# Thermodynamics I

Mechanics

Oct 27, 2013 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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Thermodynamics II

Contact information

Educate.spsu.edu

SPSU e
-
mail

“tt”

Syllabus

Power Point

Class Schedule

Thermodynamics II

Outcomes

Credits

Text: M&S 6
th

or 7
th

Edition

Thermodynamics II

Learn A

A basis for learning B

Examples

Homework

Questions

Practice

Thermodynamics II

Principles → working equations → applications

Thermo I: lots of principles & some working
equations

Thermo II: some working equations & lots of
applications

Thermodynamics II

No cookbook

Orderly/logical approach

Describe system

Sketch

Assumptions

Principles & working equations

Solve

Reasonable

Thermodynamics II

Type of system

Type of working fluid

Type of process

Thermodynamics II

Assumptions

reasonable

Ideal gas

Incompressible liquid

KE & PE often negligible

Solve Equation

Include units

Consistent unit system

Significant digits

Thermodynamics II

Reasonable

Make sense?

Sign

Units

Magnitude

Thermodynamics II

“Heat strength”

Energy transformations

Transportation

Comfort

Manufacturing

Energy usage

Effective

thermodynamics
understanding

Costs

Pollution

Resource conservation

Thermodynamics II

Energy usage ~10
+
% income

24 %

Nuclear Power

SPSU: Nuclear Power Generation &
Training sessions.

Thermodynamics Basics

Systems

Closed

Open

Processes

Isothermal

Isobaric

Isometric

Isentropic

Polytropic

Thermodynamics Basics

Working fluid: changes phase
processes

Steam

R134a

R22

NH
3

Propane

Working Fluid

phase change

Property tables

State diagram: pressure & volume

Compressed liquid

Saturated liquid

Vapor dome

quality

Saturated vapor

Superheated vapor

Working Fluid

phase change

Properties: P, T, v, u, h, s

Working fluid

No phase change: ideal gas

Ideal gas law

Caloric equations for u & h: constant
specific heats

Variable specific heats: table for air
as ideal gas

Thermodynamic basics

State

defined by properties

Process

described by change of
state

First Law of Thermodynamics

Conservation of mass & energy

Closed system:

Heat: direction & magnitude

Work: direction & magnitude

Kinetic energy: property

Potential energy: property

Internal energy: property

First Law of Thermodynamics

Open system: control volume

* Internal energy
u

for

CLOSED SYSTEM

* enthalpy:
h

= u+pv for
OPEN SYSTEM

Cycles

Two or more processes in series
which return working fluid to its initial
state

Heat engine

Reversed cycle

Heat engine

Thermal efficiency

Reversed cycle

Coefficient of performance

Reversed cycle

COP cooling (
β
): refrigeration & air
conditioning

COP heating(

): heat pump

Ideal cycle

Carnot: ideal cycles with no wasted
energy.

Ideal COP

Cooling

Heating

Assignment

3.129 & 3.130

4.43 & 4.45

QUESTIONS

Chapter 8: Vapor Power Systems / F8
-
1

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Examples

8.2

8.17

8.29