Introduction: (delete colon?)

broadbeansromanceAI and Robotics

Nov 18, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Prosopagnosia:

Facing the Reality

















Introduction:

(delete colon?)



Prosopagnosia

(face blindness/

facial agnosia
) is a neurological
disconnection syndrome

characterized by the inability to recognize
faces (NINDS
, 2007
)
, (Fox, Iaria, & Barton 2008)
.




It ranges in severity



Congenital prosopagnosia has an estimated prevalence between 2%
and 2.5% (Yardley et. al., 2008); (Gruter, Gruter & Carbon, 2008).
Acquired Prosopagnosia is extremely rare.



Patients:


o

Can
differenti
ate
faces from objects

o

Can potentially i
dentify emotions based on facial expression
(Knutson, DeTucci, & Grafman, 2011)

o

Can r
eport the g
ender, age, and race


o

Can’t
-

Can not

attend to and analyze the face as a global object



This disorder often cause people trou
ble in social situations

"There is just a sea of faces that are
reflected... I won't know which one is me.
It's frightening, and it's confusing. And I
didn't want anyone t
o know. I thought I
was crazy
-

Sellers (ABC, 2006)”




Top
-

Occipital face area (OFA); middle
-

Fusiform Face Area (FFA); Bottom
-

Superior
Temporal Sulcus (STS)
(Fox, Iaria, & Barton 2008)




(Schultz, 2012)













Neural Mechanisms:



Damage is usually

in
prosopagnosia
is

the
right fusiform gyrus

Maybe we can bold fusiform gyrus
-

we can decide on what things
to bold tmr when we’re all together though

,

which is (NINDS,
2007) located in the occipito
-
temporal region (Fox, Iaria, & Barton
2008).

o

The Occipital Face Area (OFA) and the
Superior Temporal
Sulcus
(STS) also participate in the recognition of faces
(Fox,
Iaria, & Barton 2008)
, (Peelen et. al, 2009).



Prosopagnosia almost always occurs due to damage to the right
hemisphe
re (perhaps bold rig
ht hemisphere
),
because the right
hemisphere processes information globally.



Prosopagnosiacs

are unable to put together facial features to form
a global perception of the face (Stephan & Caine, 2008).




CONGENITAL VS ACQUIRED
























Congenital
Prosopagnosia (CP)



CP o
ften occurs i
n the absence of a brain lesion
. People with
developmental prosopagnosia often don’t have damage to the right
fusiform gyrus, but there may be diffuse axonal injury

(perhaps bold

diffuse axonal injury
)


in the white matt
er areas which connect the
fusiform gyrus to other areas of the brain (Harris and Aguirre).



CP

may go unnoticed, with the person unaware that they are different
than others. Often, those afflicted adopt strategies early on to identify
people (Yardley et.
al., 2008).



CP is a definite face
-
specific processing impairment that is particularly
pronounced when someone is processing facial configuration
information (Lobmaier et al, 2010).



I’m thinking that we’ll use this CP intro box in addition to my summary
(have 2 separate boxes describing CP)? Or we can past my stuff at the
top. Just in case it’s easier if we do, I’ll paste it right below

o

Congenital Prosopagnosia is the inability to r
ecognize faces
-

a
dysfunction not caused by brain damage.
The causes,
generally

speaking
,

are relatively unknown

in comparison
acquired

to Prosopagnosia



Acquired Prosopagnosia (AP):



Prosopagnosia can be acquired through brain injury, such as TBI
or stroke.



The brain lesion is generally located in the facial fusiform

area
and the patient is aware of the deficit, which they often find
frustrating as they were able to identify faces before the brain
injury.



People with
AP

are always aware of their deficit, as they were
used to recognizing faces before the injury.



A
P is different from
CP

because in
CP
, the person may learn to
process information about faces differently as they were never
able to recognize faces (Peelen et al, 2009).



























Significance:



This disorder has negative impacts on a person’s social
fun
ctioning.



Many Prosopagnosiacs use other cues, such as clothing, hair,
posture, gait, and voice in order to recognize people.



In some careers (such as the army) where there are uniforms and
similar haircuts, it can be impossible for these individuals to
function socially.



Prosopagnosiacs can have trouble imagin
in
g faces, and often find
it difficult to follow the storylines of television shows or movies
because they cannot recognize the characters (faceblind.org).



There are few treatments to help prosop
agnosiacs and much
research is needed before the condition is fully understood.







Testing


Many tests have been devised to assess prosopagnosia, and two of the most popular tests are the Benton
Facial Recognition test and the
Famous Faces Test.


The

Benton Facial Recognition Test

The Famous Faces Test



The patient is shown six test faces and is
supposed to compare them to one target
face, which matches one or more of the
test faces.



There is a short
-
form version, as well as

a
longer, more detailed version. Hairlines are
removed and the background is black
(Duchaine & Nakayama, 2004).


(de Heering, Rossion, & Maurer, 2012)




Shows people faces of celebrities with the
hairline removed, and asks the person to
identify them.



The assessor ensures that the patient is
familiar with the celebrities fe
atured in the
pictures.



(Welsh, 2012)



























Treatment



There is
no cure

(bold?)

for prosopagnosia, but treatment
can significantly

improve the quality of life of those afflicted
with prosopagnosia.



Treatment focuses on
using strategies

(bold?)
, such as
recognizing someone based on characteristics other than
faces (NINDS
,
2007
), such as gait, posture, voice, or other
dis
tinguishing features (Harris &

Aguirre
, n.d.
).


New R
esearch



There may be

a connection between congenital prosopagnosia
and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (Harris and Aguirre)



N
eural systems which
support the recognition of emotion in the
processing of facial expression are independent of those which
recognize faces (Peelen et al, 2009).



Damage to the FFA is not necessary for Prosopagnosia to occur
(Peelen et al, 2009)



T
here may be a genetic component to
CP
, and that it can run
through families with autosomnal dominant inheritance (Rivolta
et al, 2010).



Prosopagnosiacs can recognize faces covertly
; they

have trouble
matching incorrect names to familiar celebrity faces,
but don’t
獨潷⁴h楳iTef楣楴 wh敮 m慴ch楮g th攠c潲r散e n慭a to th攠f慣攠
⡋湵t獯nⰠD敔ucc椬i☠䝲&f浡m, ㈰ㄱ⤮

New ways to measure extent of disability
:



New research indicates that some people with prosopagnosia
may score in the normal range on facial recogni
tion tests, which
indicates the need for more valid and reliable tests (Duchaine
and Nakayama, 2004).




























New T
reatments



Counselling for the prosopagnosiac as well as family
members and friends to teach them strategies to help
the prosopagnosiac
cope with social difficulties (Rivolta
et al, 2010).



Raising awareness about the disorder would help people
with congenital prosopagnosia be diagnosed as well as
make it easier for prosopagnosiacs to explain their
condition to others.


Synthesis



Prosopagnosia is a disorder characterized by the inability to
recognize faces, even faces of people who are very close to the
person. It can be congenital, present from birth, or can occur due to
brain injury.



It has potentially damaging social implicati
ons for those affected by
it. However, it is possible to use other cues in order to recognize
people, such as gait, posture, hairstyle, and voice.



Prosopagnosia may be congenital
-

present from birth, or acquired
-

due to brain injury.



It can be tested u
sing many tests, one of the most common of which
is the Benton Facial Recognition Test.



There is a long way to go in terms of testing, treatment, and research
pertaining to this rare disorder




Although prosopagnosia
has

devastating psychosocial consequenc
es
for those affected, it has offered us much information about facial
recognition processes.


























References:

Harris, A. M., & Aguirre, G. K. (n.d.). Prosopagnosia.
University of Pennsylvania
,

Thompson, A. (2009, February 23).
He can't recognise his wife unless she wears red
-

or spot himself in a
photo: The weird world of a 'face blindness' victim

. Retrieved from
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article
-
1153563/He
-
recognise
-
wife
-
unless
-
wears
-
red
--
spot
-
photo
-
The
-
weird
-
world
-
face
-
blindness
-
victim.html

Gruter, T., Gruter, M., & Carbon, C. (2008). Neural and genetic foundations of face recognition a
nd
prosopagnosia.
Journal of Neuropsychology
,
2
, 79
-
97.

Yardley, L. (2008). Psychosocial consequences of developmental prosopagnosia: A problem of recognition.
Journal of Psychosomatic Research
,
65
, 445
-
451.

Schultz, R. (2012).
Liz taylor, “men of stars” a
nd humanoid robots: new tools to study autism
. Retrieved from
http://yalemedicine.yale.edu/summer2004/features/feature/53472

Stephan, B., & Caine, D. (2008). Aberrant pattern of scanning in prosopagnosia reflects impaired face
processing.
Brain and Cognit
ion
, (69), 262
-
268.

ABC Primetime. (2006, September 6).
Meet a family whose members don't recognize one another
. Retrieved
from http://a.abcnews.com/Primetime/story?id=2400808&page=2

Peelen, M. et. al (2009). Emotional attention in acquired prosopagnosia.

SCAN
, (4), 268
-
277.

Rivolta, D. et al (2010). Semantic information can facilitate covert face recognition in congenital
prosopagnosia.
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
,
32
(9), 1002
-
1016.

Lobmaier, J. S., Bolte, J., Mast, F. W., &
Dobel, C. (2010). Configural and fea
tural processing in humans with
congenital prosopagnosia. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 6, 23
-
34. doi: 10.2478/v10053
-
008
-
0074
-
4

Knutson, K. M., DeTucci, K. A., & Grafman, J. (2011). Implicit attitudes in prosopagnos
ia.
Neuropsychologia
,
(49), 1851
-
1862.

Duchaine, B. C., & Nakayama, K. N. (2004). Developmental prosopagnosia and the benton facial recognition
test.
Neurology
, (62), 1219
-
1220.

de Heering, A., Rossion, B., & Maurer, D. (2012). Developmental changes in fac
e recognition during
childhood: Evidence from upright and inverted faces.
Cognitive Development
,
27
, 17
-
27.

Welsh, J. (2012, February 7).
Just another face: Brain breakdown hind
ers recognition
. Retrieved from
http://www.livescience.com/18337
-
face
-
recognition
-
brain.html

Ninds prosopagnosia information page
. (2007, February 14). Retrieved from
http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/prosopagnosia/Prosopagnosia.htm




Overall this is awesome!! The only thing that we might consider is bolding some main/important points
to make them pop out and easier to spot by the audience. I highlighted a couple of places where we
could do that, but not all…I’m sure if we decide to hig
hlight/bold, we’ll just do it all at once together tmr