Teleoperation-interfaces

builderanthologyAI and Robotics

Oct 19, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Teleoperation

Interfaces

Introduction


Interface between
the operator and
teleoperator!


Teleoperation
interface is like any
other HMI


H(mobile)RI = TI


Also a HCI

Introduction


mechanical
manipulation


”included” interface


Modern methods


Closed loop
teleoperation


MMI


Supervisory control


HCI


Mixed interfaces

Interface types, Fong


Direct


Closed loop


Multimodal/multisensor


Multisensor/actuator control


Supervisory control


Intelligent telerobot


Novel


New ones

Interface
-

Direct


Closed loop control


Realtime operator
decision making is
needed


Operator controls with
hand controllers (like
onboard)


High bandwith low
delay communication

Multimodal/multisensor


Complex robot in
dynamic situation


Individual actuator
control, graphical
feedback,
coordinated motion


Integrated display
with combined
sensor information

Supervisory control


Remarkable part of the control in the
teleoperator end


Teleoperator is capable for more or less
autonomous task execution


“task based teleoperation”

Control methods

Direct

Supervisory

Novel interfaces


”novel” is relative


gestures


gazes


brainwaves


muscle movements


WEB interfaces


multimodal


supervisory

Telepresence


When sufficient amount of sensor
information (vision, sound, force) is
brought from the teleoperator site to
the operator he or she feels physically
present in the teleoperator site


Called also tele
-
existence


Important information is transferred
and dangerous/noise is filtered

Virtual presence (reality)


Like tele
-
presence
except the sensor
infromation is
generated artificially
by computer(s)


Simulators


Games


Models

Augmented reality


Real information
(usually image data)
is mixed with
additional virtual
information


Numerical
information, real
-
time models, etc.

Telepresence


Already camera monitor combination creates
some level of presence


more sophisticated system is called for in
order to call it telepresence



To provide a perfect telepresence, all human
senses should be transmitted from the
teleoperator site to the operator site


vision, hearing and sense are relatively easy


smell and taste are more complicated


Vision



Humans get 90% of their perception


“To see is to believe”


eyes are very complex opto
-
mechanical
systems



FoV is (H)180 deg x (V)120 deg


Focused area only few degrees


Movements from whole area


Extremely difficult system to be imitated

Vision


Head tracking


Head following
cameras (2
-
3
DoF)


HMD


=> relatively
good feeling of
presence

Hearing


Human area 16


20000Hz


Important in telepresence


In case of mobile machine control the
noise can be filtered and the important
sounds transferred with reasonable
volume

Touch


The most important human sense


Human touch sensors


mechanoreceptors


are activated by
touch, i.e. by pressure on the tissues


Two basic classes


tactile information

(“touch”)


kinesthetic information

(“force”)

Tactile


referring to the sense of contact with
the object, mediated by the responses
of low
-
threshold mechanoreceptors
innervating the skin (say, the finger
pad) within and around the contact
region

Kinesthetic



referring to the sense of position and
motion of limbs along with the
associated forces conveyed by the
sensory receptors in the skin around
the joints, joint capsules, tendons, and
muscles, together with neural signals
derived from motor commands


Force feedback (kinesthetic)


force generated by the
teleoperator, usually a
manipulator, is fed back
to the operator in order
to generate a real
response in gripping
and manipulation tasks


Also in virtual
environments


Inbuilt in mechanical
manipulators

Haptic feedback (tactile)


haptic feedback, the
tactile skin sensors
have the main role.


tactile sensing of the
robot manipulator is
fed back to the
fingers of the
operator


Other possibilities
also

Vestibular sensors


inside the inner ear


angular acceleration and thus rotation


linear acceleration in the horizontal and
vertical plane, i.e. to gravity



=> position and movements of the
head to be detected


Important in dynamic driving tasks

Vestibular feedback


not usually used in
teleoperation


not needed and
expensive to implement


usually in simulators to
create presence


If vision and vestibular
sensors mismatch =>
simulator sickness
(=seasickness)

Simulator Sickness


similar to motion sickness


difference is that SS can occur without
any actual motion of the operator



Symptoms: apathy, general discomfort,
headache, stomach awareness, nausea,
etc.


encountered especially when HMD type
displays are used

Simulator Sickness


The most typical reason
of SS is the cue conflict


In cue conflict different
nerves get different
information from the
environment


Typically conflict
between visual and
vestibular inputs



especially when HMD is
used and the time lags
in vision and control


Moving

teloperator

+

=>

What is Presence

Overview

Traditional explanation


Based on tele(virtual)
-
presence


Sheridan’s definition of telepresence

Traditional explanation


Extent of sensory information has a
much greater impact than the other two
combined. These three factors however
cannot describe presence alone. Task
variables, such as task difficulty and
degree of automation, also are
important to presence.

Is presence only sensor
information?


It’s very easy to be unpresent in a boring
situation


like lectures


What about dreaming while sleeping or
burying one’s head a book


Presence can be very strong without any
sensor information


”a self generated
Virtual Reality”


A book


a film from same book


Maximum effect with hallucinogens

3 modes of presence

1.
Really present, perceiving the existing
environment

2.
Tele or virtual presence


presence is
transferred/generated by ”cheating” human
senses

3.
”Mental” presence, presence is generated in
the mind without (direct) sensor information