A Mobile Robot - EyeHunt

builderanthologyAI and Robotics

Oct 19, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Mobile Robots


presented by



Rocio Alba
-
Flores



Assistant Professor

ECE Department UMD



December 9, 2003



The term

Robot

was
introduced by the Czech
playwright Karel Capek in his
1920 play Rossum’s Universal
Robots.




Robota

is the Czech word for
work


Virtually anything that operates with
some degree of autonomy
, usually
under computer control, has at some
point been called a
Robot.

The study of Robotics involves areas such as:




Electrical Engineering



Control



Microprocessors



Digital Design



Computer Architecture



Machine Vision



Sensors




Mechanical Engineering



Locomotion



Grasping and Manipulation





Industrial Engineering



Computer Aided Design




Computer Science



Artificial Intelligence



Neural Networks



Programming Languages



Image Processing




Mathematics



Algorithms



Models

Basically we can classify Robots
in two types:




Manipulators




Mobile Robots

A Manipulator is a
reprogrammable

multifunctional robot designed to move
material, parts, tools or specialized
devices through variable programmed
motions for the performance of a variety
of tasks.


Mobile Robots


Mobile

Robots

use

either

wheels

or

legs

to

move

around
.


These

are

usually

attached

to

a

base

to

form

a

vehicle


Equipment

to

perform

other

functions

is

mounted

on

the

base
.


The key element is the
reprogrammability

of robots.
It is the computer brain that
gives the robot its utility and
adaptability.




Advantages in favor of Robots




Decrease labor costs




Increase precision and productivity




Substitute some human working
conditions as:




Dull



Repetitive



Hazardous jobs

Robotic Manipulators

Components of a manipulator



Links



Joints



DC motors



End
-
Effector (“hand”, gripper, tool)


Methods of Control in Robot
Manipulators


No
-
Servo Robots


Open
-
loop devices: Very limited movements


Servo Controlled Robots


Use closed
-
loop computer control to
determine their motion: Reprogrammable
devices

Mobile Robots

Applications



Where

human

life

is

in

danger

or

where

it

is

very

expensive

for

a

person

to

perform

certain

activities
.





Repetitive operations that need to be
performed. For example: Mail delivery, trash
collection, surveillance of the environment, etc.



To

help

Handicapped

people
.

Main Components of Mobile Robots



Sensors
.
Infra red, obstacle detector,
ultrasonic, photo resistors, bumper,
microphone, touch, radiation, heat, etc.



Actuators
.
Motors



Controllers
.
Microprocessor.



Vision system
.
Cameras



Commands Methods
.
Voice, remote
control, programs


Basic Mobile Robot

Detects Electromagnetic Radiation

The robot looks for

harmful electromagnetic
radiation, if it finds any, it
alerts nearby humans

Obstacle Avoidance Robot

This robot uses
infrared sensing to
achieve obstacle
avoidance and
targeting

Snake Robot



Multiple joins provides many ways to manipulate its body



It moves through serpentine motions (no legs or wheels)



IR sensor for obstacle avoidance



Its head is designed to easily mount many different sensors


Demining
Robot




Mine

detection

and

mine

removal
.

In

demining

a

robot

must

pass

a

mine

detector

sensor

over

all

points

in

the

region

that

might

conceal

a

mine
.

Once

a

mine

is

detected,

the

robot

should

remove

it
.


Demining Robot

The use of robots
bypasses the danger,
reduces the cost and
speeds the process

Fire Fighters




In extinguishing a fire.
The robot should detect
the source of fire and
extinguish it.


Roomba


A useful and affordable robot

UMD Robotic Projects

Race Car

Insect Behavior

Heat Sensing

Mars Polar Lander

In automatic driving,
Intelligent vehicles intended
for driving highways.


In the Near Future

In the Near Future




In outer space missions Mobile robots will
investigate new elements on far away
planets.

Aerospace Applications

The Space Shuttle
Atlantis docked to the
International Space
Station

ASIMO


Humanoid Robot


A robot that can duplicate the
complexities of human motion and
genuinely help people.

An easy task? Not at all.

ASIMO took more than 16 years of
persistent study, research, and trial
and error before Honda engineers
achieved their dream of creating an
advanced humanoid robot.