperature at time of removal of steam covers;

and


h)

name of Contractor
and

manufacturer.



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820.91.0
5

STEAM DELIVERY


1.

Under no circumstances shall steam jets be allowed to
impinge upon any part of the concrete units or of a test specimen, or of
their formwork or moulds. Neither shall any steam delivery pipe be
attached directly to any formwork or
moulds in such a manner as may
cause localised overheating of the concrete.


2.

Sufficient steam jets or steam entry points shall be provided
to ensure that a substantially uniform temperature is maintained under
the steam covers such that the difference

in temperature between any
two points adjacent to the concrete units is not more than 10°C.


820.91.06

EXTENT OF STEAM CURI
NG


1.

Unless otherwise specified, steam curing shall be
continuously applied until at least the
7
day compressive strength for
the
specified concrete grade is obtained.


820.91.07

PARTIAL STEAM CURING


1.

Where steam curing is used only to obtain sufficient
compressive strength for removal of forms or for lifting, curing shall be
continued by one or a combination of the method
s specified in Clause
820.56, for a minimum period of
7

days.


820.91.08

CURING OF TEST CYLIN
DERS


1.

Concrete compression test cylinders shall be placed near
the concrete units, and shall be so positioned under the steam covers as
to be midway between

2

adjacent points of steam entry, subject always
to their being no closer to any points of steam entry than half the width
of the concrete units. Test cylinders shall be positioned in a group at
the lower face of the concrete unit and shall in no case be

placed on top
of the concrete unit or its formwork.


2.

Test cylinders shall remain in position under the steam
covers until the steam curing cycle is complete. Test cylinders shall be
suitably covered in such a way as to minimise moisture and temperat
ure
losses between the time of removal from the steam covers and the time
of forwarding to an accredited laboratory for testing. Cylinders shall be
transported in moisture proof containers.






MAIN ROADS Western Australia

Specification 820 Concrete for Structures

Page
28

of
28

Contract xxx/xx

Document 04/10134 Issue 17
/
06/13



SPECIFICATION AMENDMENT
CHECKLIST


Specification Name:

No:
820


Revision

No:

_____T
itle:

CONCRETE FOR
STRUCTURES


Project Manager: Name:

_______________Signature
:
______________Date:___
___


Checked By:

Name: ___________
____
Signature: _______________Date:
_
____
_


Contract

No:

______
C
ontract
D
escript
ion
:

______________
________________


ITEM

DESCRIPTION

SIGN
OFF

Note:

All changes/amendments
must
be shown in Tracked Change mode until
approved.

1.

Project Manager has reviewed Specification and identified
Additions and Amendments.


2.

CONTRACT SPECIF
IC REQUIREMENTS

addressed?


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p灥捩fi捡瑩c渠n畩摡湣n N潴敳of潲og畩摡湣n).




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if “Yes” provide details at 15.





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MUST SEEK

approval from
MCP.


5.

Clause deletions shown as ‘NOT USED’.




A灰r潰ri慴攠
INSPECTION & TESTING

parameters included in
Spec 201 (Test Methods, Minimum Testing Frequencies
verified).


7.

ANNEXURES
completed (Refer
Sp
ecification Guidance

Notes).


8.

HANDOVER

and
AS BUILT

requirements addressed.


9.

Main Roads Q
S has approved changes to
SMM
.


10.

Project Manager certifies completed Specification reflects intent
of the design.


11.

Completed Specification


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mr潪散琠j慮慧敲


ㄲN

Project Manager’s review completed.


ㄳN

SPECIFICATION GUIDANCE NOTES

deleted.


14.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

updated.


15

Supporting information prepared and submitted to Project
Manager.


Further action neces
sary:



Signed:






(Project Manager)


Date:_______________