What are the Electromagnetic Effects?

brothersroocooElectronics - Devices

Oct 18, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

71 views

What are the Electromagnetic Effects?

Electromagnetic effects

(EME) is the common name of many kinds of unintended
and some
intended
effects that

have an

influence on
electronic and electrical systems, explosives,
weapons, other objects and persons

by various natural and man
-
made electric activities
.
Means for test and evaluation (T&E) of
EME on integrated defence systems are

often
complex and quite
exp
e
nsive
. National EME test equipment

for system level testing

are

in
many places not
full
-
time
engaged.
L
ong term
maintenance of such capabilities is
costly and
problematic.
Therefore, the member states decided to co
-
operate in this field
in order to
explore
the
potential for
mutual use of

common EME T&E
capabilities.
Such c
o
-
operation
could
help to

avoid the building
unnecessary

facilities
viewed
at a European scale
and
to
maintain shared facilities or

to
support decisions for
clos
ure of

facilities that are unnecessary

even in a European perspective. The cooperation could generate budget savings

and

preserve
high quality capabilities including
skilled human

resources
. It could generate
time and
cost
saving
for acquisition projects by supporting an
exchange of experiences
,

test results
and
transparent
approval
s of
EME
T&E reports.


EME T&
E is divided into
the f
ollowing
categories
:


Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
, including
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI);


Electrostatic Discharge (ESD);



Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance (HERO)
;



High Intensity Radiated Fields

(HIRF)
, including radiation effects on persons

(HIR
P
)
;



High
-
Power Microwaves (HPM)
, including other forms of intentional interference (IEME);


Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse (LEMP;


Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NEMP)
:



Computational Electro Magneti
cs (CEM)
;


Some
security sensitive
technologies
such as
E
lectromagnetic
W
arfare
, EM signatures

and
sensor
s

and IT SEC
-
related T&E e.g. TEMPEST
testing
are not included in the present scope
of EME T&E co
-
operation.


Short description of each category of
EME:


EMI and EMC

Compatibility of integrated


cooperating co
-
located systems with regard to their EM emission &
immunity EM
-
fields/conducted/power feed interaction) Emission and susceptibility determination
over all frequencies transients, intermittent r
epetitive or continuous effects.


Electric power quality Immunity to any deviations in power quality


loads, generators and converters power deviations of all kinds.


transient (start up/shut down/supply switching) supplies and loads
characters


UPS performance


Magnetic fields Immunity to static or low frequency (incl. power frequency) magnetic fields


Electric field


Immunity to static or low frequency (incl. power frequency) electic fi
elds


ESD

Immunity to electrostatic charging, discharge and precipitation static (P
-
static) effects from persons,
dielectric and conductive objects and P
-
static (air particles/sand) effects on flying objects

Antistatic means and measures performance at
system level and structures level e.g. effects on
personnel, equipment and dielectric structural surfaces, fuel systems ESD

Not included
: ESD indicators and control instrumentation, components protection, fuel systems ESD,

Equipment, sub
-
systems, antenna d
esign, dielectric surfaces, ESD production problems


HERO

(
H
azards of
E
lectromagnetic
R
adiation to
O
rdnance)


Immunity of any ordnance system and installation to specified maximum EM environment. Weapons
and ammunition T&E to high power electromagnetic
radiation effects (VLF
-
EHF). Incl. testing of live
fire (off the shelf) systems, instrumentation and diagnostics for EED:s. Fail
-
safe functions
performance. Low
-
sensitivity munitions performance.

HIRF

High intensity RF radiation effects


from any high po
wer RF
-
transmitter (radio/radar) (>200V/m)

All kinds of effects to electronic equipment or materiel (incl.sub
-
categories HERP/HERF)


HERP

H
igh intensity
E
M
R
adiation effects on
P
ersons

High intensity RF radiation effects on persons


bio effects of f
rom high intensity

RF
-
transmitters (mobile transmitters > 5W .

Also including near
-
field effects of RF transmitters. (E
-

and B
-
fields)


HERF

H
igh intensity
E
M
R
adiation effects on
F
uel vapours
.
EM radiation fuel ignition effects,

risks

and protection


from high power radio
-

and radar transmitters (mobile transmitters > 5W)

HPM

Effects of High Power Microwave weapons (devices) emitting extremely intensive mono
-
pulses or
multiple pulses having a narrow, broad or wide frequency content wi
th the dominating energy in the
microwave spectrum. HPM weapons could be viewed as a sub
-
category of IEMI devices.

IEMI

Effects of very high intensity RF
-

emitters with the intention to affect targets by EM radiation.

Threat could be related to ordinary
military or sabotage (terrorist) weapons


LEMP

EM effects of lightning strikes, direct effects to attachment points, indirect effects from electric
overstress, dielectric strength of isolation, effects on composites, conductor solidity (currents and
magnet
ic field effects), transient protection effectiveness, fuel systems protection, magnetic
remanence effects, lightning attachment zone verification, etc.

NEMP (
Nuclear EM Pulse).

Immunity of objects to NEMP
,

early, intermediate and late effects. Performanc
e of NEMP protection
measures (shielding, transient protection, insulation, back
-
up power etc.). Threat environment from
High altitude, Low altitude and Surface burst NEMP.

CEM

(Computational ElectroMagnetics)

Computational techniques of various kinds e.g.

time
-

and frequency domain analysis techniques for
EM coupling to objects and leakage into or out from objects, coupling to cabling etc. Computations
may include non
-

conducting and limited
-
conducting materiel. CEM supports EM design and T&E.