ASP.Net - Best Practices


Nov 5, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)



Best Practices

ASP.NET is much more powerful than Classic ASP, however it’s important to understand how to use
that power to build highly efficient, reliable and robust applications. In this article I tried to highlight
the key tips you can use t
o maximize the performance of your ASP.NET pages. The list can be much
longer, I am only emphasizing the most important ones.

1. Plan and research before you develop:

Research and investigate how .NET can really benefit
you. .NET offers variety of solutio
ns on each level of application design and development. It is
imperative that you understand your situation and pros and cons of each approach supported by this
rich development environment. Visual Studio is a comprehensive development package and offers
any options to implement the same logic. It is really important that you examine each option and
find the best optimal solution suited for the task at hand. Use layering to logically partition your
application logic into presentation, business, and data ac
cess layers. It will not only help you create
maintainable code, but also permits you to monitor and optimize the performance of each layer
separately. A clear logical separation also offers more choices for scaling your application. Try to
reduce the amou
nt of code in your code
behind files to improve maintenance and scalability.

2. String concatenation:

If not handled properly, String Concatenation can really decrease the
performance of your application. You can concatenate strings in two ways. First, usi
ng string and
adding the new string to an existing string. However, this operation is really expensive (especially if
you are Concatenating the string within a loop). When you add a string to an existing string, the
Framework copies both the existing and n
ew data to the memory, deletes the existing string, and
reads data in a new string. This operation can be very time consuming and costly in lengthy string
concatenation operations. The second and better way to concatenate strings is using the StringBuilder

Class. Below is an example of both approaches. If you are considering doing any type of Sting
Concatenation, please do yourself a favor and test both routines separately. You may be surprised at
the results.

‘Concatenation using String Class

"<b>String Class</b>"

Dim str As String =

Dim startTime As DateTime = DateTime.Now

"<br>Start time:"

+ startTime.ToString()))

Dim i As Integer

For i = 0 To 99999

str += i.ToString()

Next i

Dim EndTime As DateTime = DateTime.Now

"<br>End time:"

+ EndTime.ToString()))

"<br># of time Concatenated: "

+ i.ToString))

Results: Took 4 minutes and 23 Seconds to to complete 100,000 Concatenations.

String Class

Start time:2/15/2006 10:21:24 AM

End time:2/15/200
6 10:25:47 AM

# of time Concatenated: 100000

'Concatenation using StringBuilder

"<b>StringBuilder Class</b>"

Dim strbuilder As New StringBuilder()

Dim startTime As DateTime = DateTime.Now

"<br>Start time:"

+ startTime.To

Dim i As Integer

For i = 0 To 99999


Next i

Dim EndTime As DateTime = DateTime.Now

"<br>Stop time:"

+ EndTime.ToString()))

"<br># of time Concatenated: "

+ i.ToString))

s: Took less than a Second to complete 100,000 Concatenations.

StringBuilder Class

Start time:2/15/2006 10:31:22 AM

Stop time:2/15/2006 10:31:22 AM

# of time Concatenated: 100000

This is one of many situations in which ASP.NET provides extremely high per
formance benefits over
classis ASP.


Avoid round trips to the server:

You can avoid needless round trips to the Web Server using
following tips.

• Implement Ajax UI whenever possible. The idea is to avoid full page refresh and only update the
portion of

the page that needs to be changed. I think
Scott's article

gave great information on how to
implement Ajax Atlas and <atlas:updatepanel> control.

• Use Client Side Scripts. Cli
ent site validation can help reduce round trips that are required to process
user’s request. In ASP.NET you can also use client side controls to validate user input.

• Use Page.ISPostBack property to ensure that you only perform page initialization logic
when a page
first time loaded and not in response to client postbacks.

If Not IsPostBack Then


End If

• In some situations performing postback event handling are unnecessary. You can use client callbacks
to read data from the server instead
of performing a full round trip.
Click here for details.

4. Save viewstate only when necessary:

ViewState is used primarily by Server controls to retain
state only on pages that post da
ta back to themselves. The information is passed to the client and
read back in a hidden variable. ViewState is an unnecessary overhead for pages that do not need it. As
the ViewState grows larger, it affects the performance of garbage collection. You can
optimize the way
your application uses ViewState by following these tips:

Situation when you don’t need ViewState.

ViewState is turned on in ASP.NET by default. You
might not need ViewState because your page is output
only or because you explicitly reload

data for
each request. You do not need ViewState in the following situations:

• Your page does not post back. If the page does not post information back to itself, if the page is only
used for output, and if the page does not rely on response processing,

you do not need ViewState.

• You do not handle server control events. If your server controls do not handle events, and if your
server controls have no dynamic or data bound property values, or they are set in code on every
request, you do not need ViewS

• You repopulate controls with every page refresh. If you ignore old data, and if you repopulate the
server control each time the page is refreshed, you do not need ViewState.

Disabling viewstate.

There are several ways to disable viewstate at vari
ous levels:

• To disable ViewState for a single control on a page, set the EnableViewState property of the control
to false.

• To disable ViewState for a single page, set the EnableViewState attribute in the @ Page directive to
false. i.e.

<%@ Page Enab


• To disable ViewState for a specific application, use the following element in the Web.config file of the

<pages enableViewState=


• To disable ViewState for all applications on a Web server, configure the <p
ages> element in the
Machine.config file as follows.

<pages enableViewState=


Determine the size of your ViewState.

By enabling tracing for the page, you can monitor the
ViewState size for each control. You can use this information to determine t
he optimal size of the
viewstate or if there are controls in which the ViewState can be disabled.

5. Use of session variables carefully:

Avoid storing too much data in session variables, and make
sure your session timeout is reasonable. This can use a sign
ificant amount of server memory. Keep in
mind that data stored in session variables can hang out long after the user closes the browser. Too
many session variables can bring the server on its knees. Disable session state, if you are not using
session varia
bles in the particular page or application.

• To disable session state for a page, set the EnableSessionState attribute in the @ Page directive to

<%@ Page EnableSessionState=


• If a page requires access to session variables but wi
ll not create or modify them, set the
EnableSessionState attribute in the @ Page directive to ReadOnly. i.e.

<%@ Page EnableSessionState=


• To disable session state for a specific application, use the following element in the Web.config f
ile of
the application.

<sessionState mode='Off'/>

• To disable session state for all applications on your Web server, use the following element in the
Machine.config file.

<sessionState mode='Off'/>

6. Use Server.Transfer:

Use the Server.Transfer method

to redirect between pages in the same
application. Using this method in a page, with Server.Transfer syntax, avoids unnecessary client
redirection. Consider Using Server.Transfer Instead of Response.Redirect. However, you cannot always
just replace R
esponse.Redirect calls with Server.Transfer. If you need authentication and authorization
checks during redirection, use Response.Redirect instead of Server.Transfer because the two
mechanisms are not equivalent. When you use Response.Redirect, ensure you
use the overloaded
method that accepts a Boolean second parameter, and pass a value of false to ensure an internal
exception is not raised. Also note that you can only use Server.Transfer to transfer control to pages in
the same application. To transfer to

pages in other applications, you must use Response.Redirect.

7. Use server controls when appropriate and avoid creating deeply nested controls:

protocol is stateless; however, server controls provide a rich programming model that manages state
tween page requests by using ViewState. However nothing comes for free, server controls require a
fixed amount of processing to establish the control and all of its child controls. This makes server
controls relatively expensive compared to HTML controls o
r possibly static text. When you do not need
rich interaction, replace server controls with an inline representation of the user interface that you
want to present. It is better to replace a server control if,

• You do not need to retain state across post

• The data that appears in the control is static or control is displaying read
only data

• You do not need programmatic access to the control on the server

Alternatives to server controls include simple rendering, HTML elements, inline Resp
onse.Write calls,
and raw inline angle brackets (<% %>). It is essential to balance your tradeoffs. Avoid over
optimization if the overhead is acceptable and if your application is within the limits of its performance

Deeply nested hierarchies

of controls compound the cost of creating a server control and its child
controls. Deeply nested hierarchies create extra processing that could be avoided by using a different
design that uses inline controls, or by using a flatter hierarchy of server con
trols. This is especially
important when you use controls such as Repeater, DataList, and DataGrid because they create
additional child controls in the container.

8. Choose the data viewing control appropriate for your solution:

Depending on how you
e to display data in a Web Forms page, there are often significant tradeoffs between convenience
and performance. Always compare the pros and cons of controls before you use them in your
application. For example, you can choose any of these three controls
(DataGrid, DataList and
Repeater) to display data, it’s your job to find out which control will provide you maximum benefit. The
DataGrid control can be a quick and easy way to display data, but it is frequently the most expensive
in terms of performance.
Rendering the data yourself by generating the appropriate HTML may work in
some simple cases, but customization and browser targeting can quickly offset the extra work
involved. A Repeater Web server control is a compromise between convenience and performa
nce. It is
efficient, customizable, and programmable.

9. Optimize code and exception handling:

To optimize expensive loops, use For instead of ForEach
in performance
critical code paths. Also do not rely on exceptions in your code and write code that
ds exceptions. Since exceptions cause performance to suffer significantly, you should never use
them as a way to control normal program flow. If it is possible to detect in code a condition that would
cause an exception, do so. Do not catch the exception i
tself before you handle that condition. Do not
use exceptions to control logic. A database connection that fails to open is an exception but a user who
mistypes his password is simply a condition that needs to be handled. Common scenarios include
for null, assigning a value to a String that will be parsed into a numeric value, or checking for
specific values before applying math operations. The following example demonstrates code that could
cause an exception and code that test for a condition. Bot
h produce the same result.

'Unnecessary use of exception


value = 100 / number

Catch ex As Exception

value = 0

End Try

' Recommended code

If Not number = 0 Then

value = 100 / number


value = 0

End If

Check for null values. If it is pos
sible for an object to be null, check to make sure it is not null, rather
then throwing an exception. This commonly occurs when you retrieve items from ViewState, session
state, application state, or cache objects as well as query string and form field var
iables. For example,
do not use the following code to access session state information.

'Unnecessary use of exception


value = HttpContext.Current.Session(

Catch ex As Exception

, False)

End Try

nded code

If Not HttpContext.Current.Session(
) Is Nothing Then

value = HttpContext.Current.Session(


, False)

End If

10. Use a DataReader for fast and efficient data binding:

Use a DataReader object

if you do not
need to cache data, if you are displaying read

only data, and if you need to load data into a control
as quickly as possible. The DataReader is the optimum choice for retrieving read
only data in a
only manner. Loading the data int
o a DataSet object and then binding the DataSet to the
control moves the data twice. This method also incurs the relatively significant expense of constructing
a DataSet. In addition, when you use the DataReader, you can use the specialized type
ethods to retrieve the data for better performance.

11. Use paging efficiently:

Allowing users to request and retrieve more data than they can consume
puts an unnecessary strain on your application resources. This unnecessary strain causes increased
CPU ut
ilization, increased memory consumption, and decreased response times. This is especially true
for clients that have a slow connection speed. From a usability standpoint, most users do not want to
see thousands of rows presented as a single unit. Implement

a paging solution that retrieves only the
desired data from the database and reduces back
end work on the database. You should optimize the
number of rows returned by the Database Server to the middle
tier web
server. For more information
read this article
to implement paging at Database level. If you are using SQL Server 2000, please also
look at
this article.

. Explicitly Dispose or Close all the resources:

To guarantee resources are cleaned up when an
exception occurs, use a try/finally block. Close the resources in the finally clause. Using a try/finally
block ensures that resources are disposed even if an ex
ception occurs. Open your connection just
before needing it, and close it as soon as you're done with it. Your motto should always be "get in,
get/save data, get out." If you use different objects, make sure you call the Dispose method of the
object or the

Close method if one is provided. Failing to call Close or Dispose prolongs the life of the
object in memory long after the client stops using it. This defers the cleanup and can contribute to
memory pressure. Database connection and files are examples of
shared resources that should be
explicitly closed.



Catch ex As Exception

Throw ex


If Not _con Is Nothing Then


End If

End Try

13. Disable tracing and debugging:

Before you deploy your application, disable tracing and
bugging. Tracing and debugging may cause performance issues. Tracing and debugging are not
recommended while your application is running in production. You can disable tracing and debugging
in the Machine.config and Web.config using the syntax below.



<trace enabled=



<compilation debug=




14. Precompiling pages and disabling AutoEventWireup:

By precompiled pages, users do not
have to experience the batch compile
of your ASP.NET files; it will increase the performance that your
users will experience.

Also setting the AutoEventWireup attribute to false in the Machine.config file means that the page will
not match method names to events and hook them up (for example
, Page_Load). If page developers
want to use these events, they will need to override the methods in the base class (for example, they
will need to override Page.OnLoad for the page load event instead of using a Page_Load method). If
you disable AutoEventW
ireup, your pages will get a slight performance boost by leaving the event
wiring to the page author instead of performing it automatically.

15. Use of stored procedures and indexes:

In most cases you can get an additional performance
boost by using compi
led stored procedures instead of ad hoc queries.

Make sure you index your tables, and choose your indexes wisely. Try using Index Tuning Wizard and
have it report to you what it thinks the best candidates for indexes would be. You don't have to follow

of its suggestions, but it may reveal things about your structure or data that will help you choose
more appropriate indexes.

• In SQL Server Management Studio (SQL Server 2005), highlight your query. Now from the Query
menu, click Analyze Query in Datab
ase Engine Tuning Advisor.

• You can do something similar in SQL Server 2000 to run the index tuning wizard? In Query Analyzer,
highlight your query. From the Query menu, click Index Tuning Wizard.

1) Avoid the use of ArrayList. Because any objects add
ed into the Arraylist are added as
System.Object and when retrieving values back from the arraylist, these objects are to be unboxed to
return the actual valuetype. So it is recommended to use the custom typed collections instead of

.NET provide
s a strongly typed collection class for String in System.Collection.Specialized,
namely StringCollection. For other type of class, rename the _ClassType attribute in the attached file
to your required type.

2) Reconsider the use of Hashtable instead try ot
her dictionary such as StringDictionary,
NameValueCollection, HybridCollection. Hashtable can be used if less number of values are stored.

3) Always declare constants for the string literals you use instead of enclosing them in "".



MyObject obj


obj.Status =





MyObject obj =


obj.Status = C_STATUS;

4) Donot compare strings by converting them to uppercase or lowercase, use String.Compare instead,
which can igno
re the case and compare.






.Compare(sVariable, C_VALUE,
) == 0)




5) Avoid String concatenation using + operator, instead use StringBuilder for concatenation.



sXML =

sXML +=

sXML +=

sXML +=

sXML +=


StringBuilder sbXML =







6) If you are only reading from the XML object, avoid using XMLDocumentt, instead use
XPathDocument, which is readonly and so improves performance.


XmlDocument xmld =



txtName.Text = xmld





XPathDocument xmldContext =



XPathNavigator xnav = xmldContext.CreateNavigator();

XPathNodeIterator xpNodeIter = xnav.Select(

iCount = xpNodeIter.Count;

xpNodeIter = xnav.SelectDescendants(XPathNodeType.Element,



sCurrValues += xpNodeIter.Current.Value+


7) Avoid declaring objects/variables inside loops, instead declare the variab
le once outside the loop
and initialize them inside.



i=0; i<10; i++)


SomeClass objSC =







SomeClass objSC =


i=0; i<10; i++)


objSC =






8) Always catch the Specif
ic exceptions instead of generic System.Exception.




<some logic>





<Error handling>





<some logic>





<Error handling>





<Error handling>





<Error handling>


Performance of ASP.Net Application

1. Disable the Debug Mode or Set Debug ="false"

How it affect performance: By default this attribute is "true" when you creat
e new application and is
useful when you are developing the application. Debug = true means that pdb information to be
inserted into file and this results a larger file size and it's performance issue. Before deployment you
should set the following tag

<compilation defaultLanguage="Vb" debug="false">

2. Set trace enabled="false"

How it affects performance: With help of tracing, we can track the application's and the sequences.
Enabling tracing adds performance overhead and might expose private inform
ation, so it should be
enabled only while an application is being actively analyzed. You can turn off tracing using

<Trace enabled="false"





While developing using Visual Studio.NET

When you set Configurations Option as "debug" mode, it

creates pdb file to store the debug
information hence before deploying the application set it to the "Release" mode.

You can set using

Select Menu Build
> Configuration Manager

> Set the configuration option of project to the
"Release" mode.


Disable the viewstate:

With the help of automatic state management feature, the

control is re
populate t
heir values
without writing any code. And it affects the performance. The always set EnableViewState = false
when not requires.

For control

<asp: datagrid EnableViewState="false" datasource="..." runat="server"/>

For Page

<%@ Page EnableViewState="false" %


Use Caching to improve the performance of your application.

OutputCaching enables your page to be cached for specific duration and can be made invalid based on
various parameters that can be specified. The Cache exists for the duration you specify a
nd until that
time, the requests do not go to the server and are served from the Cache.

Do not assign cached items a short expiration. Items that expire quickly cause unnecessary turnover in
the cache and frequently cause more work for cleanup code and th
e garbage collector. In case you
have static as well as dynamic sections of your page, try to use Partial Caching (Fragment Caching) by
breaking up your page into user controls and specify Caching for only those Controls which are more
less static.


Use appropriate Authentication Mechanism.

Following are the Authentication Modes.






Validate all Input received from the Users.

Validate all Input received from the users at client side to avoid the server round trip.

8. U
se Finally Method to kill resources.

Always use the finally block to kill resources like closing database connection, closing files etc.

Always use the String builder to concatenate string

The memory representation of string is an array of charact
ers, So on re
assigning the new array of
Char is formed & the start address is changed. Thus keeping the old string in memory for garbage
collector to be disposed. Hence application is slow down. Always use the string builder for
concatenating string.

. Enable the web gardening for multiprocessors computers:

The ASP.NET process model helps enable scalability on multiprocessor machines by distributing the
work to several processes, one for each CPU, each with processor affinity set to its CPU. The tech
is called
Web gardening
, and can dramatically improve the performance of some applications

11. Set Enlist="false" in connection string:


indicates that the SQL Server connection Pooler automatically enlists the connection in the
creation thr
ead's current transaction context. That's why set enlist = false in connection string.

12. Avoid recursive functions / nested loops

13. Always set option strict to "on"

14. Try to avoid Throwing Exceptions.

ASP.NET Caching: SQL Cache Dependency Wi
th SQL Server 2000

Introducing Cache Dependencies:

As time passes, the data source may change in response to other actions. However, if your code uses
caching, you may remain unaware of the changes and continue using out
date information from the

To help mitigate this problem, ASP.NET supports cache dependencies. Cache dependencies
allow you to make a cached item dependent on another resource so that when that resource changes
the cached item is removed automatically. ASP.NET includes three types
of dependencies:

Dependencies on other cache items.

Dependencies on files or folders.

Dependencies on a database query.

Introducing SQL Cache Notifications:

SQL cache dependencies are one of the most wonderful new features in ASP.NET 2.0, the ability to

automatically invalidate a cached data object (such as a DataSet or Custom Data Type) when the
related data is modified in the database. This feature is supported in both SQL

2005 and in SQL
Server 2000, although the underlying plumbing is quite different.

Cache Notifications in SQL Server 2000:

Before you can use SQL Server cache invalidation, you need to e
nable notifications for the database.
This task is performed with the

line utility, which is located in the
[Version] directory. To enable notifications, you need to use the

line swi
tch. You also need to identify the server (use

for a trusted connection and

to choose a server other than the current
) and the database (use
). Here's an example
that enables notifications for the

database on the current server:

d Northwind

After executing this command, a new table named

is added
to the database Northwind. The

table has three columns:
, and
. This table is used to track changes. Essentially, when a
change takes place, a record is written into

this table. The SQL Server polling queries this table. Also a
set of stored procedures is added to the database as well. See the following table.

Procedure Name



Sets a table up to support notificati
ons. This process works by
adding a notification trigger to the table, which will fire when
any row is inserted, deleted, or updated.


Takes a registered table and removes the notification trigger so
that notif
ications won't be generated.


The notification trigger calls this stored procedure to update the
AspNet_SqlCacheTablesForChangeNotification table, thereby
indicating that the table has changed.


Extracts just the table names fromthe
AspNet_SqlCacheTablesForChangeNotification table. Used to get
a quick look at all the registered tables.


Gets the list of changes from the
et_SqlCacheTablesForChangeNotification table. Used to
perform the polling.

After this, need to enable notification support
for each individual table.

You can do this manually
using the
, to that, open your query
analyzer and
select your Database you've enabled for SQL Cache Notification for example Northwind database and
write the following command:



Or you can use aspnet_regsql, using the


to enable a able for sql cache dependency
notifications and the

parameter to name the table. Here's an example that enables notifications for
the Employees table:

d Northwind
t Products

Both options generates the notification t
rigger for the Products table as the following:











So a
ny record is inserted, deleted or updated in Products table will update

field in


How Notificaions Works:


contains a single record for every table you'
monitoring. When you make a change in the table (such as inserting ,deleting or updating a record),

column is incremented by 1

. ASP.NET queries this table repeatedly and keeps tra
ck of the most recent

for every table. When this value changes in a subsequent read, ASP.NET knows that the table has

In this scenario, Any change to the table is deemed to invalidate any query for that table. In other
words, if y
ou use this query:





The caching still works in the same way. That means if any product record is touched, even if the
product resides in another category (
and therefore isn't one of the cached records
), the notifi
cation is
still sent and the cached item is considered invalid. Also keep in mind it doesn't make sense to cache
tables that change frequently.

Enable ASP.Net Polling:

To enable ASP.NET polling , you need to use the <sqlCacheDepency> element in the
.config file.
Set the

attribute to true to turn it on, and set the

attribute to the number of
seconds between each poll. (The higher the poll time, the longer the potential delay before a
change is detected.) You also need to supply the connection string information.

Creating the Cache Dependency:

Now that we've seen how to set up a database to support SQL Server notifications, the only remaining
detail is the code, which is quite straightforward. W
e can use our cache dependency with
programmatic data caching, a data source control, and output caching.

For programmatic data caching, we need to create a new

and supply that to

method. In the

tructor, you supply two strings. The
first is the name of the database you defined in the element in the section of the web.config file e.g:
. The second is the name of the linked table e.g:


private static void

> products)



sqlDependency =


, products, sqlDependency,



> GetCachedProductList()







NWProductItem is business class, and here we are trying to cache a list of NWProductItem instead of
DataSet or DataTable.

The fo
llowing method is used by an ObjectDataSource Control to retrieve List of Products

public static

> GetProductsList(




//Try to Get Products List from the Cache

> products = GetCachedProductList()


(products ==


//Products List not in the cache, so we need to query the Database by using a Data Layer


db =



reader =

products =



(catId > 0)


/Return Product List from the Data Layer

reader = db.GetProductsList(catId);




//Return Product List from the Data Layer

reader = db.GetProductsList();


//Create List of Products
List if NWProductItem

products = BuildProductsList(reader);


//Add entry to products list in the Cache






(sortBy.Contains("DESC")) products.Reverse();




To perform the same trick with output caching, you sim
ply need to set the SqlDependency property
with the database dependency name and the table name, separated by a colon:

<%@ OutputCache Duration="600"


The same technique works with the SqlDataSource

and ObjectDataSource controls:

<asp:SqlDataSource EnableCaching="True"

... />

Important Note:


doesn't support built in caching for Custom types such as the one in our example.
It only support thi
s feature for DataSets and DataTables.

To test this feature,

the attached demo. It contains an editable

GridView. Set a break point
at the

method and run in debug mode. Update any record and notice the changes.
Also you can edit the solution and remove the cache dependency and note the deference after update.

Also you can remove the

from the output cache in the

and notice that whatever update you made to the data source, the page still retrieves the old version
of data.


ASP.NET requires a host. On

Windows Server™ 2003, the default host is the Internet Information
Services (IIS) 6.0 worker process (W3wp.exe). When you use the ASP.NET Process Model, the host is
the ASP.NET worker process (Aspnet_wp.exe).

When a request is received by ASP.NET, the req
uest is handled by the

object. The

is responsible for application creation and initialization, managing the request queue
and thread pool, and dispatching the incoming requests to the correct application. After the request is
ched to the appropriate application, the request is passed through a pipeline. This pipeline is a
staged, event
based execution framework consisting of multiple

objects and a single

object. This architecture is shown in Figure 6.1.

Figure 6.1: ASP.NET runtime infrastructure


objects participate in the pipeline by handling predefi
ned events that ASP.NET exposes.
These events include


. The request flows
through the pipeline of

objects and is then run by a single
. After the event
handler is completed, the request

then flows back through the pipeline and is sent to the client.

Throughout the entire lifetime of a request, a context is exposed. The

encapsulates information about individual requests and their associated responses.

Performance and Sc
alability Issues

The main issues that can adversely affect the performance and scalability of your ASP.NET application
are summarized below. Subsequent sections in this chapter provide strategies and technical
information to prevent or resolve each of thes
e issues.

Resource affinity
. Resource affinity can prevent you from adding more servers, or
resource affinity can reduce the benefits of adding more CPUs and memory. Resource affinity occurs
when code needs a specific thread, CPU, component instance, or s

Excessive allocations
. Applications that allocate memory excessively on a per
request basis consume memory and create additional work for garbage collection. The additional
garbage collection work increases CPU utilization. These excessive allocati
ons may be caused by
temporary allocations. For example, the excessive allocations may be caused by excessive string
concatenation that uses the

operator in a tight loop.

Failure to share expensive resources
. Failing to call the



to release expensive resources, such as database connections, may lead to resource
shortages. Closing or disposing resources permits the resources to be reused more efficiently.

Blocking operations
. The single thread that handles an ASP.NET request is bl
from servicing additional user requests while the thread is waiting for a downstream call to return.
Calls to long
running stored procedures and remote objects may block a thread for a significant
amount of time.

Misusing threads
. Creating threads f
or each request incurs thread initialization
costs that can be avoided. Also, using single
threaded apartment (STA) COM objects incorrectly may
cause multiple requests to queue up. Multiple requests in the queue slow performance and create
scalability issu

Making late
bound calls
. Late
bound calls require extra instructions at runtime to
identify and load the code to be run. Whether the target code is managed or unmanaged, you should
avoid these extra instructions.

Misusing COM interop
. COM interop is
generally very efficient, although many
factors affect its performance. These factors include the size and type of the parameters that you
pass across the managed/unmanaged boundary and crossing apartment boundaries. Crossing
apartment boundaries may requi
re expensive thread switches.

Large pages
. Page size is affected by the number and the types of controls on the
page. Page size is also affected by the data and images that you use to render the page. The more
data you send over the network, the more band
width you consume. When you consume high levels
of bandwidth, you are more likely to create a bottleneck.

Failure to use data caching appropriately
. Failure to cache static data, caching
too much data so that the items get flushed out, caching user data i
nstead of application
wide data,
and caching infrequently used items may limit your system's performance and scalability.

Failure to use output caching appropriately
. If you do not use output caching or
if you use it incorrectly, you can add avoidable str
ain to your Web server.

Inefficient rendering
. Interspersing HTML and server code, performing
unnecessary initialization code on page postback, and late
bound data binding may all cause
significant rendering overhead. This may decrease the perceived and t
rue page performance.

Design Considerations

Building high
performance ASP.NET applications is significantly easier if you design with performance
in mind. Make sure you develop a performance plan from the outset of your project. Never try to add
ce as a post
build step. Also, use an iterative development process that incorporates
constant measuring between iterations.

By following best practice design guidelines, you significantly increase your chances of creating a high
performance Web applicatio
n. Consider the following design guidelines:

Consider security and performance

Partition your application logically

Evaluate affinity

Reduce round trips

Avoid blocking on long
running tasks

Use caching

Avoid unnecessary exceptions

Consider S
ecurity and Performance

Your choice of authentication scheme can affect the performance and scalability of your application.
You need to consider the following issues:

. Consider the identities you are using and the way that you flow identity
rough your application. To access downstream resources, you can use the ASP.NET process identity
or another specific service identity. Or, you can enable impersonation and flow the identity of the
original caller. If you connect to Microsoft SQL Server™, y
ou can also use SQL authentication.
However, SQL authentication requires you to store credentials in the database connection string.
Storing credentials in the database connection string is not recommended from a security
perspective. When you connect to a

shared resource, such as a database, by using a single identity,
you benefit from connection pooling. Connection pooling significantly increases scalability. If you flow
the identity of the original caller by using impersonation, you cannot benefit from e
fficient connection
pooling, and you have to configure access control for multiple individual user accounts. For these
reasons, it is best to use a single trusted identity to connect to downstream databases.

Managing credentials
. Consider the way that you

manage credentials. You have to
decide if your application stores and verifies credentials in a database, or if you want to use an
authentication mechanism provided by the operating system where credentials are stored for you in
the Active Directory® dire
ctory service.

You should also determine the number of concurrent users that your application can support and
determine the number of users that your credential store (database or Active Directory) can handle.
You should perform capacity planning for your

application to determine if the system can handle the
anticipated load.

Protecting credentials
. Your decision to encrypt and decrypt credentials when they
are sent over the network costs additional processing cycles. If you use authentication schemes suc
as Windows® Forms authentication or SQL authentication, credentials flow in clear text and can be
accessed by network eavesdroppers. In these cases, how important is it for you to protect them as
they are passed across the network? Decide if you can choo
se authentication schemes that are
provided by the operating system, such as NTLM or the Kerberos protocol, where credentials are not
sent over the network to avoid encryption overhead.

. If your application only needs to ensure that informati
on is not
tampered with during transit, you can use keyed hashing. Encryption is not required in this case, and
it is relatively expensive compared to hashing. If you need to hide the data that you send over the
network, you require encryption and probably

keyed hashing to ensure data validity. When both
parties can share the keys, using symmetric encryption provides improved performance in
comparison to asymmetric encryption. Although larger key sizes provide greater encryption strength,
performance is slo
wer relative to smaller key sizes. You must consider this type of performance and
balance the larger key sizes against security tradeoffs at design time.

More Information

For more information, see "Performance Comparison: Security Design Choices" on MSDN

Partition Your Application Logically

Use layering to logically partition your application logi
c into presentation, business, and data access
layers. This helps you create maintainable code, but it also permits you to monitor and optimize the
performance of each layer separately. A clear logical separation also offers more choices for scaling
your a
pplication. Try to reduce the amount of code in your code
behind files to improve maintenance
and scalability.

Do not confuse logical partitioning with physical deployment. A logical separation enables you to
decide whether to locate presentation and busin
ess logic on the same server and clone the logic across
servers in a Web farm, or to decide to install the logic on servers that are physically separate. The key
point to remember is that remote calls incur a latency cost, and that latency increases as the

between the layers increases.

For example, in
process calls are the quickest calls, followed by cross
process calls on the same
computer, followed by remote network calls. If possible, try to keep the logical partitions close to each
other. For o
ptimum performance you should place your business and data access logic in the Bin
directory of your application on the Web server.

For more information about these and other deployment issues, see "Deployment Considerations" later
in this chapter.

te Affinity

Affinity can improve performance. However, affinity may affect your ability to scale. Common coding
practices that introduce resource affinity include the following:

Using in
process session state
. To avoid server affinity, maintain ASP.NET se
state out of process in a SQL Server database or use the out
process state service running on a
remote machine. Alternatively, design a stateless application, or store state on the client and pass it
with each request.

Using computer
specific enc
ryption keys
. Using computer
specific encryption
keys to encrypt data in a database prevents your application from working in a Web farm because
common encrypted data needs to be accessed by multiple Web servers. A better approach is to use
ic keys to encrypt a shared symmetric key. You use the shared symmetric key to
store encrypted data in the database.

More Information

For more information about how to encrypt and decrypt data in a shared database, without introducing
affinity, see Chapte
r 14, "Building Secure Data Access," in
Improving Web Application Security:
Threats and Countermeasures

on MSDN at

Reduce Round Trips

Use the following techniques and features in ASP.NET to minimize the number of round trips between
a Web server and a browser, and between a Web server and a downstream system:

. Conside
r using the

property to verify if the client is still connected before
processing a request and performing expensive server
side operations. However, this call may need
to go out of process on IIS 5.0 and can be very expensiv
e. If you use it, measure whether it actually
benefits your scenario.

. If your application is fetching, transforming, and rendering data that is
static or nearly static, you can avoid redundant hits by using caching.

Output buffering
. Reduce roun
dtrips when possible by buffering your output. This
approach batches work on the server and avoids chatty communication with the client. The downside
is that the client does not see any rendering of the page until it is complete. You can use the

method. This method sends output up to that point to the client. Note that clients
that connect over slow networks where buffering is turned off, affect the response time of your
server. The response time of your server is affected because your server

needs to wait for
acknowledgements from the client. The acknowledgements from the client occur after the client
receives all the content from the server.

. Where possible, use the
method instead of the

sends a response header to the client that causes
the client to send a new request to the redirected server by using the new URL.
avoids this level of indirection by simply making a server
side call.

You cannot alway
s just replace

calls with

calls because

uses a new handler during the handler phase of request processing. If you need
authentication and authorization checks during redirection, use

ad of

because the two mechanisms are not equivalent. When you use
, ensure you use the overloaded method that accepts a Boolean second
parameter, and pass a value of

to ensure an internal exception is not raised.

o note that you can only use

to transfer control to pages in the same
application. To transfer to pages in other applications, you must use

More Information

For more information, see Knowledge Base article 312629, "PRB:
ThreadAbortException Occurs If You
Use Response.End, Response.Redirect, or Server.Transfer," at;en

Avoid Blocking on

Running Tasks

If you run long
running or blocking operations, consider using the following asynchronous mechanisms
to free the Web server to process other incoming requests:

Use asynchronous calls to invoke Web services or remote objects when there
is an
opportunity to perform additional parallel processing while the Web service call proceeds. Where
possible, avoid synchronous (blocking) calls to Web services because outgoing Web service calls are
made by using threads from the ASP.NET thread pool. B
locking calls reduce the number of available
threads for processing other incoming requests.

For more information, see "Avoid Asynchronous Calls Unless You Have Additional Parallel Work" later
in this chapter.

Consider using the

attribute on Web m
ethods or remote object methods if
you do not need a response. This "fire and forget" model allows the Web server to make the call and
continue processing immediately. This choice may be an appropriate design choice for some

Queue work, and the
n poll for completion from the client. This permits the Web
server to invoke code and then let the Web client poll the server to confirm that the work is

More Information

For more information about how to implement these mechanisms, see "Threadi
ng Guidelines" later in
this chapter.

Use Caching

A well
designed caching strategy is probably the single most important performance
related design
consideration. ASP.NET caching features include output caching, partial page caching, and the cache
API. Des
ign your application to take advantage of these features.

Caching can be used to reduce the cost of data access and rendering output. Knowing how your pages
use or render data enables you to design efficient caching strategies. Caching is particularly usef
when your Web application constantly relies on data from remote resources such as databases, Web
services, remote application servers, and other remote resources. Applications that are database
intensive may benefit from caching by reducing the load on
the database and by increasing the
throughput of the application. As a general rule, if caching is cheaper than the equivalent processing,
you should use caching. Consider the following when you design for caching:

Identify data or output that is expensiv
e to create or retrieve
. Caching data or
output that is expensive to create or retrieve can reduce the costs of obtaining the data. Caching the
data reduces the load on your database server.

Evaluate the volatility
. For caching to be effective, the data o
r output should be
static or infrequently modified. Lists of countries, states, or zip codes are some simple examples of
the type of data that you might want to cache. Data or output that changes frequently is usually less
suited to caching but can be mana
geable, depending upon the need. Caching user data is typically
only recommended when you use specialized caches, such as the ASP.NET session state store.

Evaluate the frequency of use
. Caching data or output that is frequently used can
provide significan
t performance and scalability benefits. You can obtain performance and scalability
benefits when you cache static or frequently modified data and output alike. For example, frequently
used, expensive data that is modified on a periodic basis may still prov
ide large performance and
scalability improvements when managed correctly. If the data is used more often than it is updated,
the data is a candidate for caching.

Separate volatile data from nonvolatile data
. Design user controls to
encapsulate static con
tent such as navigational aids or help systems, and keep them separate from
more volatile data. This permits them to be cached. Caching this data decreases the load on your

Choose the right caching mechanism
. There are many different ways to cache

data. Depending on your scenario, some are better than others. User
specific data is typically stored
in the

object. Static pages and some types of dynamic pages such as non
pages that are served to large user sets can be cached by us
ing the ASP.NET output cache and
response caching. Static content in pages can be cached by using a combination of the output cache
and user controls. The ASP.NET caching features provide a built
in mechanism to update the cache.
Application state, session

state, and other caching means do not provide a built
in mechanism to
update the cache.

Avoid Unnecessary Exceptions

Exceptions add significant overhead to your application. Do not use exceptions to control logic flow,
and design your code to avoid excep
tions where possible. For example, validate user input, and check
for known conditions that can cause exceptions. Also, design your code to fail early to avoid
unnecessary processing.

If your application does not handle an exception, it propagates up the s
tack and is ultimately handled
by the ASP.NET exception handler. When you design your exception handling strategy, consider the

Design code to avoid exceptions
. Validate user input and check for known
conditions that can cause exceptions. Desig
n code to avoid exceptions.

Avoid using exceptions to control logic flow
. Avoid using exception management
to control regular application logic flow.

Avoid relying on global handlers for all exceptions
. Exceptions cause the
runtime to manipulate and walk

the stack. The further the runtime traverses the stack searching for
an exception handler, the more expensive the exception is to process.

Catch and handle exceptions close to where they occur
. When possible, catch
and handle exceptions close to where th
ey occur. This avoids excessive and expensive stack traversal
and manipulation.

Do not catch exceptions you cannot handle
. If your code cannot handle an
exception, use a

block to ensure that you close resources, regardless of whether an
ion occurs. When you use a

block, your resources are cleaned up in the

block if an exception occurs, and the exception is permitted to propagate up to an appropriate

Fail early to avoid expensive work
. Design your code to avoi
d expensive or long
running work if a dependent task fails.

Log exception details for administrators
. Implement an exception logging
mechanism that captures detailed information about exceptions so that administrators and
developers can identify and remed
y any issues.

Avoid showing too much exception detail to users
. Avoid displaying detailed
exception information to users, to help maintain security and to reduce the amount of data that is
sent to the client.

Implementation Considerations

When you move f
rom application design to application development, consider the technical details of
your ASP.NET application. Key ASP.NET performance measures include response times, speed of
throughput, and resource management.

You can improve response times by reducing

page sizes, reducing your reliance on server controls, and
using buffering to reduce chatty communication with the client. You can avoid unnecessary work by
caching resources.

Throughput can be improved by making effective use of threads. Tune the thread
pool to reduce
connections, and to avoid blocking threads because blocking threads reduce the number of available
worker threads.

Poor resource management can place excessive loads on server CPU and memory. You can improve
resource utilization by effective
ly using pooled resources, by explicitly closing or disposing resources
you open, and by using efficient string management.

When you follow best practice implementation guidelines, you increase the performance of your
application by using well
engineered c
ode and a well
configured application platform. The following
sections describe performance considerations for ASP.NET features and scenarios.

Threading Explained

ASP.NET processes requests by using threads from the .NET thread pool. The thread pool mainta
ins a
pool of threads that have already incurred the thread initialization costs. Therefore, these threads are
easy to reuse. The .NET thread pool is also self
tuning. It monitors CPU and other resource utilization,
and it adds new threads or trims the thr
ead pool size as needed. You should generally avoid creating
threads manually to perform work. Instead, use threads from the thread pool. At the same time, it is
important to ensure that your application does not perform lengthy blocking operations that co
quickly lead to thread pool starvation and rejected HTTP requests.

Formula for Reducing Contention

The formula for reducing contention can give you a good empirical start for tuning the ASP.NET thread
pool. Consider using the Microsoft product group
commended settings that are shown in Table 6.1 if
the following conditions are true:

You have available CPU.

Your application performs I/O bound operations such as calling a Web method or
accessing the file system.

ASP.NET Applications/Requests In A
pplication Queue

performance counter
indicates that you have queued requests.

Table 6.1: Recommended Threading Settings for Reducing Contention

Configuration setting

Default value (.NET Framework 1.1)




12 * #CPUs









88 * #CPUs



76 * #CPUs

To address this issue, you need to configure the following items in the Machine.config file. Apply the
recommended changes that are described in th
e following section, across the settings and not in
isolation. For a detailed description of each of these settings, see "Thread Pool Attributes" in Chapter
17, "Tuning .NET Application Performance."

Set maxconnection to 12 * # of CPUs
. This setting contr
ols the maximum number
of outgoing HTTP connections that you can initiate from a client. In this case, ASP.NET is the client.

to 12 * # of CPUs.

Set maxIoThreads to 100
. This setting controls the maximum number of I/O
threads in the .NET

thread pool. This number is automatically multiplied by the number of available
CPUs. Set

to 100.

Set maxWorkerThreads to 100
. This setting controls the maximum number of
worker threads in the thread pool. This number is then automatically m
ultiplied by the number of
available CPUs. Set

to 100.

Set minFreeThreads to 88 * # of CPUs
. This setting is used by the worker
process to queue all the incoming requests if the number of available threads in the thread pool falls
below t
he value for this setting. This setting effectively limits the number of requests that can run
concurrently to

. Set

to 88 * # of CPUs.
This limits the number of concurrent requests to 12 (assuming

is 100).

Set minLocalRequestFreeThreads to 76 * # of CPUs
. This setting is used by the
worker process to queue requests from localhost (where a Web application sends requests to a local
Web service) if the number of available threads in the thread
pool falls below this number.

setting is similar to

but it only applies to localhost requests from the local
computer. Set

to 76 * # of CPUs.


The recommendations that are provided in this section are n
ot rules. They are a starting point.
Test to determine the appropriate settings for your scenario. If you move your application to a new
computer, ensure that you recalculate and reconfigure the settings based on the number of CPUs in
the new computer.

your ASPX Web page makes multiple calls to Web services on a per
request basis, apply the

The recommendation to limit the ASP.NET runtime to 12 threads for handling incoming requests is
most applicable for quick
running operations. The lim
it also reduces the number of context switches. If
your application makes long
running calls, first consider the design alternatives presented in the
"Avoid Blocking on Long
Running Tasks" section. If the alternative designs cannot be applied in your
rio, start with 100
, and keep the defaults for
. This
ensures that requests are not serialized in this particular scenario. Next, if you see high CPU utilization
and context
switching when you test your application, test by r

or by

The following occurs if the formula has worked:

CPU utilization increases.

Throughput increases according to the
ASP.NET Applications

performance counter.

Requests in the application

queue decrease according to the
Applications/Requests In Application Queue

performance counter.

If using the recommended settings does not improve your application performance, you may have a
CPU bound scenario. By adding more threads you increas
e thread context switching. For more
information, see "ASP.NET Tuning" in Chapter 17, "Tuning .NET Application Performance."

More Information

For more information, see Knowledge Base article 821268, "PRB: Contention, Poor Performance, and
Deadlocks When Yo
u Make Web Service Requests from ASP.NET Applications," at;en

Threading Guidelines

This section discusses guidelines

that you can use to help improve threading efficiency in ASP.NET. The
guidelines include the following:

Tune the thread pool by using the formula to reduce contention

Consider minIoThreads and minWorkerThreads for burst load

Do not create threads on
a per
request basis

Avoid blocking threads

Avoid asynchronous calls unless you have additional parallel work

Tune the Thread Pool by Using the Formula to Reduce Contention

If you have available CPU and if requests are queued, configure the ASP.NET th
read pool. For more
information about how to do this, see "Formula for Reducing Contention" in the preceding "Threading
Explained" section. The recommendations in "Threading Explained" are a starting point.

When your application uses the common language ru
ntime (CLR) thread pool, it is important to tune
the thread pool correctly. Otherwise, you may experience contention issues, performance problems, or
possible deadlocks. Your application may be using the CLR thread pool if the following conditions are

Your application makes Web service calls.

Your application uses the


classes to make
outgoing Web requests.

Your application explicitly queues work to the thread pool by calling the


More Informati

For more information, see Knowledge Base article 821268, "PRB: Contention, Poor Performance, and
Deadlocks When You Make Web Service Requests from ASP.NET Applications," at

Consider minIoThreads and minWorkerThreads for Burst Load

If your application experiences burst loads where there are prolonged periods of inactivity between the
burst loads, the thread pool ma
y not have enough time to reach the optimal level of threads. A burst
load occurs when a large number of users connect to your application suddenly and at the same time.


settings enable you to configure a minimum numbe
r of
worker threads and I/O threads for load conditions.

At the time of this writing, you need a supported fix to configure these settings. For more information,
see the following Knowledge Base articles:

810259, "FIX: SetMinThreads and GetMinThreads API
Added to Common Language
Runtime ThreadPool Class," at;en

827419, "PRB: Sudden Requirement for a Larger Number of Th
reads from the
ThreadPool Class May Result in Slow Computer Response Time," at;en

Do Not Create Threads on a Per
uest Basis

Creating threads is an expensive operation that requires initialization of both managed and
unmanaged resources. You should avoid manually creating threads on each client request for server
based applications such as ASP.NET applications and Web


Consider using asynchronous calls if you have work that is not CPU bound that can run in parallel with
the call. For example, this might include disk I/O bound or network I/O bound operations such as
reading or writing files, or making calls to
another Web method.

You can use the infrastructure provided by the .NET Framework to perform asynchronous operations
by calling the


methods (where
represents the
synchronous method name). If this asynchronous

calling pattern is not an option, then consider using
threads from the CLR thread pool. The following code fragment shows how you queue a method to run
on a separate thread from the thread pool.

WaitCallback methodTarget = new WaitCallback(myClass.UpdateC
ache); bool isQueued =

Avoid Blocking Threads

Any operation that you perform from an ASP.NET page that causes the current request thread to block
means that one less worker thread from the thread pool is availab
le to service other ASP.NET
requests. Avoid blocking threads.

Avoid Asynchronous Calls Unless You Have Additional Parallel Work

Make asynchronous calls from your Web application only when your application has additional parallel
work to perform while it wa
its for the completion of the asynchronous calls, and the work performed
by the asynchronous call is not CPU bound. Internally, the asynchronous calls use a worker thread
from the thread pool; in effect, you are using additional threads.

At the same time t
hat you make asynchronous I/O calls, such as calling a Web method or performing
file operations, the thread that makes the call is released so that it can perform additional work, such
as making other asynchronous calls or performing other parallel tasks.
You can then wait for
completion of all of those tasks. Making several asynchronous calls that are not CPU bound and then
letting them run simultaneously can improve throughput.

More Information

For more information about ASP.NET threading and asynchronous

communication, see "ASP.NET
Pipeline: Use Threads and Build Asynchronous Handlers in Your Server
Side Web Code" at

Resource Management

Poor resource management from pages and controls is one of the primary causes of poor Web
application performance. Poor resource management can place excessive loads on CPUs and can
consume vast amounts of memory. When
CPU or memory thresholds are exceeded, applications might
be recycled or blocked until the load on the server is lower. For more information, see "Resource
Management" in Chapter 3, "Design Guidelines for Application Performance." Use the following
nes to help you manage your resources efficiently:

Pool resources

Explicitly call Dispose or Close on resources you open

Do not cache or block on pooled resources

Know your application allocation pattern

Obtain resources late and release them earl

Avoid per
request impersonation

Pool Resources

ADO.NET provides built
in database connection pooling that is fully automatic and requires no specific
coding. Make sure that you use the same connection string for every request to access the database.

Make sure you release pooled resources so that they can be returned to the pool as soon as possible.
Do not cache pooled resources or make lengthy blocking calls while you own the pooled resource,
because this means that other clients cannot use the resour
ce in the meantime. Also, avoid holding
objects across multiple requests.

Explicitly Call Dispose or Close on Resources You Open

If you use objects that implement the

interface, make sure you call the

of the object or the

ethod if one is provided. Failing to call


prolongs the life
of the object in memory long after the client stops using it. This defers the cleanup and can contribute
to memory pressure. Database connection and files are examples of shared r
esources that should be
explicitly closed. The

clause of the

block is a good place to ensure that the


method of the object is called. This technique is shown in the following Visual Basic® .NET
code fragment.

Try conn.
Open() …Finally If Not(conn Is Nothing) Then conn.Close() End If End Try

In Visual C#®, you can wrap resources that should be disposed, by using a

block. When the

block completes,

is called on the object listed in the brackets on the

The following code fragment shows how you can wrap resources that should be disposed by using a


SqlConnection conn = new SqlConnection(connString); using (conn) { conn.Open(); . . .
} // Dispose is automatically called on the
connection object conn here.

More Information

For more information, see "Finalize and Dispose Guidelines" in Chapter 5, "
Improving Managed Code
" Also, see "Explicitly Close

Connections" in Chapter 12, "
Improving ADO.NET

Do Not Cache or Block on Pooled Resources

If your application uses resources that are pooled, release the resource back to t
he pool. Caching the
pooled resources or making blocking calls from a pooled resource reduces the availability of the pooled
resource for other users. Pooled resources include database connections, network connections, and
Enterprise Services pooled object

Know Your Application Allocation Pattern

Poor memory allocation patterns may cause the garbage collector to spend most of its time collecting
objects from Generation 2. Collecting objects from Generation 2 leads to poor application performance
and high
loads on the CPU.

Coding techniques that cause large numbers of temporary allocations during a short interval put
pressure on the garbage collector. For example, when you perform a large number of string
concatenation operations by using the

operator in

a tight loop, or when you use

every request, you may put pressure on the garbage collector. All of these operations create hidden
objects (temporary allocations). Use tools such as the CLR Profiler and System Monitor to better
allocation patterns in your application.

More Information

For more information, see "
How To: Use CLR Profiler
" in the "How To" section of this guide. Also, see
"CLR and Managed Code" in

Chapter 15, "
Measuring .NET Application Performance

For more information about the mechanics of garbage collection and generations, see "Garbage
Collection Explained" in Chapter 5, "
Improving Managed Code Performance

Obtain Resources Late and Release Them Early

Open critical, limited, and shared resources just before you need them, and release them as soon as
you c
an. Critical, limited, and shared resources include resources such as database connections,
network connections, and transactions.

Avoid Per
Request Impersonation

Identify and, if necessary, authorize the caller at the Web server. Obtain access to system r
esources or
wide resources by using the identity of the Web application process or by using a fixed
service account. System resources are resources such as event logs. Application
wide resources are
resources such as databases. Avoiding per
uest impersonation minimizes security overhead and
maximizes resource pooling.


Impersonation on its own does not cause performance issues. However, impersonation often
prevents efficient resource pooling. This is a common cause of performance and sc
alability problems.


The efficiency of your ASP.NET page and code
behind page logic plays a large part in determining the
overall performance of your Web application. The following guidelines relate to the development of
individual .aspx and .ascx Web

page files.

Trim your page size

Enable buffering

Use Page.IsPostBack to minimize redundant processing

Partition page content to improve caching efficiency and reduce rendering

Ensure pages are batch compiled

Ensure debug is set to false

ize expensive loops

Consider using Server.Transfer instead of Response.Redirect

Use client
side validation

Trim Your Page Size

Processing large page sizes increases the load on the CPU, increases the consumption of network
bandwidth, and increases th
e response times for clients. Avoid designing and developing large pages
that accomplish multiple tasks, particularly where only a few tasks are normally executed for each
request. Where possible logically partition your pages.

To trim your page size, you
can do one or all of the following:

Use script includes for any static scripts in your page to enable the client to cache
these scripts for subsequent requests. The following script element shows how to do this.

<script language=jscript src="scripts

Remove characters such as tabs and spaces that create white space before you send
a response to the client. Removing white spaces can dramatically reduce the size of your pages. The
following sample table contains white spaces.

// with white
space <table> <tr> <td>hello</td> <td>world</td> </tr> </table>

The following sample table does not contain white spaces.

// without white space <table> <tr><td>hello</td><td>world</td></tr> </table>

Save these two tables in separate text files by usin
g Notepad, and then view the size of each file. The
second table saves several bytes simply by removing the white space. If you had a table with 1,000
rows, you could reduce the response time by just removing the white spaces. In intranet scenarios,
ng white space may not represent a huge saving. However, in an Internet scenario that involves
slow clients, removing white space can increase response times dramatically. You can also consider
HTTP compression; however, HTTP compression affects CPU utiliz

You cannot always expect to design your pages in this way. Therefore, the most effective method for
removing the white space is to use an Internet Server API (ISAPI) filter or an

object. An
ISAPI filter is faster than an
; howev
er, the ISAPI filter is more complex to develop and
increases CPU utilization. You might also consider IIS compression. IIS compression can be added by
using a metabase entry.

Additionally, you can trim page size in the following ways:

Disable view state
when you do not need it. For more information, see "View State"
later in this chapter.

Limit the use of graphics, and consider using compressed graphics.

Consider using cascading style sheets to avoid sending the same formatting
directives to the client

Avoid long control names; especially ones that are repeated in a