Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

bubblesvoltaireInternet and Web Development

Nov 10, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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English: Grade
4

Page:
1


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Zoologists believe the stripes on a zebra could be one of several reasons. It could be basically for camouflage
very much like the military fatigues. The bold wavy lines of a zebra
blend in with the tall wavy grassy plains
of Africa where these animals live. The bold stripe may even serve to break up the shape of the Zebra. If a
zebra is standing still in such surroundings, a lion, its chief predator, may overlook it completely.

It d
oesn't matter that the Zebra's stripes are black and white and the grass are dusty brown or green, because
the lion is color blind!

However this may benefit an individual zebra in some situations but is it likely a large zebra herd would be
able to escape
a lion's notice? This is exactly where it helps the zebra most. Zebra herds are very large but
they stay very close to one another.

When all the zebras stick together in a herd, the pattern of stripes blends in with the stripes of the zebras
around it. Thi
s is confusing to the lion! All it can see is a large, moving, striped mass instead of many
individual zebras. The lion has trouble picking out individual zebras and it's harder still for the lion to
recognize which way each zebra is moving!

Each zebra pat
tern is unique like a fingerprint. Also like a fingerprint, the patter varies from zebra to zebra
and no two zebras are exactly alike. What is truly amazing is that zebras can recognize other zebras from their
body stripe! A mother can instantly spot her c
olt in a herd!

There are three species classified according to the variations in the arrangement of the stripes
-

the Imperial or
Grevy's zebra, the Plains or Common zebra and the Mountain zebra
-

and several subspecies. The mountain
zebra is the smallest
of these averaging only four feet. It has silver
-

white stripes with black markings that
extend to every part of the body except the stomach and the inner part of thighs. Plains zebras travel in large
herds and are pale yellow with broad black stripes. Thi
s specie has several variations: some have stripes down
to the hooves while the lower legs of the others are solid white without any stripes.

People of Africa think of zebras as black animals with white stripes whereas people outside Africa consider
them a
s white animals with black stripes! Black stripes or white, the fact remains that zebras are extremely
unique and are among the fastest and most graceful of runners in the African bush land.









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English: Grade
4

Page:
2


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the follow
ing questions:

One might find it amazing
-

how can smudges on a glass identify people? How can one’s hand be different
from others
-

apart from the size that is? If you were to press your thumb on an inkpad and then on a sheet of
white paper you will leave

a smudge or print.

N
o one else in the world can make

a similar smudge
. The same
would be true for each of your fingers. The Chinese were the first to use fingerprints to affix their signatur
e on
important documents. But,
they had no way of identifying or
matching it with the owner.

If you look closely at the inside of your palm you can see tiny lines all over. These are absolutely unique and
they remain practically unchanged from birth to death. Each print is one
-
of
-
a
-
kind and no two people have the
same c
haracteristic. Scientists and criminologists (those who study criminal characteristics) determine the
individuality of a fingerprint by a careful study of its ridge characteristics and not by its general shape or
pattern.

The surface of the skin has been d
esigned to provide our bodies with a firm grasp and to prevent objects
grasped from slipping. Skin is composed of layers of cells. The outer portion of skin is called the epidermis
while the inner skin is the dermis. Separating the two layers is a boundary

of cells called the papillae.

Each skin ridge has a single row of pores that open out for the sweat glands. Once the finger touches a
surface, sweat from these pores, along with other body oils layer the ridge of the skin and are thus transferred
to that
surface. The result is an impression of the finger's ridge pattern. Such prints are referred to as hidden
fingerprints because they are invisible to the naked eye.

The system, called dactyloscopy or the science of fingerprint identification was first imple
mented in London
by Sir Edward Richard Henry, the head of Scotland Yard. This system is still used by police departments all
over the world today with few changes. It works so well that fingerprints can be filed away by some groups,
instead of by the name
or description of the criminal. Even though millions of prints may be on the file in an
office, the right one can be picked out in just a few minutes.

Today, technology has improved so much that from even half a print, scientists can identify and match it
with
the prints in their files and today, fingerprints can be ‘lifted’ from most any surface, not just glass!










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English: Grade
4

Page:
3


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Do you know that a newborn child is given vaccination
or shot
for many diseases? You scream your head off
to avoid the
injection
. You might also
the person who invented such a painful method for treatment, but the
fact remains that whenever we are sick
,

an injection does the trick.

How did it begin? It so happened th
at one day in 1768, a young milkmaid visited a doctor in Gloucestershire,
England. Though nearly everyone in the distri
ct was then sick with smallpox
, the milkmaid was not affected!
The smallpox was
a dreaded disease at that time
.

In the eighteenth century
, smallpox was a killer disea
se, as
widespread as cancer now. T
he majority of victims
of smallpox
were young children.

When the doctor asked her the reason, the milkmaid remarked that she had already had cowpox
. The cowpox
is

a disease with sympto
ms simila
r to those of smallpox. But the cowpox

was

in a very mild form. The
significance of her remark was not lost on a young medical student, Edward Jenner, who was also present
there.

Jenner was intrigued by this simple explanation that those who caught cowpox
could not catch smallpox.
After getting his degree, he returned to Gloucestershire to practice medicine
.

He

devote
d

his spare time in
research and investigation. He found out t
hat the milkmaid had been right
-

people who had cowpox very
rarely caught small
pox.

In

1796, another milkmaid, Sarah Nelmes, came to Jenner with cowpox. He conducted a daring experiment.
He took some of the virus from the boils on Sarah's hands and passed on the disease to James Phipps
-

his
gardener's son
-

by scratching his skin wi
th infected metal (vaccination). When James had recovered from the
cowpox, Jenner tried to give him smallpox. James failed to contract the disease.

Edward Jenner had discovered a cure for smallpox! Jenner named this inoculation process, "vaccination",
from

the Latin name for cow (vacca) and cowpox (vaccinia).

Vaccination at first had many opponents, but eventually its value became firmly established. Today smallpox
been nearly wiped out
and it’s no longer a killer disease. Many

can
now
get vaccinated or imm
unized against
many other diseases too
.

Vaccination

is usually performed right from the birth of the child.









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English: Grade
4

Page:
4



Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Ginger has always been an essential part of most Asian kitchens and

grandmothers’ medicine boxes. This
spice has been used to treat the feeling of vomiting and indigestion. Now the Western world has also
discovered the wonderful qualities of ginger. They see it as a powerful medicine against nausea across the
world. Ginge
r is most commonly known for its effectiveness as a digestive aid. By increasing the production
of digestive fluids and saliva, Ginger helps relieve indigestion, gas pains, diarrhea and stomach cramping.

Grandmothers have known all along that the juice squ
eezed from ginger mixed with lime juice can stop one
from feeling like vomiting. Since the taste is not very appealing, especially to children, sugar is often used to
mask the strong taste of ginger. Then it is no longer a medicine, but a sweetmeat that ev
eryone likes to eat!

Ginger is a perennial plant, distinguished by the white and yellowish
-
greenish flowers it produces, as well as
its thick stem. The ginger plant is known to have originated in China, however it has since then been
cultivated in many othe
r countries, including: India, South West Asia, West Africa and the Caribbean. The
plant is famous for its concentrated, spicy aroma, which can be attributed to the fact that it is composed of up
to 3% natural essential oils.

Fresh ginger is essential to A
sian and oriental cookery. It is used in pickles, chutneys and curry pastes and the
ground dried root is a constituent of many curry powders. Tender young ginger can be sliced and eaten as a
salad. Sometimes the roots will produce green sprouts which can b
e finely chopped and added to a green
salad. In the West, dried ginger is mainly used in cakes and cookies especially ginger snaps and gingerbread.

British scientists are conducting six studies on the spice's effect on various types of nausea, including
se
asickness and sickness caused in the treatment of cancer. Already, the studies have begun to show results.
Scientists have found that those who took a tablet containing the juice of ginger every day, felt much better
than those who took allopathic medicine
s that are available in chemist shops. After the results are made final,
companies will manufacture it as a herbal medicine.










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English: Grade
4

Page:
5


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Wondered how plants talk to each other? They do
not have the same language as humans but they

have their
own ways. Recent research by scientists at Kyoto University, Japan, describes how the

Lima bean plant
protects itself and its neighbors from the spider mite or the red spider. It sends

out clear dist
ress signals. It’s
not like they make weird noises to attract attention, though. It does

it very silently.

The Lima bean plant emits chemicals to send the message of a troublesome intruder to all its

neighbors. That
is the signal for all the plants to get
their defense mechanisms working.

Plants all over the world have qualities, which make then special in their own ways. Some plants

produce
chemicals that give the leaves and stem a strong taste or smell of peppers, spices and

herbs used for cooking.
These
substances either discourage or even kill insects and other animals

that might try to eat the plant.

Since plants cannot escape from creatures that feed on them, many have evolved features to

protect them
against herbivorous or plant eating animals. The tw
o main defenses that plants use

are armor and poison. In
the Galapagos Islands cacti grow a thick stalk more than two meters tall

putting the tender leaves well out of
the reach of the giant tortoises.

Japanese azaleas produce toxic chemicals that let them

survive even among hungry deer. Some of

these
chemical substances may even prevent the growth of nearby plants. For example, radishes

produce a chemical
substance, which slows the growth of spinach. Similarly, walnut and apple

trees cannot grow together b
ecause
chemicals released from walnut tree kill the apple tree.

So it is not just a self
-
survival instinct that plants have. They also have an instinct for community

feeling, as
the Lima bean plant shows. Nature is full of unending surprises!













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English: Grade
4

Page:
6


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Once upon a time, Merlin, the magician, was travelling through the countryside. He stopped to take
rest at the cottage of a farmer and his wife.

The couple gave him a hearty welcome.

The farmer's wife served him milk and bread since the
magician seemed to be tired and hungry after a long journey.

Merlin was very much pleased with the treatment that was given to him. He noticed that everything in
the house was perfect yet the farmer a
nd his wife
w
ere both downcast and sad. The magician inquired
about the reason of their sadness. The couple told him that they were sad as they had no children.

The farmer’s wife said with tears in her eyes that she would be the happiest person if she had

a son. She
remarked, 'Why, even if the boy is just as big as husband's thumb, I would be satisfied.'

The magician decided to grant their wish and the poor couple did indeed have son. He was a fine little
fellow, but he never grew any bigger than a thumb.

He was known as Tom Thumb.

Little Tom had lots of fun being small, though, this very small size had its disadvantages also.

One
day his father's cow saw Little Tom hopping gaily through the grass. She just snapped him up
along with a mouthful of green g
rass.

‘Ooh! I must get out of here,' said Tom. He wriggled and tickled until the cow gave a huge sneeze.
Puff! Out popped Tom, right into his mother's outstretched apron.

Tom, though short in height, was big in his pranks and tricks. He used to spend many

happy hours on
the kitchen table whilst his mother did her baking. She had warned him about falling into things
dangerous for him, and he did his best to keep out of trouble. Unfortunately, one day, he grew careless.
His mother was preparing a pudding. Sh
e began to stir the batter, and gave the bowl a jerk. The jerk
was so strong that Tom could not balance himself and he slipped off and fell into the batter.

Tom's mother, in a hurry, as usual, tied the cover on the basin and fastened Little Tom inside! She

popped the pudding into the pan where it soon began to bounce about in the hot water.

‘What is the matter with the pudding today?’ thought Tom's mother uneasily, hoping that it would
stop. But it did not stop. As the water grew hot, poor Tom kicked and f
loundered about at a great rat
‘God help me! The pudding is be
witched!’ cried the poor woman.

She lifted the pan lid and threw the
pudding as far as it would go
.






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English: Grade
4

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7


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Henry Hudson was
a British explorer who is best known for discovering the Hudson River, Hudson Strait,
and Hudson Bay. In 1607, the Muscovy Company, which was an English trading company, hired Hudson to
find a passage to the Orient by the way of the Arctic Ocean. The Orien
t was an area of many countries in east
and Southeast Asia. So on May 1, 1607, Hudson and his son, John, and a crew of ten men set off on a ship
called the Hopewell. Ice blocked the way and Hudson had to turn back. His first mission was a failure.

Hudson
returned to England only to find another mission from the Muscovy Company. They wanted him to
find a shorter passage to the Orient. Determined, Hudson set sail on 1608. Once again, the waters of the
Arctic were covered with icebergs and Hudson had to turn
back. Another failure overcame Hudson.

Hudson moved to Holland and there, another trading company, the Dutch East India Company, paid for
another voyage. Hudson set sail on the ship Half Moon. The trip was a hard one. Ice soon blocked the way.
Instead of r
eturning back, Hudson headed for North America. There he traded with Native Americans and
discovered many places such as New York and the Hudson River. Soon, Henry Hudson returned back to
England.

On April 17, 1610, Hudson set sail again from England in hi
s new ship called the Discovery. He was trying to
find a shorter route to the Orient. On his way, he discovered The Hudson Strait and the Hudson Bay. Hudson
ordered his men to sail south. He hoped to find warmer waters to travel in. His men, though, were t
ired and
hungry. They were very mad at Hudson and could no longer wait for Hudson’s orders towards home. The
crew started a mutiny. On June 24, the mutineers threw Hudson, his son, and seven others into a rowboat
without food or water. Hudson was never see
n again.

The surviving mutineers returned to England, but they were not punished for their crime. As for Henry
Hudson, some say they made it to shore. There are legends that Hudson’s ghost roams around the areas he
explored. Today, we know Henry Hudson as
a great navigator and for discovering many rivers and places.










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English: Grade
4

Page:
8


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

A volcano is a mountain with an opening called the crater. When a volcano erupts, hot gases, ash, rocks, and
lava

can be thrown out of the crater. The soft rock from the mantle of the earth oozes out to the crust and out
of the volcano. This soft rock is called magma and it turns into lava when it comes out of a volcano. After an
earthquake happens, the volcano erupt
s. There are many volcanos around the Pacific Ocean. This large group
of volcanos is called the Ring of Fire.

There three kinds of volcanos. They are called the shield volcano, composite volcano, and cinder
-

cone
volcano. The shield volcano is not that tal
l, but it is very wide. When a shield volcano erupts, it is very quiet,
but a lot of lava flows out of it. The composite volcano looks like a tall mountain because it is tall. Composite
volcanos can either have great explosions or quiet lava flows. Lastly,

the cinder
-

cone volcano has very steep
sides, but it is the smallest kind of volcano. Some cinder
-

cones will turn into a composite volcano after a big
explosion.

When a volcano explodes, it may produce some interesting features. One type of lava flow i
s called pahoehoe.
This lava forms smooth rock when it cools. Another type of lava flow is called aa. Aa has a rough, jagged
shape. When lava flows into the ocean, it quickly cools into a shape known as pillow lava. Lava flows can
also create “lava trees”.

This happens when lava flows into a forest and surrounds a tree bark. The leaves burn
away and the bark hardens into rock.

One of the most famous volcanic eruptions took place in Italy in the year A.D. 79. Mount Vesuvius erupted
and city next to it called

Pompeii was destroyed completely. When this volcano exploded, the city was buried
by ash. For 2,000 years, Pompeii was buried and forgotten, but archeologists have uncovered it. Another
famous eruption happened in Indonesia when the volcano Krakatoa explo
ded. The noise from this volcano is
thought to be the loudest sound in Earth’s history. It was heard 3,000 miles away! The eruptions caused huge
waves
that
were 120 feet high. In the end, it killed 36,000 people.

The eruption of volcano can disrupt the we
ather all over the world

for a noticeable period
.

Can you imagine
what might happen if all volcanoes erupt at the same time? It would certainly change world’s weather and our
lives forever!








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English: Grade
4

Page:
9


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the followin
g questions:

The pudding along with Little Tom, hit a wandering tramp on the head with a bump. As the tramp rubbed his
head, he peered at what had hit him, and he saw that it was a nice big pudding. He lifted it up very happily
and put it in the glass bowl

he was carrying. The tramp thought that it was a magic pudding as it appeared
from nowhere.

Sure, the tramp was happy. But, then suddenly he heard a scream from the bowl. He was

stunned and
frightened. He was

now certain that the sweet dish was evil. He
ran for his life, hurling the pudding bowl. The
bowl bumped against a stone and it smashed to pieces. Tom was able to crawl out and go home to wash off
the sticky pudding.

On another occasion, a big bird mistook Tom for an insect which could be eaten. It
swooped down and
grabbed Tom up with its claws. They flew over hill and dale before the bird realized its mistake and dropped
Tom in disgust.

Tom came hurtling down towards a huge castle, perched on a rocky crag, overlooking the sea. The sea breeze
puffed
Tom through a window, into a room where an enormous giant was eating his porridge for breakfast.
When Little Tom fell into his porridge, the giant just spooned Tom up into his great mouth. Tom kicked so
hard that the giant plucked him out again and tossed
him away as he would toss a fly.

Even after going through so much Tom's troubles were by no means over. He floated quietly with the breeze
on to the shining sea, where he rested as light as a feather or thistledown. Tom enjoyed this until a big fish
popped

out its head and eyed him curiously.

‘I wonder if you are good to eat?' the fish asked Tom.

‘No, I am not!’ cried Tom. 'Nobody likes eating me!' But the fish did not listen and swallowed him. And there
Tom would have been, to this day, if the King's fish
erman had not caught that very fish soon afterwards. The
fish was cooked, very lightly, fortunately for Tom, and served on a silver plate before the King.

This looks good,' smiled the King, serving a slice to himself.

It was the very slice of fish in which

Tom, tired out with his adventures, was dozing. He stretched his arms
and yawned right in the King's face. The King was surprised at first, but was soon delighted with the little
fellow, and invited him to live in the castle forever.

Tom told the King abo
ut his parents and the kind monarch gave him a sack of gold to take home, and tell
them of his good fortune.

‘Come back, Tom,’ said the King, and Tom promised to do so soon.





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English: Grade
4

Page:
10


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Tom e
njoyed being with his parents again, but after sometime he remembered his promise to the King.
So bidding his father and mother a loving good
-
bye, Tom started back for the castle. He wondered what
new and strange adventures lay ahead of him. That there wou
ld be lot more of such adventures, he was
positive. ‘I am one of those people who are simply bound to have adventures,’ he thought to himself as
he journeyed along. Indeed, the King was pleased when Tom returned to the castle!

Tom told the King how gratefu
l his parents were for the sack of gold and how glad he was to be back at
the castle once more.

‘We must have some fashionable clothes made for you, Tom,' said the King,’ clothes that really befit a
loyal and well
-
loved courtier of mine.’ He sent for the
Royal shirt makers, shoemakers, and a famous
Fairy tailor, and oh! How proud Tom was when his wonderful clothes were stitched.

Tom commenced on some amazing adventures almost at once. One day, he was wandering through the
countryside, and stepped right in
front of a huge toad, who, mistaking Tom for some kind of a large
insect, flicked out its tongue, and if it had not been for a passing' butterfly, Tom would have gone down
the toad's throat. The butterfly carried Tom safely back to
the castle. Tom told th
e butterfly to go to the
Royal

rose gardens, for the nectar of the roses was the sweetest in the whole land. Then Tom asked the
butterfly if it would kindly take him to visit the Queen of the Fairies. The butterfly gladly agreed. The
Queen was enchanted when she saw Tom. 'Why, you must
be a fairy too,' she gasped. But Tom assured
her that he was indeed a mortal.

Then she gave him a pair of tiny fairy gloves woven with thistledown, and told him whenever he
wanted to visit her he had only to put the gloves on and say, 'Little magic gloves

of green, take me to
the Fairy Queen,' and they would do so.

One night, Tom thought he would play a prank on the Royal chamber maids. As they went from one
bedroom to another, lighting the candles in the sticks on the Royal dressing tables, Tom would dar
t
from behind a mirror or vase or trinket box and snuff the candles out again. Oh dear! The maids did get
angry and started blaming each other! Tom, of course, had great fun.

Every month, Tom would mount a carrier pigeon named 'Swift Wing' and fly off to v
isit his parents and
tell them stories of his wonderful life at the castle.

One Christmas, the King sent the Royal coach to fetch Tom's parents
to
the castle for the Christmas
dinner. What a fine time
t
hey had, especially when he King and Tom's father pul
led a large cracker. Out
popped Tom himself holding a motto which read, ‘The very smallest person can be a big success!’






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English: Grade
4

Page:
11


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

A wise old gentleman retired and purchased a modest home
near a junior high school. He spent the first week
of his retir
ement in peace and contentment and
then a new school year began. The very next afternoon three
young boys, full of youthful, after school enthusiasm, came down his street, beating merrily on ev
ery trash
can they encountered. The crashing percussion continued day after day, until finally the wise old man decided
it was time to take some action.

The next afternoon, he walked out to meet the young percussionists as they banged their way down the st
reet.
Stopping them he said, ‘You kids are a lot of fun. I like to see it.
I u
sed to do the same thing when I was your
age. Will you do me a favor? I’ll give you each a dollar if you’ll promise to come around every day and do
your thing.’

The kids were ela
ted and continued to do a bang up job on the trash cans.

After a few days, the old timer greeted the kids again, but this time he had a sad smile on his face. ‘This
recession is really putting a big dent in my income,’ he told them. ‘From now on, I’ll only

be able to pay you
50 cents to beat on the cans.’ The noisemakers were obviously displeased. But they did accept the offer and
continued their afternoon ruckus.

A few days later, the wily retiree approached them again as they drummed th
eir way down the st
reet. ‘Look

he said, ‘I haven’t re
ceived my Social Security check

yet, so I’m not going to be able to give you more than
25 cents. Will that be okay?’

‘A lousy quarter?’ the drum leader exclaimed. ‘If you thin
k we are going to waste our time

beating these

cans
around for a quarter, you a
re
mistaken
! No way, mister. We quit!’ and the old man enjoyed peace and serenity
for the rest of his days.










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English: Grade
4

Page:
12


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

The Taj Mahal is a magnificent tom
b
and one of
Seven Wonders of the World
. It is in the city of Agra and
125 miles from New Delhi, the capital of India.
The Taj Mahal
was
created by a powerful Mogul emperor
named Shah Jahan. It was built as a burial place for his dead wife,
Mumtaz Mahal
. S
hah Jahan was very
depressed at the death of his wife and he ordered for a beautiful tomb to be made in memory for her.

Shah Jahan searched for the best designers for his wife’s tomb. It was to be built in Agra, the capital of the
Mogul empire. Designers
from India, Persia, and other countries came to design the great tomb. 20,000
workers worked hard to build the Taj Mahal. The work took 20 years. One thousand elephants were used to
carry heavy marble from other countries. Rare shells were brought from the

Indian Ocean. Jewels used on the
walls came from places as far as China.

The Taj Mahal has a large garden surrounded by tall red walls and rows of trees. Four waterways run through
the garden and in the middle of all the plants is a large pool. Four tower
s stand at each corner of the building,
each 200 feet high. The Taj Mahal is more than just a tomb, it is a place where people can remember and
honor Shah Jahan. The emperor allowed members of his court to spend time at the garden. There, they all felt
lik
e they were in paradise since the building was so peaceful.

Shah Jahan got older and older. He grew ill and useless. His sons wanted to be the new emperor, but only one
could take the throne. Shah Jahan’s sons battled one another. The youngest son, Aurangz
eb, fought the
hardest and won. Aurangzeb moved his father to the Red Fort. Shah Jahan was not allowed out. Every day, he
wished he could visit the Taj Mahal. He, however, didn’t get the chance. Eight years later, Shah Jahan died

and he was buried next to
his wife
.

Today, you can visit the Taj Mahal and admire its beauty and calmness. You can go back to the times where
the powerful Shah Jahan lived and how sad he was when his wife died. You can feel Shah Jahan’s
determination to create a lovely tomb for h
is beloved wife. You can also feel the Taj Mahal giving out a
beautiful presence to every spectator who passes by the greatest wonder the world.









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English: Grade
4

Page:
13


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Our world is made out of rocks and minerals. They are fascinating, often beautiful, and fun to study. Rocks
and minerals can’t run away or die out like animals or plants so you can study them as much as you want
without them disappearing. Geologists are pe
ople who study these rocks and minerals. They help discover
and study rocks. Thousands of years ago, people who lived in the Stone Age did not have metal or plastic. To
solve this problem, they used rocks to make their tools and weapons.

Look at the land.

Now imagine it without any buildings and the layers of plants. Rocks and minerals would be
left underneath all these things! Rocks are made up of minerals and each rock has its own variety of minerals.
For example, a rock called granite is made up of thre
e minerals
-

mica, feldspar, and quartz. Each mineral is
made from chemicals. Mica contains aluminum, potassium, and silicon. Guess what? Minerals aren’t just
found in rocks. Some minerals, called organic minerals, come from plants and animals!

The earth wa
s formed nearly 4,600 million years ago, but rocks aren’t that old. Through the years, old rocks
have melted and cooled again. Some rocks have been changed by pressure and heat while others are worn
away to tiny pieces. When rocks heat up so much, they mel
t. When they cool down, rocks harden into igneous
rocks. Igneous means “made by fire”. When they are squeezed hard or heated, rocks change their shape and
color. These are called metamorphic rocks. Sometimes, rocks wear down to tiny pieces that settle in
deep
layers. Gradually, layers cement and harden into one rock. These rocks are sedimentary rocks.

Rocks and minerals are a group that is unique to many other fields of science. Many minerals are shiny and
attractive. The weird shapes that rocks have add

up to the fun of studying these rocks and minerals. Just take
a magnifying glass, go outside, find a rock, and start experimenting!












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English: Grade
4

Page:
14


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

United States has a total of 50 states.
Hawaii is the 50
th

and the most recent state that has become part of
United States. There are many regions in the United States. The Middle Atlantic region (also known as mid
-
Atlantic region) has the fewest number of states. The Middle Atlantic States are
New York, New Jersey and
Pennsylvania. The exact definition varies, though, based on the source. Some sources also include seven other
states in this region. The mid
-
Atlantic region has a combined total land area of 102,745 square miles. They
are bordered
on the east by New England and the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Southern States, in the
west by the Midwestern States, and on the north by the Great Lakes and Canada.

The physical features of the region ranges from a broad coastal plain that fronts

on the Atlantic to fertile
valleys, huge plains and the rugged beauty of the Adirondack Mountains in New York State. It also possesses
great natural resources in the form of large mineral deposits and boundless wooded areas. This area can boast
of having
highly productive farm land, and an excellent water supply. In the region the coastal areas are
thoroughly urbanized and most developed. The large number of immigrants in the 19
th

century contributed
towards the development of the coaster area of the regio
n.

Shipping and trade have been important to the Mid
-
Atlantic economy since the beginning of the colonial era.

Dutch founded New Amsterdam in 1964. It was later renamed to New York by the English. They established
commerce and industry. Farming was also an

important part that has been essential to the development of the
area. Today New York City is one of the world’s most important port cities. It is also a center of trade and
finance as well as a leader in publishing and cultural arts.

During the Revolutio
nary War, this region was the keystone to the military success of the Americans. Many
of the Continental Army’s most important battles were fought in the tri
-
state area. The city of Philadelphia
was the birthplace of the Declaration of Independence.











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English: Grade
4

Page:
15


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

The Inuit tribe was a Native American tribe that lived around the Artic area. These days, they live around
Northern Canada.
Th
e lands where the Inuit live is

cold and harsh.


They
had

long cold winters and short,
cool summers. There is a lot of snow.


On the average there are between 15 and 90 inches of snow each
year.


The snow doesn't melt until spring and winter storms can force people to remain inside for
days at a
time.

The Inuit lived in igloos. When we think of igloos, we think about snow
-

blocked houses, but the Inuit didn’t
live in these snow
-

blocked houses. They lived in cabins made from driftwood which was then covered in
soil. In the igloo, Inuit s
lept on a low snow platform covered with twigs and caribou furs. Each igloo had a
skylight made of freshwater ice. When summer arrived the igloo melted, and the family had to move into
tents made of animal skins.


The Inuit people hunt for their food.


The
y eat primarily fish, sea mammals and a few land mammals. They
hunt seals, especially, the ring seal. The Inuit people hunt seals during winter through the frozen ocean ice.

In
the spring and summer, when the ice melts, seals are hunted from boats called k
ayaks.


The kayak holds only
one hunter.


It

is covered all over with sealskin or caribou skin.

The kayak moves silently through the
water.


The hunter can get very close to seals without being heard. Caribou are also hunted for food, as well as
for their
skins for clothing and antlers for tools.

For transportation, Inuit people used kayaks, umiaks, snowshoes and dogsleds. The kayak is a boat that can
carry only one person
.
The umiak is a larger and more open boat

and

is covered with animal skins. It was
ma
de to carry large loads. The best known transportation was the dogsled. The dogsled has a light but sturdy
frame on runners with reins. The reins are hitched up to six snow dogs.

Only fur clothing was warm enough
to live in
cold place
s
.


The Inuit preferre
d the fur of the caribou, though
they sometimes used fur of other animals such as seals and polar bear.

Clothing consisted of coat, trousers,
stockings, shoes or boots.


In very cold weather two of each garment was worn.

One Inuit garment, the
hooded coat
called the parka, has been adopted by skiers and others who spend time in the cold.



The Inuit is a very interesting tribe that you can learn more about. There were also other tribes during the time
when the Inuit lived. There may be many similarities amo
ng them. The network of tribes was just like a very
ancient country.






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English: Grade
4

Page:
16


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Mount Rushmore is the largest work of art in the world. The giant sculpture of four American presidents was
dr
illed, blasted, and carved into the solid granite face of a mountain ridge in the Black Hill of South Dakota.
The presidents that are shown are George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham
Lincoln. With each head being 60 feet high,

this sculpture is a symbol of America that cannot be forgotten.

In the 1920s, a South Dakota state historian and senator thought a large outdoor sculpture would bring in
more tourists to their state. This would be difficult task because of many reasons.
First, the Lakota Sioux
(a
tribal group)
were
upset

because they thought that the Black Hill (the place where the structure is built) was
sacred to them. Secondly, not everyone agreed on what figures to carve or who would pay for the sculpture.
Third, people thought this monument idea was unnatural and sil
ly. Even with all these problems, Gutzon
Borglum, the artist who designed Mount Rushmore, was able to start the construction of the sculpture.

Work on Mount Rushmore began in 1927 and ended 14 years later. Congress paid most of the cost. Borglum
made large

models of the heads. Then he used a Greek measuring method called “pointing”. The models were
measured with a small pointing tool. The mountain was measured with an enormous pointing tool. An inch on
the model became a foot on the mountain.

The workers had to climb 506 stairs just to get to work every morning. Work meant hanging in a harness of
the side of a mountain while drilling with a jackhammer that weighed 75 pounds. Half a million tons of rock
were blasted away. Honeycombing brought ou
t details of the presidents’ faces. Carvers would drill shallow
holes close together so they looked like a bee’s honeycomb. Then they chipped off the rock in between the
holes and bumped out any rough places with a special hammer. In the end, George Washin
gton got a 20
-

foot
nose, Thomas Jefferson got an 18
-

foot mouth, Theodore Roosevelt a 20
-

foot moustache, and Abraham
Lincoln got 11
-

foot eyes.

Today, Mount Rushmore is a beautiful place that everyone goes to. The goal of the people in South Dakota to
g
et more tourists has been reached and now, it is a wonderful area to live in and just relax. Before you go
there, be sure to say thank you to the workers to have worked so hard to make the sculpture that you are
admiring. If it
wasn’t for them, Gutzon Borg
lum,

and all the supporters of Mount Rushmore, there would be
nothing to be in awe at!







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English: Grade
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Page:
1
7


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Have you ever eaten a Hershey chocolate bar before? That piece of yummy chocolate was mad
e by the
Hershey Company.
Hershey is one of the oldest
and largest
chocolate companies in the United States and an
American icon for its chocolate bar. It was founded by Milton S. Hershey in 1894 and its headquarters are in
Hershey, Pennsylvania
. Not only
does this successful company fill people’s belly, it also gives the U.S
something to be proud of.

Milton S. Hershey founded a candy shop in Philadelphia, which failed six years later. After trying
unsuccessfully to manufacture candy in New York, Hershey r
eturned to Pennsylvania, where he founded the
Lancaster Caramel Company. In 1900, Hershey sold his caramel company and began to concentrate on
chocolate manufacturing. He then began building a chocolate plant in Pennsylvania. When the chocolate bars
were

proved successful, the company grew rapidly.

In 1907, Hershey introduced a new candy, small flat
-
bottomed conical
-
shaped pieces of chocolate that he
named "Hershey's Kiss". Initially they were individually wrapped by hand in squares of foil, but the
intro
duct
ion of machine wrapping
simplified the process
.

The machine adds

the small paper ribbon to the top
of the package to indicate that it was a genuine Hershey product. Other products introduced
were

Mr.
Goodbar
,
Hershey's Syrup and the Krackel bar
.

Hershe
y Chocolate supplied the US armed forces with chocolate bars during World War II. These bars were
called Ration D Bars and Tropical Chocolate Bars. First, only the Ration D Bars were provided to the
soldiers, but when the Army was impressed enough with the

durability and success of the Ration D Bar, they
told Milton to make the Tropical Chocolate Bar. The only difference between them was that the Tropical
Chocolate Bar was made to taste better than the Ration D Bar did and still be as durable as the Ration
D Bar
was. For their service throughout World War II, the Hershey Chocolate Company was issued five Army
-
Navy
'E' Production Awards.

Milton S. H
ershey died at the age of 88 in
1945
.
To honor Hershey, the United States Postal Service put him
o
n a 32¢ Great Americans series
postage stamp. Today, Milton is looked up at like he was a hero and in fact,
he was. With his support to the making of chocolate, we can always enjoy a snack of a Hershey bar!








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English: Grade
4

Page:
18


Reading: Read the passage carefully and an
swer the following questions:

George Washington was elected our first president in 1789, winning every vote! Washington was our nation’s
first big hero and so people thought he deserved a big monument. The spot where the monument was to be
made on was
south of the White House. This land turned out to be too unstable for something so heavy. So
the location of the Washington Monument was moved 390 feet. Construction of the Washington Monument
began in Washington D.C. on July 4, 1848. An architect named Ro
bert Mills designed the monument. His
original plan included a 110
-

foot
-

high Greek temple with an enormous sculpture of George Washington. In
front of the temple, there would be a 600
-

foot
-

tall obelisk. An obelisk is a four
-

sided stone pillar that end
s
in a point.

The private project soon ran into trouble because of money and politics. Then the Civil War came and raged
for four years. By 1876, the Washington Monument was just a half built tower surrounded by scaffolds and
swamps. Then the government to
ok over. Congress voted for money to start building again. The plan became
simpler: no temple, just the obelisk. But it would be the world’s tallest obelisk. There would also be a
reflecting pool, an elegant 2,000
-

foot
-

long rectangle of water that would
run between the monument and the
Lincoln Memorial. The Washington Monument was finished on December 6, 1884. It is still one of the tallest
structures in the world.


The Washington Monument is 555 feet and 5 1/8 inches tall. It took 36,491 bricks covere
d in marble to build
it that high! The monument’s walls support themselves since there is no framework inside. That is why the
building is wider and thicker at the bottom, but narrower and thinner at the top. Today, visitors cannot walk
up the Washington M
onument. An elevator whisks people up to an observation platform in the pyramid top in
70 seconds, but they can climb down the 896 stairs. There are 193 stones embedded in the staircase walls.
They came from all 50 states, some foreign countries, and some
special groups. Some of the stone are made
from unusual materials such as Alaska’s jade and Arizona’s petrified wood. They were created in honor of
George Washington. Actually, the whole structure was created for George Washington. He was America’s
greates
t hero who will surely never be forgotten. Three cheers for our oldest celebrity!









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English: Grade
4

Page:
19


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

A mammal can be a carnivore (meat eater),

herbivore (plant eater) or omnivore (meat and plant

eater).

By
looking at the teeth, eye position and feet you can

usually identify which of the three it is.


First, let's look
at teeth. If the mammal has long, sharp

canine teeth next to the front (incisor) teeth and also
has

sharp cheek teeth (carna
ssial)

it is a carnivore. The canines

are for seizing and

stabbing prey. The
carnassials
help cut

up meat in the mouth.


If the mammal has either blunt canines or no canines,

and has big flat side and back teeth (premolars and

molars)
,

it is a herbivore. Herbivo
res use their molars for

crushing and
grinding plants.

But what about herbivores that do have large front

teeth? Beavers, for example, have huge front incisors. And

river hippos have two huge lower canines. Well, beavers use

their incisors for chewing thro
ugh bark, branches
and even

trees. And hippos use their canine tusks for defense and

fighting, not for chewing. But both beavers
and hippos have

large flat molars that they use for grinding up plant matter.

If the mammal has a variety of all
kinds of teeth

(canines, incisors, premolars and molars) it is an omnivore. It

has a
variety of teeth because it
eats a variety of foods,

both meat and plants.


Now let's talk about eye position. Carnivorous and

omnivorous mammals have eyes in front to help
those

spot

a
nd judge the distance of prey. Think of the rhyme

eyes in

front, help them hunt”
.

Herbivores’

eyes are
located more on the side of their

head. This gives them a wider view, helping them to spot

predators sooner so
they can flee. Think of the rhyme

eyes

o
n side, help them hide

.


And, finally, there are the differences in feet.

Carnivores almost always have claws to hold prey, climb

trees,
dig for food and fight. They also have soft pads on

their feet so they can sneak up on prey. Omnivorous

mammals may
have claws (like bears), or hands (like

primates) for grabbing food. Herbivores, meanwhile,
often

have hooves to help them run away. Or, like the beaver

and capybara, some or all of their feet may be
webbed to

help them swim away.












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English: Grade
4

Page:
20


Reading: Read
the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Glaciers are huge, slow moving rivers of ice and snow. They flow down from mountain peaks and spread out
across flat lands. Some make it to the ocean just like rivers. Others begin to melt in the he
at of lower
elevations, becoming streams or melt water. Glaciers are found on every single continent except for Australia.
Some
glaciers
are so big that they spread over mountains and plains. Huge glaciers, called ice caps, are so
thick, they almost bury m
ountains! Ice sheets blanket vast areas of continents. Ice sheets cover much of
Greenland and Antarctica. In fact, Antarctica
-

which is twice the size of Australia
-

is covered by the world’s
largest ice sheet. Much of Earth is covered by salty sea water.
Barely 3 percent of the Earth’s water is
freshwater. Glaciers are natural reservoirs of freshwater. More than 75% of our supply of freshwater is frozen
in glacier ice.

Snow sometimes falls into hollow and deep valleys. In some places of the world, the sno
w never melts
entirely. Then, new snow falls on top of the old snow. Year after year, snow piles deeper and deeper. Its
weight presses down and squeezes the air out of the bottom layers. These lower layers of snow become
packed down and turn into ice. The
ice becomes thicker and heavier. Then, slowly, like an ice cube on a
slanted surface, the ice and snow begin to flow downhill. A glacier is formed.

Glaciers help shape the Earth. Some scientists have described them as “nature’s bulldozers”. This is because

glaciers do not just slip downhill. On the way, they push, pull, and pluck at rocks beneath them. When a
glacier begins to form, it carves out a round basin called a cirque. The cirque begins to form when melt water
seeps into cracks in the mountainside.
The water expands when it freezes, pressing the sides of the cracks.
Chunks of the mountainside break away from the mountain to form the cirque.

A glacier that reaches the sea does not stop. It continues to flow. There, it floats as an ice slab, or ice she
lf, but
remains attached to the glacier. Icebergs form when large chunks of ice break away from the ice shelf, a
process called calving. Carried by ocean currents, the chunks become islands of ice floating on the sea.











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English: Grade
4

Page:
21


Reading: Read the passage c
arefully and answer the following questions:

She has stood tall over New York City’s harbor for more than 100 years. When she was young, she was a
copper brown, but now she’s pale green. Steamships chugged past her, bringing new immigrants to America.
The
boats still come, but now, it is ferry boats bringing millions of visitors to her feet. The Statue of Liberty is
an immigrant herself! She was made in France. It was a present from French people to America to celebrate
democracy. Frederic
-

Auguste Barthold
i, a French sculptor, designed this statue. Some people say the statue
is modeled after his mother’s face and his wife’s body. The Statue of Liberty proudly holds a torch with a
golden flame in her right hand. In her left hand, she holds a tablet with July

4, 1776, the date of the
Declaration of Independence, carved on it in Roman numerals. She wears a crown with seven spikes in honor
of the seven seas and continents. There is a broken chain under her feet resembling America’s independence.

Bartholdi’s stat
ue is enormous and hollow. The sculptor used a method to create copper skin that gives the
statue its shape. More than 300 sheets of copper were hammered over the statue model. These metal sheets
were only 3/32 inch thick! To hold the 62,000 pounds of copp
er, Bartholdi contacted Alexandre
-

Gustave
Eiffel, a brilliant French engineer who would later build the Eiffel Tower, to design an iron skeleton. By
1884, the statue was finished. At a ceremony, Bartholdi and the French government officially gave the stat
ue
to America. Now it had to get there.

The Statue of Liberty was carefully taken apart. Every copper piece and iron bar was labeled and then packed
in 214 crates to be shipped off to New York City. The ship reached in June 1885, but the crates stayed pac
ked
because there was nowhere to put the statue! The French had expected the Americans to build a pedestal, or
base, for the Statue of Liberty, but not enough people had given money to build the base. Joseph Pulitzer, an
immigrant who successfully ran a ne
wspaper, was outraged. He wrote about the problem on his newspaper,
The World
. He also printed the name of anyone who gave money
-

even a penny
-

for the pedestal.

Children and adults both gave money. In five months, 121,000 people sent in $102,006.39. The
pedestal
builders went to work and on April 1886, they were finished. It took a couple more months to rebuild the
statue of the pedestal. Finally, on October 28, 1886, the Statue of Liberty was shown. Bartholdi pulled of the
French flag. Cannons roared and

crowds cheered. Lady Liberty was home at last.








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English: Grade
4

Page:
22


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

The beaver had made a dam a
bout two hundred yards long.

I
t had formed out of the quickly flowing stream,
a wide stretch of water
about twelve feet deep. The dam was so firm and broad that it was easy for me to
walk along it. After a hundred and fifty yards
, I came to a “beaver’s castle”. It’s

a great heap of l
ogs,
skillfully fitted together.

T
he lower part
is
covered with earth and
plants. The upper logs were put loosely
together, so that the air could pass through to the interior.

In the late autumn, before land and water are covered with snow and ice, the beaver has to make its dwelling
frost
-
proof. It collects young trees and gnaw
s the stems in a double cone until the tree falls. Then the long
stems are gnawed into small sections, the thin twigs bitten off, and the logs are dragged to the dwelling.
There the timber is piled on the ‘castle’, sometimes to a height of ten or a dozen f
eet. Mud is brought up
from the bottom of the lake and packed between the logs with the animals clever forepaws. The interior is
lined with the finest wood shavings. In this tall shelter the beaver remains high and dry, and protected from
frost throughout
the winter.

The only access to the dwelling is under water, and even the forest wolves are unable to pull the firm
building apart.

The water is the beaver’s element. On land it moves slowly and awkwardly. Thus it is vital for the beaver to
have water in wh
ich it can swim, and where Nature has not provided this condition for it, it creates it with its
dam.













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English: Grade
4

Page:
23


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Happy is the man who acquires the habit of reading when he is young.
He has secured a life
-
long source of
pleasure, instruction and inspiration. So long as he has his beloved books, he need never feel lonely. He
always has a pleasant occupation of leisure moments, so that he need never feel bored. He is the possessor of
wea
lth more precious than gold. Ruskin calls

books, “Kings` Treasuries”
-

treasures filled not with gold and
silver and precious stones, but with riches m
uch more valuable than these
-

knowledge, noble thoughts, and
high ideals. Poor indeed is the man does no
t read and his life can be said to be empty.

The blessings which the reading habit confers on its possessors are many. Provided we choose the right kind
of books, reading gives the highest kind of pleasure. Some books we read simply for pleasure and amusem
ent,
for example, good novels. And novels and books of imagination must have their place in everybody`s
reading. When we are tired or the brain is weary with serious study, it is a healthy recreation to lose ourselves
in some absorbing story written by a m
aster hand.

But reading nothing but books of fiction is like eating only cakes and sweetmeats. As we need plain,
wholesome food for the body, so we must have some serious reading for the mind. And here we can choose
according to our taste. There are many b
ooks on history, biography, philosophy, religion, travel and science
which we ought to read and which will give us not only pleasure but also education. That is how we develop a
taste for serious reading, so that in the end it will give us more solid pleas
ure than even novels and books of
fiction.

Nor should poetry be neglected, for the best poetry gives us noble thoughts, and beautiful imagination clothed
in lovely and musical language. Books are the most faithful of friends. They are always there for us.
No
wonder a reader becomes a

book
-
lover

.











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English: Grade
4

Page:
24


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

The difference in the shapes of eyes in the animal kingdom is astounding. Eyes have evolved in different
ways to suit each animal’s needs. An eagle flies almost a kilometre above the ground, so it should be able to
see small prey down on the ground. Predat
ors like the cheetah should be able to see the prey hidden behind
the bushes. Cats should be able to see in the dark, fish should be able to see underwater, amphibians should be
able to see both in water and on land. All these creatures have eyes that suit

their lifestyles.

Predators that need to spot their preys quickly have eyes in front of their faces. They also have powerful eye
muscles that help the eye to focus quickly. Animals that move fast generally have large eyes. When it comes
to eyes, there is
no one
-
size
-
fits
-
all!

Some animals are able to see in colour, like humans. Some are able to see more colours than humans, like the
mantis shrimp; while some can only see two colours like the horse.

The iris in human eyes is circular, but its shape varies i
n different animals. Goats have rectangular irises.
Snakes like pythons and vipers have vertical and slit irises, as do cats and foxes.

The vision of the animal depends not only on how powerful its eye is, but also on the location of the eye.
Some insects
have eyes on stalks on their heads. The stalk
-
eyed flies, for example, sometimes have stalks that
are even longer than their body. These tiny insects are about a centimetre long and live in moist under growth,
wriggling among leaves and dirt, feeding on mi
crobes from decaying vegetation. In this dark and cluttered
environment, it is good to have eyes on stalks, as they are able to see a larger area.













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English: Grade
4

Page:
25


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Even from an early age
Marya Skladowski had an interest in science. Marie Curie, as she was later known,
became the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the f
irst person to win two of them
-

in physics and
chemistry! She was the first female professor at the University of Paris
.

Marya was teased by her brothers and sisters for studying all the time and for her ability to shut out all the
sounds around her when she was reading. One day, as the Sklodowski children along with other boarders,
studied together at the dining room tabl
e, they came up with an idea. They put a chair on each side of
Marya’s. Then they put another chair behind her. Next, they stacked two more chairs on top of the first three.
Finally, they laid a chair on top of all of them. Marya was surrounded by a pyrami
d of six chairs.

For half an hour, Marya kept on reading unaware of the giggling children. As Marya closed her book and
prepared to get up, she pushed back her chair and the pyramid came crashing down. Marya was startled even
as the mischief
-
makers howled
with laughter. She gathered her books and walked out angrily.

Marya never forgot the pyramid of chairs and her ability to keep her mind locked on what she was doing
helped her to become one of the greatest scientists of the world, also probably one of the
most famous female
scientists to date.
















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English: Grade
4

Page:
26


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Mulla Nasruddin

was famous for being a bit odd. You could say that his mind worked very differently from
that of others. He thus behaved in a way that people found hard to understand. Some put it down to the fact
that he came from Sivrihisar. Everyone knew that the peopl
e of that region were strange. They dressed
strangely and they talked strangely and their entire conduct was strange. But most wise men agreed that
beneath that apparent foolishness of Mulla Nasruddin was clarity of insight that cut straight to the heart o
f the
truth. Sometimes though, one had to ponder before one understood the wisdom of his remarks and ways.

When Nasruddin was a boy, he helped his father carry merchandise back and forth from the cities where the
goods were made to those where they were so
ld. Even then Nasruddin did exactly what he wanted and not
what he was told to do. If he did not agree what he was commanded to do, he would do things his own way
-

even if it was his father’s orders he was disobeying.

“What is wrong with the boy?” sputter
ed Nasruddin’s father in exasperation to his wife and friends. “He does
exactly the opposite of what I say”.

“Then the best thing is to reverse your command”, everyone advised. “Tell him you want him to go right, if
you wish him to go left and command him
to stand still if you want him to walk on”.

So that is what the old merchant did.

On the whole this method worked reasonably well. Nasruddin galloped along in great speed when his father
asked him to slow down, and loaded the goods on the donkeys when he w
as told to leave them at the store
and remained very quiet when his father wanted him to converse. And so the partnership became very
workable though the old man wished that he did not have to work in such a contrary way just to get the
simplest things don
e smoothly.

One day, as Nasruddin and his father were driving their donkeys across the fast moving stream, the pannier on
the back of one of the donkeys began to slip.

“Nasruddin!’’ yelled the old merchant, thinking hard how to frame his command, so that i
t would be the
opposite of what he wanted done. ``Quick! The bags of flour are slipping into the water. Press down on
them”.

Immediately, Nasruddin reached out and pressed hard on the pannier carrying the flour. The fastening
unloosened with his weight, an
d the bags of flour came away and fell into the river.

“Heavens, boy! ‘’ yelled Nasruddin’s father. “Why, in the name of Almighty God, did you do that?”

Nasruddin looked into his father’s face. “Because, Father, I thought you should realize how foolish you
r
orders are”.




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English: Grade
4

Page:
27


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Alfred Nobel was born on 21
st

October, 1833 in Sweden. When he was a young boy, one morning, he got up
from the dining table and went to his laboratory workshop in the backyard. The next minute he came running
back into the house. Behind him sounded the loudest explosion anyone in the

neighborhood had ever heard.
Alfred`s laboratory disappeared in bursts of flame.

The people of the town were horrified. They were also very angry. They had warned Alfred Nobel against
experimenting with explosives. So the people transported his laboratory

on a barge. Then they towed the
barge out into the middle of the lake. Now, they would be safe if there was an explosion again.

In 1842, Nobel`s family moved to St. Petersburg, Russia, where he obtained his education. He travelled
widely as a young man an
d learnt five languages. Nobel was interested in literature and wrote poetry, plays
and novels when he was free. In 1860`s, he began experimenting with nitroglycerin in his father`s factory.

Nobel discovered that a mix of nitroglycerin and a fine porous po
wder called kieselguhr was the most
effective. Construction and mining companies and the military ordered large quantities of this relatively safe
explosive.

Many people had been trying to find ways to build railway tracks over the mountains. They wanted t
o dig
tunnels through the sides of the mountains. They wanted to build roads through forests and across the rocky
plains. They wanted to dig canals for ships to sail through. They needed something to blast away the stones,
dirt and trees. They had used gun
powder before but it was just not strong enough. They needed something
more powerful. After the discovery of dynamite, they knew they had found the solution to their problems.

Nobel, who later became very wealthy because of his creation, endowed a $9 milli
on fund in his will. This
was meant to be used as awards for people whose work most benefited humanity. He wanted the profit from
his invention to be used to reward creativity. The Nobel Prize was first awarded in 1901 and has continued
ever since.









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English: Grade
4

Page:
28


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

There was a time, when the elephant's nose was no bigg
e
r than a boot that he could wriggle

from side to side.
But an elephant's child changed all tha
t
.

He was a curious fello
w who ask
ed ever so many questio
ns. He asked the ostrich why her tail

feathers grew
just so. He asked the giraffe what made hi
s

skin spotty. He asked the hippo

why his eyes were red, and the
baboon why melons taste as they did.

"What does a crocodile have for dinne
r?" he asked one d y. "Shushh" said all the animals in

a scared voice.
But he would not shushh. By and by he
m
et the Kolo kolo bird. She told him

where he could find an answer.
"Go to the grey, green, greasy Limpopo River," said she.

So off he went, carryi
ng a load of bananas and sugarcane and melons. He'd be hungry on the

way, you see.
After a w
eek of trudging and budging he re
ached where he had to reach.

At the edge of the river he stepped on what he thought w s a log of wood. It winked one eye.

"Excuse m
e, but
have you seen a crocodile in these parts " asked the elephant's child

politely. The creature winked the other
eye and half lifte
d

his tail out of the mud. "I am the

crocodile," he said. The elephant's child grew excited an
d

kneeled down. "I have bee
n

looking for you all these days," he said. "Will you please t
ell me what you have
for dinne
r."

SPLATH! Went the crocodile's tail back into the oozy m d. "Come nearer little one, come

nearer and I'll
whisper," said the crocodile. The elephan
t
‘s child put
his head down close to

the crocodile's musky tusky
mouth. And the crocodile caught him by his little nose.

The elephant's child knew he was in BIG trouble. He sat
b
ack on his haunches. And he pulled

and pulled. The
crocodile splashed in the water and pulle
d

and pulled. They both pulled and

pulled. And the elephant's nose
kept stretching and stretc
h
ing. At last the crocodile let go.

Bfuddudd
!!

Fell the elephant, right on his big broad
back.

He looked at his nose. He could not see where it ended!
It
was loooo
ng! So long, he could

swish it around.
But it hurt him awfully. So he wrapped e nose in cool banana leaves and

waited for it to shrink. He waited and
waited. But nothin
g

happened. He could still swish it

all around. And so it remains to this day. Looooooon
G!






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English: Grade
4

Page:
29


Reading: Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

One day an ass and a fox entered into an agreement with the lion that they would assist each

other while
hunting for food