Distributed and telecommunications-assisted Intelligent Systems. - NIU

bubblesradiographerServers

Dec 4, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Tools:

Computers and

IT. VB, VBA,

Excel, InterDev,

Etc.

Humans:

Multiple ways

to make

decisions.

Algorithms:

Math/Flow Chart


stuff that helps the

tools help the humans

make decisions.

DSS

DSS

Data:

Facts pertinent

to the decision

at hand.


Distributed and telecommunications
-
assisted Intelligent Systems.


Tools:

Computers and

IT. VB, VBA,

Excel, InterDev,

Etc.

Humans:

Multiple ways

to make

decisions.

Algorithms:

Math/Flow Chart


stuff that helps the

tools help the humans

make decisions.

DSS

Data:

Facts pertinent

to the decision

at hand.


Tools:
Computers and
IT. VB, VBA,
Excel, InterDev,
Etc.
Humans:
Multiple ways
to make
decisions.
Algorithms:
Math/Flow Chart
stuff that helps the
tools help the humans
make decisions.
DSS
Data:
Facts pertinent
to the decision
at hand.
Tools:
Computers and
IT. VB, VBA,
Excel, InterDev,
Etc.
Humans:
Multiple ways
to make
decisions.
Algorithms:
Math/Flow Chart
stuff that helps the
tools help the humans
make decisions.
DSS
Data:
Facts pertinent
to the decision
at hand.
Tools:
Computers and
IT. VB, VBA,
Excel, InterDev,
Etc.
Humans:
Multiple ways
to make
decisions.
Algorithms:
Math/Flow Chart
stuff that helps the
tools help the humans
make decisions.
DSS
Data:
Facts pertinent
to the decision
at hand.
Tools:
Computers and
IT. VB, VBA,
Excel, InterDev,
Etc.
Humans:
Multiple ways
to make
decisions.
Algorithms:
Math/Flow Chart
stuff that helps the
tools help the humans
make decisions.
DSS
Data:
Facts pertinent
to the decision
at hand.
Tools:
Computers and
IT. VB, VBA,
Excel, InterDev,
Etc.
Humans:
Multiple ways
to make
decisions.
Algorithms:
Math/Flow Chart
stuff that helps the
tools help the humans
make decisions.
DSS
Data:
Facts pertinent
to the decision
at hand.
Tools:
Computers and
IT. VB, VBA,
Excel, InterDev,
Etc.
Humans:
Multiple ways
to make
decisions.
Algorithms:
Math/Flow Chart
stuff that helps the
tools help the humans
make decisions.
DSS
Data:
Facts pertinent
to the decision
at hand.
Tools:
Computers and
IT. VB, VBA,
Excel, InterDev,
Etc.
Humans:
Multiple ways
to make
decisions.
Algorithms:
Math/Flow Chart
stuff that helps the
tools help the humans
make decisions.
DSS
Data:
Facts pertinent
to the decision
at hand.
Tools:
Computers and
IT. VB, VBA,
Excel, InterDev,
Etc.
Humans:
Multiple ways
to make
decisions.
Algorithms:
Math/Flow Chart
stuff that helps the
tools help the humans
make decisions.
DSS
Data:
Facts pertinent
to the decision
at hand.
Tools:
Computers and
IT. VB, VBA,
Excel, InterDev,
Etc.
Humans:
Multiple ways
to make
decisions.
Algorithms:
Math/Flow Chart
stuff that helps the
tools help the humans
make decisions.
DSS
Data:
Facts pertinent
to the decision
at hand.
Tools:
Computers and
IT. VB, VBA,
Excel, InterDev,
Etc.
Humans:
Multiple ways
to make
decisions.
Algorithms:
Math/Flow Chart
stuff that helps the
tools help the humans
make decisions.
DSS
Data:
Facts pertinent
to the decision
at hand.
Distributed

Centralized

Tools:
Computers and
IT. VB, VBA,
Excel, InterDev,
Etc.
Humans:
Multiple ways
to make
decisions.
Algorithms:
Math/Flow Chart
stuff that helps the
tools help the humans
make decisions.
DSS
Data:
Facts pertinent
to the decision
at hand.
Tools:
Computers and
IT. VB, VBA,
Excel, InterDev,
Etc.
Humans:
Multiple ways
to make
decisions.
Algorithms:
Math/Flow Chart
stuff that helps the
tools help the humans
make decisions.
DSS
Data:
Facts pertinent
to the decision
at hand.
PSTN


“Normal” telecom calls are all “circuit switched”


Dedicated line.


Comes from voice requirements.



Contrasts the Internet and Web which is “packet
switched”.


Messages can travel many paths.


Comes from data requirements.

Company A

Company B

Company D

Company C

W1

W9

W12

W10

W2

W11

W6

W7

W8

W3

W4

W5

Internet Backbone

01001

11001

11110

01011

E
-
mail from Company A

to Company D:

Company A

Company B

Company D

Company C

W1

W9

W12

W10

W2

W11

W6

W7

W8

W3

W4

W5

Internet Backbone

01001

11001

11110

01011

E
-
mail from Company A

to Company D:

Company A

Company B

Company D

Company C

W1

W9

W12

W10

W2

W11

W6

W7

W8

W3

W4

W5

Internet Backbone

01001

11001

11110

01011

E
-
mail from Company A

to Company D:

broken into packets, that

travel the best path.

Company A

Company B

Company D

Company C

W1

W9

W12

W10

W2

W11

W6

W7

W8

W3

W4

W5

Internet Backbone

01001

11001

11110

01011

E
-
mail from Company A

to Company D:

packets reassembled at

the other end.

Of course, TCP/IP

is the dominant packet

switching protocol.

PSTN

MTSO

MTSO

“Mobile Telephone

Switching Office”

Other

Base

Stations

“Cells”

Base Stations

Mobile

Units

What about wireless?

Telecommunications Media

Multiplexer

Multiplexer

Gateway

Modem

Earth

Station

Earth

Station

Coaxial

cable

Fiber

optic

cable

Host

Computer

Microwave

Link

Microwave

Link

Satellite

Regional

Office

Wireless

LAN

Satellite

Central

Office

End User Workstation

Satellite

The Internet


Network of Networks, established in 1969 by U.
S. Defense Dept. for research.


Number of users doubling each year for most of
middle to late 90s. Now doubles about every two
years. “.com” s have taken over.


No central authority, originally for nuclear disaster
reasons. Taxes, gambling, etc.?


E
-
mail, Usenet, FTP, telnet: WWW has all of
these.

How many Users?


147 Million as of 9/98, 195 million as of 8/99, 378 million
as of 9/00, 580 million as of 5/02 (www.nua.ie),


World Total


580.78 million


Africa



6.31 million


Asia/Pacific


167.86 million


Europe



185.83 million


Middle East


5.12 million


Canada & USA

182.67 million


Latin America


32.99 million


How many Servers?


3.2 Million as of 9/98, 7 Million as of
8/99, 21 Million as of 9/00, 37 Million
as of 7/02 (www.netcraft.com).


“The site www.cob.niu.edu is running
Microsoft
-
IIS/5.0

on
Windows 2000
.
.”

Web Server Market Share

So what? How does this affect
Intelligent Systems?


“Leveraging Knowledge”, “Knowledge
Management”, “Groupware”, “GDSS”,
“CRM”, etc., are all important buzzwords
and concepts of the new millennium.


The telecommunications revolution is
making these concepts possible.

Groupware


Allows teams and groups to collaborate
electronically.


Reduce administrative costs


Increase mobility and portability


Respond to and add value for customers


Support strategic direction


Allows for leveraging of knowledge and barriers to
entry for consulting firms!!


Lotus Notes the market leader.


Replication allows remote and disconnected usage.

Discussion Snapshot
--

Jon Parkinson, E&Y,
“The Bigger Need for Groupware”


"What we need is a family of technologies that
support asynchronous collaboration. Because we
have people that need to work on related topics
who are dispersed in geography obviously, but
because of the extremes of the geographic
disbursement, they're also disbursed in time. And,
if you look at that beyond the United States, you
look at the global business, then the simple view
of groupware, which is that it allows synchronous
collaboration, breaks down, because we can't drag
people out of bed at two in the morning to
participate in a conference."

Discussion Snapshot
--

Mike Blum, C&L,
“Passive Versus Active Sharing”



“Now [with Notes] you basically have a passive
mode of sharing versus an active mode of sharing.
In the old days you had no way of doing it other
than active, meaning you had to broadcast it, you
had to send a memo out, you had to send
something out. Here, in essence you can build
repository and it becomes a passive mode, which
is a lot more amenable to people who have so
many things to do. In other words, when I feel
like it, I'll go in and get the information, but it's not
piling up on my desk and I'm forced to look at it.”

Samples of the types and variety of
documentation repositories maintained:


1. Client proposals

2. Leads and Prospects

3. Administrative repositories for


-

Voice and mail directories


-

Time reporting


-

Expense reporting

4. White papers

5. Presentations

6. Project deliverables

7. Internal training curriculum and booking

8. Lead tracking

9. Contact management

10. Messaging 11. Regional news

12. Methodologies 13. External information sources

Discussion Snapshot
--

Rowan Snyder, C&L,
“The Hidden Irony”



“One of the problems with a large enterprise Groupware
deployment is that it is a complicated technology.
Therefore it puts strong upward pressure on the skills
necessary to support it. This translates to direct expense
for the training and ongoing costs for more skilled people
to support it. The best way to offset these costs is to
manage the deployment centrally with fewer people. This
can often more than offset new costs, it can reduce total
expense. However, this takes expensive tools and
engineering of solutions for central management.

The
irony then is that to be successful in the "ultimate" in end
-
user computing requires the ultimate in central
management.
This hidden shift of activities isn't clear
when you go in.”

Discussion Snapshot
--

Jon Parkinson, E&Y,
“Web vs. Notes”


“You look at what you can do with the WWW, or to be more specific,
with Web servers and a client browser, and that has some advantages.
First of all it's pretty good at information linking, the structural hyper
links that you can put into documents, the ability to link dissimilar
things together once you've discovered that you need to, and the ability
to run agents over it were very attractive from an Information
Management/Knowledge base Management point of view. The fact
that the browser has a very low footprint on the client and doesn't
require you to store things locally unless you really want to was also an
advantage. But that technology is essentially sessional...if you're not
connected, then you can't do anything with it.


Whereas with Notes, there's quite a lot of things you can do when
you're not connected. So, although Notes was a relatively expensive
answer, it looked like it was also quite useful, when a large percentage
of our population is basically mobile."

EDI
-

“Electronic Data
Interchange”: MOTIVATIONS


Reduce paperwork and improve transaction
efficiency


Improve control of inventories/suppliers


Strengthen channel control


Improve customer relations


Share resources / risks

EDI
-

Interorganizational
networks: ISSUES


Technical


Competitive


Legal and regulatory


Organizational

Can we do this (EDI) on the
‘Net?


Normally done through leased lines.


YES, it can be done on the Net, and at about
half the cost or less!!


What’s this called??? (BIG buzzword/
acronym). $6.3 TRILLION by 2005!!!!!!


But…


Security, path tracking, etc.

Group Decision Support
Systems (GDSS)


Group Support Systems (GSS)


Electronic Meeting Systems


Collaborative Computing



Evolved as information technology
researchers recognized that technology
could be developed for supporting meeting
activities


Idea generation


Consensus building


Anonymous ranking


Voting, etc.

Two GDSS

Schools of Thought


Social Sciences Approach


Engineering Approach



Now
-

Effective Merger

GDSS Definition


Consists of a set of software, hardware,
language components, and procedures
that support a group of people engaged in
a decision
-
related meeting (Huber [1984])


An interactive computer
-
based system
that facilitates the solution of
unstructured problems by a group of
decision makers (DeSanctis and Gallupe
[1987])


Components of a GDSS include
hardware
,
software
,
people
, and
procedures

The Goal of GDSS and

Its Technology Levels


Goal
-

to improve the productivity and
effectiveness of decision
-
making
meetings, either


by speeding up the decision
-
making process
or


by improving the quality of the resulting
decisions



GDSS attempts to


Increase

the benefits of group work (Tables
10.2 and 10.4)


Decrease

the losses (Table 10.3)


By providing
support

to the group members
(center column, Figure 10.1)

GDSS Technology Levels


Level 1: Process Support


Level 2: Decision
-
Making Support


Level 3: Rules of Order

Level 1: Process Support


Goal
-

to reduce or remove communication
barriers


Supports


Electronic messaging


Networks (Local)


Public screen


Anonymous input of ideas and votes


Active solicitation of ideas or votes


Summary and display of ideas and opinions and
votes


Agenda format


Continuous display of the agenda, etc.

Level 2: Decision
-
Making
Support


Adds modeling and decision analysis


Goal
-

to reduce uncertainty and noise


Provide task gains


Features


Planning and financial models


Decision trees


Probability assessment models


Resource allocation models


Social judgment models

Level 3: Rules of Order


Focus on decision making process



Controls its timing, content or
message patterns

GDSS Technology


GDSS Technology Options

1.

Special
-
purpose electronic meeting facility
(decision room)

2.

General purpose computer lab

3.

Web (Internet) / Intranet or LAN
-
based
software for any place / any time


Components (Figure 10.2)


Hardware


Software


People


Procedures

GDSS Hardware

1.

Single PC

2.

PCs and Keypads

3.

Decision Room

4.

Distributed GDSS

GDSS Software


Modules to support the individual, the
group, the process and specific tasks


Typical Group Features


Numerical / graphical summarization

of ideas,
and votes


Programs

calculating weights for alternatives;
anonymous idea recording; selection of a
group leader; progressive rounds of voting; or
elimination of redundant input


Text and data

transmission among the group
members, between the group members and the
facilitator, and between the members and a
central data / document repository.

People


Group Members


Facilitator (Chauffeur)



Procedures (that enable ease of
operation and effective use of the
technology)

The Decision

(Electronic Meeting) Room


12 to 30 networked personal
computers


Usually recessed


Server PC


Large
-
screen projection system


Breakout rooms


Example (Figure 10.3)


See Cool Rooms at
http://www.ventana.com/


Need a Trained Facilitator for
Success

Cool Rooms

Source: Ventana Corp., Tuscon, AZ, http://www.ventana.com

US Air Force

Cool Rooms

IBM Corp.

Source: Ventana Corp., Tuscon, AZ, http://www.ventana.com

Why Few Organizations

Use Decision Rooms


High Cost


Need for a Trained Facilitator


Software Support for Conflict Issues,
NOT Cooperative Tasks


Infrequent Use


Different Place / Different Time Needs


May Need More Than One

GDSS Software


Comprehensive GDSS Software


.
GroupSystems for Windows (Ventana Corp.)


.
VisionQuest (Collaborative Technologies
Corp.)


.
TeamFocus (IBM Corp.)


.
SAMM (University of Minnesota)


.
Lotus Domino / Notes (Lotus Development
Corp.)


.
Netscape Communicator (Netscape
Communications Corp.)


Emerging Web
-
Based GDSS


.
TCBWorks (The University of Georgia)

Some Critical Success
Factors for GDSS

1.

Design

a)

Enhance the structuredness of
unstructured decisions

b)

Anonymity

c)

Organizational involvement

d)

Ergonomic considerations


2.

Implementation

a)

Extensive and proper user training

b)

Support of top management

c)

Qualified facilitator.

d)

Execute trial runs

3.

Management

a)

Reliable system

b)

Incrementally improve system

c)

GDSS staff keeps up with technology

User involvement and participants’
behavior are also important factors

Building Decision Rooms Using Off
-
the
-
Shelf Software