Real Time M & S

builderanthologyAI and Robotics

Oct 19, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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High Performance Computing for
Real Time M & S

Randall Shumaker

Director, Institute for Simulation and Training


Growth in important IT technologies

Optical Fiber

(bits/second)

Silicon Computer Chips

(number of transistors)

Data Storage

(bits/square inch)

Number of years

0

4

5

3

2

1

Doubling Time

(months)

Source: Scientific American Jan 2001

“The Triumph of the Light” p81
-
86

High End Computing Power

The Top 10 Machines

November 2007

Rmax is in TeraFLOPS = One Trillion (10
12
) Floating Point Operations per second

Projected Top 500 computing power

Storage has more than kept pace

Circuit City external hard drive
advertisement Jan 2008

750 Gbyte USB 2.0 drive $199.99


3.375 Gigabytes/Dollar!

Why can’t it go on forever?

Source: Economist 10 May 2003

The heat dissipation issue:
power density of Intel processors
(watts/ sq Cm)

IBM demonstration
-

80 cores on a die

Shifting strategies
-

multiple processing cores on each die

What does all this mean for
less high end computing?

Comparable Trends in Nature

Time (days)

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Growth of a Weed
in the Negev Desert

Height (
inches
)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Harvester Ant
Colony Size

By these standards computers are probably late midlife in growth

When might this reasonably be expected
to taper off?

(Prediction is hard, particularly about the future)

multicore

Where is the PC world now?

Apple has announced the Mac Pro dual quad

Typical Configuration:



Two 3.0 GHz Quad core Intel Xeon (8
-

cores)



16 G
-
bytes RAM



2 T
-
bytes Disc



Dual link DVI video 256 M bytes graphics memory



2
-

20 inch flat panel graphics displays



Cost: $8,422 plus tax, free shipping

The good news:

This is a highly capable system, theoretical
peak performance is > 600 GigaFLOPS. Five years ago this would
have been a supercomputer. In 5 years this will cost under $2000.


The bad news:

Pretty much none of your current software can
take effective advantage of this capability.

What are some implications of
these numbers?

Some perspective: Computing Power and Capabilities

The Hans Moravec vision

Computing Power and Capabilities

The Hans Moravec vision

Intel Pentium 4 EE (2005)

9.726 MIPS @ 3.2GHz

AMD Athlon FX
-
60

dual core (2006)

22.150 MIPS @2.6 GHz

Blue gene L (2007)

478 Tflops

Well Hans!, computing power
isn’t really the problem

Visual metaphor for the state of the art in software development

Where might we like to apply
more computing power other
than building a monkey brain?

Interactive Simulation


Needs


Real time capability using fast processors and high
-
speed interconnects


High fidelity


Low latency/High bandwidth interconnects


Real time I/O


Connection to real world assets


Fixed frame rates (some apps)



Strategies


Message Passing Interface (MPI) or Scalable Link Interface (SLI)


Ltd shared memory processing (SMP) or distributed processing



Interfaces with sensory processors (e.g., interactive visualization,
haptics, …)



Scalability in terms of HPC architecture and simulation entities

Areas for Investigation


Extents of single image environments


Terrain/Environment


Interacting entities


Live, virtual, constructive experimentation


Scalable simulations


Multi
-
scale simulations


Control of propagating granularity


HPC architectures for interaction


Map HPC types to applications


Techniques for porting interactive applications to HPC
platforms


Tools for interaction

Areas for Investigation (con’t)


Let’s remember the ‘human factor’


How will a user interact with an HPC?


How will multiple users interact with an HPC &
maintain coherence of I/O?


How will interim results be gathered?


How can timely and relevant HF experiments
be developed to influence the design?


Get developers involved…

UCF/IST high performance
computing initiative

The Purchase


Competitive Procurement (7 Bids)


IBM X
-
Series


24 Node (192 Cores) ~1.8 TeraFLOPS


16 GB Memory/Node

(768 Gigabytes RAM)


20 TB Spinning Storage (20,000 GigaBytes)


Red Hat Linux1


3 Years Support


Expect Delivery in mid Feb 2008

How this fits within the big HPC picture

1st increment

2nd increment

HPC Infrastructure Support


Sys Admin and Parallelization Expertise


Training from IBM


15 Days On
-
Site


Tuned to Our Skill Set


Support from IBM


3 Year Warranty/Software Licenses


Services


Storage/Network Config


Resource Mgmt Setup




Some slides we stole from
Roger Smith, CTO PEOSTRI, to
validate our views

HPC Applications

Batch Jobs


Computational Fluid
Dynamics


Computational
Chemistry


Protein Folding


Cryptanalysis

Interactive


JFCOM Urban
Challenge 2004


Joint SAF

Future Simulation Hardware


HPC in its various forms may be an important part of
the future of simulation … we intend to find out



We need the support of our Team Orlando partners



HPC offers the power to



Create larger scenarios with higher fidelity


Drive innovation in simulation software architecture


Globally distribute training from a Simulation IT Center


Coordinate different technologies for different problems:


Distributed Processing, Clusters, Shared Memory,
Multicore, GPGPU, Cell

HPC in the Sim Center

Shared Memory: Big Scenarios

Tight connection between Sims distributed
across multiple CPU and memory.

E.g. Very large single instance of WARSIM

on 128 processors

Cluster: Multi
-
chunked World

Many Sim instances on individual CPUs with
local memory.

E.g. Multiple geographically divided OneSAF
instances.

GPU: Vector Operations

Off
-
loaded vector operations like rendering
and LOS.

E.g. Graphic heads for HPC or LOS for sims.

Shared

Cluster

GPU

Simulation Server

Multi
-
core: Multi
-
threaded Software

Every CPU in the machine can support
multiple threads.

E.g. Movement, AI, Sensors parsed off to a
separate core.

Training to Every Unit

C4I

IT

E
-
BOX

Sim GUI, Web I/F, Google Earth

[Analogy: GIAC, Tapestry, Phosphor]

Sim Center 21

Shared

Cluster

GPU

Closed, Portable Sim Center

Sim

IT

CTRL

NET

Regional Ctr

Cluster

GPU

Network,

Service Oriented Arch

HPC Competition


Suffolk
-

JFCOM


UR’04, Wright
-
Patt, Maui, Joint SAF Federation


1,000,000 Simple Entities Active


Getting their own 256 node HPC (generic cluster)



Huntsville


MDA, SMDC


Advanced Research Center


Hypervelocity Missile Center


Redstone Technical Test Center



Orlando


PEO
-
STRI, RDECOM


OneSAF Chemical Plumes (SAIC)


OneSAF LOS on GPU (RDECOM STTC, UNC Chapel Hill, SAIC)


WARSIM on Multiple Cores (PM CONSIM, Lockheed, Northrop)

Team Orlando


PEO
-
STRI, STTC, & UCF IST HPC



$1M Congressional Earmark



PM CONSIM Support



Supercomputing 2007 Conference
Panel



… Bring Your Corporate Expertise Here

Competitive Summary


Is HPC or specialized computing an important part of
the future of Interactive Training Simulation?




If so …



Who are the competitors?


How is Team Orlando positioned to compete?


What can your organization contribute?



Where will HPC
-
enabled simulation be based?



Suffolk, Huntsville, Orlando, DC
-
area, Leavenworth

Questions?