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Motor Development




A
Management and Ethics Research Project Presented to the Faculty


in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the degree of Bachelor of Science


by


Juanita Daye


Shirley Roddy, Ph.D.



August 20, 2012










CERTIFICATION PAGE



This is to certify
the research project prepared





By: Juanita Daye





E
ntitled: MOTOR SKILLS



Has been accepted by the faculty



Si
gned:__________________________

Shirley Rod
dy, Ph.D


This research project is not to be regarded as confidential and its use as a sample in future classes

is not restricted.



iii


ABSTRACT

The purpose of the Applied Design Intervention is to address the fact that children are
presented to preschools lacking motor skills and to design a data collection instrument
which
depicts

and explain other’s perceptions regarding
this issue
.

The evaluati
on process will
implement a plan to address the problem. The next process will discuss the details that preschool
instructions are limited to these children. The evaluation focused on the assessments of
children’s ability to perform complex physiological c
ommands in a structured and unstructured
environment
; as well as

evaluate the effectiveness of the preschool learning curricula. The
evaluation also includes a questionnaire, and power point which explains and emphasizes the
effects of utilizing motor inst
ruction programs in the preschool programs.

The researcher observed that several of the preschool children exhibited age appropriate
cognitive abilities. The result of the observation suggests that most normally developed children
are incapable of perform
ing gross motor skills. This instability supports the premise and
accurately identifies that preschool children exhibit gross motor delays.
If the research

report is
succinct then the researchers objectives will be considered accomplished. Lastly, should t
his
power point presentation and report be viewed
in the likeness

of the
faculty,

then the research is
deemed a success.









iv


TABLE OF CONTENTS


A
BSTRACT

................................
................................
................................
.......................
i
ii

I.
DESCRIPTION

OF THE PROBLEM

................................
................................
..............
1

Purpose of the Management & Eth
ics Research Project

................................
...........
2

Setting, History and Backgro
und of the Probl
em

................................
......................
2

Scope of the Management & Eth
ics

Research Project
................................
...............
3

Importance of the Manageme
nt & Ethics Project

................................
......................
4

Definition o
f Terms
................................
................................
................................
....
7

II.
LITERA
TUR
E
REVIEW

................................
................................
................................
.
9

Understanding
Psycholo
gy

................................
................................
........................
9

Growth & Development A
cross

the Lifespan

................................
............................
12

Foundations of
Basic Nursing

................................
................................
....................
14

Spending More, Falling Behind: The recession prevented a planned

expansion of the state’s

preschool program

................................
...............................
17

II.
OPTION

SELECTION

................................
................................
................................
....
18

Statement of Re
se
arch Goals

................................
................................
.....................
18

Review of E
ach

Option

................................
................................
..............................
18

\

Choosing th
e

Option

................................
................................
................................
..
19


IV

. DESCRIPTION OF THE INTER
VENTION

................................
................................
21


Statement of Objecti
ve

................................
................................
..............................
21


Description of the
Intervention

................................
................................
.................
2
1



v


V. THE EVAL
UATION PLAN

................................
................................
............................
23

Hypothesis
Related to Objectives

................................
................................
..............
23

The Evalua
tion Plan

................................
................................
................................
...
24

Data Collection Pla
n

................................
................................
................................
..
24

Limitations of Data

................................
................................
................................
....
25


VI. SUMMARY OF THE RESULTS

................................
................................
...................
26

Objective One

................................
................................
................................
............
26

Objective Two

................................
................................
................................
............
26

Objective Three

................................
................................
................................
..........
28

VII. CONCLUSIONS AND REC
OMMENDATIONS

................................
.........................
29

Conclusions

................................
................................
................................
................
29

Recommendations

................................
................................
................................
......
29

Recommen
dations for Further Research

................................
................................
....
33

VIII. REFLECTIONS OF THE R
ESEARCH P
ROJECT

................................
.....................
34

REFERENCES

................................
................................
................................
......................
36

APPENDIX A
: APPLIED DESIGN INTERVENTION

................................
.......................
38

APPENDIX
B
: THE SELF DE
VELOPED POST QUESTIONAIRE

................................
..
39

APPENDIX C
: THE SELF
-
DEVELOPED

DATA COLLECTION TOOL

.........................
4
2





MOTOR SKILLS

1



CHAPTER 1
-

DESCRIPTION OF
THE PROBLEM

Speech and language proficiency were often viewed as the dominant aspects for entrance
to the preschool learning curricula. However, these days, motor development is equally
important. Many children lack the ability to move due to under
development and training of their
muscles. Physical activity plays a vital role in a child’s learning abilities. Motor development,
refers to the ability to acquire and sustain movement functions. Motor skills are controlled
movements that require muscle g
rowth and development of the central nervous system. These
skills are divided into two groups, fine and gross. Fine motor skills involve the movement of the
small extremities, i.e. .hands, fingers, wrists, toes, feet, tongue and lips. On the other hand, th
e
gross motor skills control the larger movements of the body; such as the abdomen, back, arms,
and legs. Gross motor skills tend to develop over a period of time with the majority of
development occurring during childhood. Playing helps preschoolers devel
op motor skills, and
mobility affords children to learn more about their surroundings and their existences.

Psychologists, Morris and Maisto (2006) states that, “At birth babies have grasping and
stepping reflexes.” The average ages at which such skills ar
e achieved are called developmental
norms. Intelligence and motor skills develop during the first two years after birth. Children have
heads that are large relative to their bodies as the brain undergoes rapid growth. A child’s brain
reaches three quarters

of its adult size by about the age of two, at which point the brain slows
down. Head growth is virtually complete by age ten, but the body continues to grow for several
more years.” According to the Encyclopedia of Children’s Health “Cognitive developmen
t is the
construction of thought processes, including remembering, problem solving, and decision
-

making, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. Cognitive development refers to how
a person perceives, thinks, and gains understanding of his or he
r world through the interaction of
MOTOR SKILLS

2



genetic and learned factors. Among the areas of cognitive development are information
processing, intelligence, reasoning, language development, and memory.

Purpos
e of the Research Project

The purpose of my research is to

explain the need to implement advocacy programs for
preschool children who exhibit cognitive and gross motor deficiencies. There is a definite need
to have programs specifically designed to meet the basic needs of these children Many of these
children lac
k motor skills and cognitive abilities compared to their peers. They may not be able
to walk a straight line, or unable to hop or skip.


Children have innate abilities and an inexorable drive to learn, yet readiness is
contingent on many factors such as p
hysical, biological and environmental. Genetics, ethnicity,
or even a child’s bodyweight are examples of biological influences that could cause motor
regression. Alternatively, the physical influences can be seen by examining a child’s activities
and/ or
social interactions. Children are products of their environments. Parents play an integral
part in their child’s development through their influential teachings. However, preschool is a
better choice in comparison to a child staying home getting no mental
or emotional stimulation.
Consequently, it is the parent’s responsibility to teach their children basic skills such as walking,
talking reading, discipline etc. Many assume that children automatically learn motor skills
through maturation and are capable
of utilizing them, but these are all learned behaviors. They
perfect motor skills instructions through practice and repetitious movements.

Setting, History of the Background of the Problem

Day care statistics from the National Center for Education Statisti
cs (1995) indicates that
“70% of parents will use childcare facilities. Modern daycare centers are no longer considered as
baby sitting services, but are more focused on early childhood development. Currently, their
MOTOR SKILLS

3



goal is to help children develop the sk
ills that they need as they get older.” Unfortunately, by the
time some children reach the age to attend school they exhibit significant differences in their
characteristics of development. Children are presented to their teachers and care givers with
num
erous disparities in their motor skills, cognitive abilities, and social skills. Some lack the
ability to run, jump, skip, or move. Integrating gross motor skills at home and in the classroom
can play an integral role in helping the child succeed in readin
g, writing, attention and memory.



Concerned with children’s intellectual and educational capabilities, Jean Piaget, a Swiss
psychologist performed experiments on children, specifically his own three children. He watched
them play games, solve problems, a
nd perform everyday tasks, and he asked them questions and
devised tests to learn how they thought. As a result of his observations, Piaget held that children
go through four phases of “autonomous” development, and believed that cognitive development
is a
way of adapting to the environment. In Piaget’s view, children are intrinsically motivated to
explore and understand things. He said that learning begins at birth, which he explains in his
first theory of cognitive development.


Piaget’s contributions wer
e so valuable and still accepted in society today. His premise is
that knowledge is developed in four successive stages of a child development. Children get stuck
in certain stages of development. As a consequence, they are not cognitively capable of
perf
orming some menial tasks. For example, a disabled child may not advance to the level of
learning or reasoning as his peers. Piaget’s work enables parents and educators to understand
that a child’s development of learning basic skills are contingent upon
what stage of
development that they are in.

Scope of the Management and Ethi
cs Research Project

Preschool children should already be conditioned to learning from their parent’s
MOTOR SKILLS

4



teachings. By the age of three years old they should already possess motor and

cognitive
abilities. Learning is developed through play. Motor skills, cognition and social skills are also
cultivated as a result of play. Williams et al, states”

The preschool years are a developmental
period during which most children acquire the bas
ic repertoire of locomotor (e.g., running,
jumping, galloping, skipping) and object control (e.g., throwing, kicking, striking) skills. (Clark,
1994; Wickstrom, 1983; Williams, 1983). They also develop goal


oriented motor behaviors
and learn to combine d
ifferent movement patterns into sequences to accomplish different goals.”
(Piaget
, 1963; Sporns & Edelman, 1993
p. 152)
.

Importance of the Ma
nagement and Ethics Project

My purpose is to inform the reader that preschool readiness programs are necessary
because there are many children in society who lack gross motor and cognitive abilities. In most
cases, children lack these skills because they aren’t permitted to enroll in

the preschool
curriculum. Preschool instructions are limited to some children, which is primarily due to their
difficulties. Preschool programs should be universal and government mandated to all children.
They will have positive effects on the child’s mot
or, cognition, social and physical development.
Not to mention, some children are also unable to attend due to the standard cut off age for
preschool entrance.

Conclusion

There is a vital need to provide and foster advocacy programs for preschool childr
en,
which are specifically designed to meet the basic needs of children who exhibit motor
deficiencies. Due to their lack of motor development, their curricula and training is limited.
There is a great demand for quality preschool and daycare services for
all children. Preschool
instructions should be readily available to all children.
The Encyclopedia of Children’s Health
MOTOR SKILLS

5



states that, “b
efore 1960, the education of young children was primarily regarded as the
responsibility of families within the home. As
of 2004, most young children in the United States
spend some portion of their days apart from their parents. Most attend some sort of center


based program prior to kindergarten. In 2001, 52 percent of three and four year olds were in a
nursery school or
preschool program. The enrollment rate for four year olds in 2001 was nearly
the same as the enrollment rate for five year olds in 1970.

There are several factors influencing this dramatic change, including a rise in the
numbers of mothers working outside
the home, a decline in the size of families (leading more
parents to turn to preschools as a social outlet for their children), and a growing desire to give
children a head start academically. The higher the income and educational level of the parents,
the

more likely it is that a child will attend preschool. This correlation remains true in spite of
increasing governmental support for programs targeting children in low


income households.

In addition to being called preschool, these programs are known by

other names,
including child care, day care, and nursery school. They vary widely in their setting, format, and
educational philosophy. Preschools may meet all


day or half
-

day, either every day or just a
few days per week. They may be sponsored by a ch
urch, operate as an independent non


profit,
or run for profit. They may be part of the public school system or part of the Federal Head Start
program. Many children who attend high


quality preschool programs have their lives changed
for the better. In
the first five years of life, children acquire the basic capabilities that prepare
them for la
ter success in school and life

(Encyclopedia of Children’s Health)
.”




MOTOR SKILLS

6



Many studies show that high


quality preschools improve achievement, behavior, and
school

readiness for economically disadvantaged children, Follow

up research with these same
children shows that they earn more money, experience more stable home lives, and become more
responsible citizens than they would have if they had not attended preschool
. Children who
attend preschool are better prepared to enter kindergarten, both academically and socially.
Whatever the format, preschools offer parents and children typical benefits. A good program can
help children develop their gross and fine motor skil
ls, improve their language and
communication abilities, and exercise their creativity

(Encyclopedia of Children’s Health).
















MOTOR SKILLS

7



Definition of Terms

Preschool: Of or intended for a c
hild too young for kindergarten

Autonomy: Sense of
independence; a desire

not to be controlled by others

Biological: Connected by direct genetic relationship rath
er than by adoption or marriage

Cognition: The process where
by we acquire and use knowledge

Concrete Operational: Piaget’s theory, this is
the stage of cogni
tive development between 7
-
12

years of age in which the individual can attend to more than one thing at a time and
understand someone else’s point of view; though thinking

is limited to concrete matters

Developmental Norms: The age of wh
ich de
velopmental skills are achieved

Disparity: Complet
ely distinct in kind or quality

Environmental:

Surroundings

Formal Operational: Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive dev
elopment between the ages of 11

and 15 in which the individual beco
mes ca
pable of abstract thought

Genetics: Study of how traits are transmitted
from one generation to the next

Inexorable:

Not capable of being moved by entreaty; unyielding

Maturation: An automatic biological unfolding of development in an organism as a
func
tion of
the passage of time

Motor Skills Development: Refers to the ability to acqu
ire and sustain movement skills

Physical: Of or relating to the body r
ather than the emotions or mind

Preoperational Stage: Piaget’s theory, Stage of cognitive devel
opme
nt between 2 and 7 years of

age in which the individual becomes able to use mental representations and language to
describe, remember, and reason about the world, through only in an egocentric fashion.


MOTOR SKILLS

8



Sensory motor Stage: Piaget’s theory, the stage of
cognitiv
e development between birth and
two years of age in which the individual develops object permanence and acquires the
ability to form mental representations.

Concrete operational Stage Piaget’s theory: This is the stage of

cognitive development b
etween
7
-

12 years of age in which the individual can attend to more than one thing at a time and
understand someone else’s point of view , though thinking is limited to concrete matters.

Formal operational Stage
-
Piaget’s theory: The stage of cognitive
development between the ages
of 11 and 15 in which the individual becomes capable of abstract thought.

NHANES: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey


A program of studies designed
to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and child
ren in the U.S. NHANES is a
major program of the National Center for Health Statistics.


NCHS: Is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and has the
responsibility for producing vital and health stats for the nation.

CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Organization, based in Atlanta Georgia,
globally recognized for research and investigation. CDC applies research findings to
improve people’s lives and respond to health emergencies. They work with other st
ates
and partners to provide a system of health surveillance to monitor and prevent disease
outbreaks, implement disease prevention strategies, and maintain national health
statistics.





MOTOR SKILLS

9



CHAPTER II
-

LI
TERATURE REVIEW

This literature review is intended
to present information to the reader that preschool
readiness programs are necessary since there are many children in society who lack motor and
cognitive abilities. In order to fully understand my reasoning, one must have a general
understanding of a chil
d’s developmental stages and the theories, concepts, and contributions
regarding it. Data was collected to state the rationale concerning this issue.

Understanding Psychology

According to Morris and Maisto;

Piaget’s four stages are described as follows: 1)
Sensorimotor Stage
-

the stage of cognitive development between birth and two years of age in
which the individual develops object permanence and acquires the ability to form mental
representations. In thi
s stage of development, children start out by simply applying the skills with
which they were born; primarily sucking and grasping, to a broad range of a
ctivities (Morris
,
Maisto
2006

p.291
)
.


Young babies delight in taking things into their mouths
--
their m
other’s breast, their own
thumb, or anything else within reach. Similarly, young babies will grasp a rattle reflexively.
When they eventually realize that noise comes from the rattle, they begin to shake everything
they can get a hold of in an effort to re
produce the sound. In this way, infants begin to organize
their experiences, fitting them into rudimentary categories such as “suckable” and “not
suckable,” “noise making,” and “not noise making.” The child develops an awareness that
objects continue to ex
ist even when out of sight. For a newborn child, objects that disappear
simply cease to exist; “out of sight,”out of mind.” But as children gain experience with the
world, they develop a sense of object permanence. By the time they are 18 to 24 months old,

they can even imagine the movement of an object that they do not actually see move. This last
MOTOR SKILLS

10



skill depends on the ability to form mental representations of objects and to manipulate those
representations in their heads. This is a major achievement of the

late sensory

motor stage. By
the end of the sensory

motor stage, toddlers have also developed a capacity for self

recognition.
They are able to recognize the child in the mirror as “myself.”

2) Preoperational Stage
-

stage of
cognitive development between
2 and 7 years of age in which the individual becomes able to use
mental representations and language to describe, remember, and reason about the world, through
only in an egocentric fashion. When children enter the preoperational stage of cognitive
develop
ment, their thought is still bound to their physical and perceptual experiences. But heir
increasing ability to use mental representations lays, the groundwork for the development of
language
---
using words as symbols to represent events and to describe, re
member an
d reason
about experiences

(Morris, Maisto 2006 pg.291
-
294).

Representational thought also lays the groundwork for two other hallmarks of this stage;
engaging in fantasy play and using symbolic gestures. For instance, slashing the air with an
ima
ginary sword to slay an imaginary dragon. Although children of this age have made advances
over sensory


motor thought, in many ways they don’t yet think as older children and adults, i,e,
preschool children are egocentric. They have difficulty seeing thi
ngs from another person’s point
of view or putting themselves in someone else’s place. 3) Concrete operational Stage


this is
the stage of cognitive development between 7
-

12 years of age in which the individual can attend
to more than one thing at a tim
e and understand someone else’s point of view, though thinking
is limited to concrete matters. During this stage, children become more flexible in their thinking.
They learn to consider more than one dimension of a problem at a time and to look at a situa
tion
from someone else’s viewpoint. This is the age at which they become able to grasp principles of
conservation, such as the idea that the volume of a liquid stays the same regardless of the size
MOTOR SKILLS

11



and shape of the container into which it is poured. Other

related conservation concepts have to
do with number, length, area, and mass. Another accomplishment of this stage is the ability to
grasp complex classification schemes such as those involving superordinate and subordinate
classes. For instance, if you s
how a preschooler four toy dogs and two toy cats and ask whether
there are more dogs or more animals, the child will almost always answer “more dogs.” It is not
until age 7 or 8 that children are able to think about objects as being simultaneously members

of
two classes, one more inclusive than the other. Yet even well into the elementary school years,
children’s thinking is still very much stuck in the “here and now.” Often, they are unable to solve
problems without concrete reference points that they can

handle or imagine handling
. 4)
Formal
Operational

stage (adolescence


adulthood) is the stage where youngsters think in abstract
terms. They can formulate hypotheses, test them mentally, and accept or reject them according to
the outcome of these mental
experiments. Therefore they are capable of going beyond the here
and now to understand things in terms of cause and effect, to consider possibilities as well as
realities, and to develop and use general rules, principles,
and theories (Morris, Maisto

2006

p.
293).






MOTOR SKILLS

12



Growth and Development Across the Lifespan

Consistent with, Leifer and Hartston, the study of growth and development starts
conception and extends throughout the lifespan. Understanding what growth and development, in
both a positive and
negative way, helps help healthcare workers and educators predict behaviors,
as well as responses, at each stage and therefore understand why ad
ults may behave in certain
ways.

We now know that adults pass through predictable stages of development just as
children
do. Therefore studying growth and development in a continuum from birth to the geriatric adult
provides a comprehensive understanding of how various life experiences affect growth and
development
at each stage of the life
cycle

(
Leifer, Hartston

2
004 p.51
)
.

Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist who emphasized cognitive milestones in
development. Piaget described four stages of development related to learning to understand and
relate logically to the world. Piaget’s theory involves sensory and motor
interactions with the
environment. An infant learns how to grasp a block and what relationship it has to the infant’s
body. The infant then learns that if he or she drops the block it will fall down and be out of reach.
Gradually the infant learns that he
or she can stack the blocks on top of each other, and
eventually the infant can use the blocks to build something that represents a house or ot
her
objects in the environment
(Leifer, Hartston

2004 p.99
)
.


Piaget’s sensorimotor theory of development of the infant is evident in the infant’s play
activities, which are activated by sensations and related to the infant directly. Play is the work of
a child. Age appropriate play activities can effectively foster

growth and development. For
example, a newborn must learn to

focus and follow with the eyes.

Having a bright mobile with
contrasting colors (such as black and white) above the crib within the sight of the infant can
promote the development of this skill.
At 3 months, an interactive mobile that is activated by
MOTOR SKILLS

13



kicking helps develop the cause

effect unde
rstanding
. At 6 to 7 months of age, playing peek
-
a
-
boo helps solidify the object permanence concept .Dropping food from the highchair and having
someone ther
e to pick it up is also part of the learning process, although the messiness involved
often tries the patience of parents. In the young infant, all toys are explored for taste and touch,
but by 1year the infant understands the function of the toy. A car wi
ll be pushed; a telephone will
be put to the ear. All toys and activities are related to the child’s body. Egocentric behavior is
evidenced by one year olds who drink from a toy cup or place a toy telephone to their ear, but a
toddler at 18 months will off
er the drink to a doll. The 1 year old enjoys push toys that foster the
ne
wly mastered walking abilities
(L
eifer,
Hartston

2004

p. 99
).

When considering communication, the toddler develops receptive language before
expressive language. That is, they are a
ble to understand words before they can express them.
Communication is evidenced in the neonatal period by the cry, coo, or smile. The initial purpose
is to communicate needs, regulate another’s behavior, attract attention, and socially interact. By
1 year

of age the toddler usually says the first clear word and responds to simple single demands
or statements such as “bye

bye” or “no.” By 15 months the toddler may speak 4 to 6 words and
typically uses one finger to point to various parts of the body.

By 18

months the toddler speaks about 15 words and typically and by 19 months may
speak in two
-

word sentences. By age 2 the child has a vocabulary exceeding 100 words and can
follow two


step commands such as “Pick up the toy and put it away.” The toddler ca
n learn
more than one language when learning to speak if both languages are used at home. It is when
one language is used at home and a different language is in school that difficulties tend to arise.
By age 5 parents have usually assisted their child to a
chieve competence in their native language.
Language development occurs rapidly during the preschool years. A typical 2 year old has a
MOTOR SKILLS

14



vocabulary of just over 100 words, whereas a typical 5 year old has a

vocabulary exceeding 200
words.

In a preschool; ch
ild the number of words in a typical sentence is equal to the child’s
age. By age 2 ½ the child expresses possession. as in “my doll.” By age 4 the past tense is
expressed, and by age 5 the child can express the future tense.

Although speech development i
s directly influenced by the experiences of others talking
to the child and encouraging the child to verbalize, speech development follows a predictable
sequence and occurs even without the benefit of encouragement or imitating the words of others,
albeit
at a much slower pace. Speech development is a reflection of mental and emotional
development, and often mental retardation can be detected by age 2, when speech delay is
obvious. However speech can also be delayed under conditions of abuse and neglect. Th
e
language skills acquired during the preschool years sets the stage for success for the school


age
child in the task of achieving literacy at school
.

Foundations of Basic Nursing

Readiness for learning (evidence of willingness to learn) varies during
childhood
depending on maturation level (White 2005

p.167
). Young children learn primarily through play.
Development is the behavioral changes in skills and functional abilities. Thus developmental
changes are not easily measured. Maturation is the process of becoming fully grown and
developed, and applies to th
e individual’s physiological and behavioral aspects. It depends on
biological growth, behavioral changes, and learning (assimilation of information resulting in a
behavior change). During each life cycle stage, certain goals (developmental tasks) must be
a
ccomplished. These developmental tasks are the foundation for future learning. Growth,
development, maturation, and learning are interdependent processes. The individual must be
mature enough to grasp the concepts for learning to occur. Physical growth is
essential for many
MOTOR SKILLS

15



types of learning; for example, a child must have the physical ability to reach the door knob
before learning to open the door. Likewise cognitive maturation precedes learning (White 2005
p. 178)
.

As indicated by Lois White; “
Individual
abilities and talents contribute to each person’s
development as a unique entity. The exact rate of development for any given individual cannot
be predicted. The sequence of development is predictable, but performance of specific skills
varies with each pe
rson. For example, not all infants roll over at the same age, but most r
oll over
before they can crawl
.



Many factors such as heredity, health status, life experiences, and culture influence
growth and development. Genetic information is passed from paren
ts to children. An individual’s
genetic makeup determines not only physical characteristics such as skin color, facial features,
hair texture, and body structure, but also a predisposition to certain diseases (i.e.; sickle cell
anemia, Huntington’s disease
). Heredity is the genetic blueprint for an individual’s growth and
development. The rate of growth and development can be influenced by life experiences. For
example, a child whose family has few resources for food, shelter, and health care has a higher
r
isk of lagging in physical and mental growth and development than a child whose family has
plenty of resources (White

2005

p, 179)
.

Individuals are expected to master certain skills at each
developmental period, but the age for mastery is determined partly

by culture. For instance, some
cultures expect mate selection at age 12 or 13, with the birth of a child soon after.

Individuals need to thoroughly understand growth and development because
chronological age and developmental are not the same. The way a
person thinks and understands
the world shapes that person’s perception, memory, attitude, action and judgment and is the basis
of the cognitive theory. It develops
as an

individual progresses through life. Cognition is an
MOTOR SKILLS

16



adaptive process. Intelligent bei
ngs are able to change behavior in response to the demands o
f an
ever

changing environment

(White

2005,

p.180)
.

According to Piaget, individuals learn by
interacting with the environment using three processes: assimilation, accommodation, and
adaptation.

Assimilation is the process of taking in new experiences or information.
Accommodation allows for adjustment of thinking to take in new information and increase
understanding. Adaptation is the change resulting from assimilation and accommodation. The
inf
ancy stage of development is the stage of development from the end of the first month to the
end of the first year of life. It is a period of continued adaptation, with rapid physiological
growth and psychosocial development. This is also the period where
the infant is exploring his
world and developing both the physiological and cognitive dimensions. The toddler stage begins
at 12 to 18 months of age, when a child begins to walk alone, and ends at approximately 3 years
of age. The family promotes language
development and teaches toileting skills. The child
becomes more independent and temper tantrums often result when attempts at autonomy are
prevented. This stage is often called the “terrible twos.” The toddler’s frequent use of the word
“no” is an ex
press
ion of developing autonomy
(
White 2005 p.
187)
.

Development from ages 3 to
6 years is called the preschool stage. During this stage, physical growth slows, and psychosocial
and cognitive
development accelerates
. Curiosity increases, and the child is better
able to
communicate. Parents should be taught that the child’s frequent use of the word “why” is
necessary for normal psychosocial and cognitive development. The child’s world continues to
expand outside the immediate home environment. The preschooler uses

play to both learn
about
and develop relationships.”




MOTOR SKILLS

17



Spending More Falling Behind: The Recession Prevented a Planned Expansion of the State’s

Preschool Program

In accordance with the Press of Atlantic City;
New Jersey invests more money per
student in
public preschool than any other state, according to the 2011 Preschool Yearbook
released April 10, 2012; by the National Institute for Early Education Research based at Rutgers
University. But the state has lost ground in providing 4


year olds access to
preschool, dropping
from ninth to 16
th

nationally as the state’s program remains limited to 141 of the most
disadvantaged districts. Advocates for preschool say they plan to lobby state legislators to
implement the expansion program that was written into t
he state’s school funding law but then
frozen during the recession. As a result of the Abbott v. Burke decision, the state funds full


day
programs for 3
-
and 4


year olds in only 35 districts. The remaining districts receive funding for
half

day progra
ms that may be limited to children from low
-

income households. In 2010, more
than 51,000, 3


4


year olds attended public preschool in New Jersey at an average cost of $
11,669 per student, or almost $ 580 million total, according to the institute’s r
eport. This year
the state is spending about $ 620 million, and New Jersey’s Governor Chris Christie’s, proposed
budget adds another $ 14.6 million for 2012
-
2013, but those funds only cover enrollment growth
in existing programs, the budget shows (Press 20
12). Nationally, the average amount spent per
student was $ 4, 151 in 2010
-
2011, which institute Director Steve Barnett said reflects the fact
that many programs are only a half
-
day and many states have low standards for staffing and
programs, with some n
ot ev
en requiring certified teachers.”




MOTOR SKILLS

18



CHAPTE
R III
-

OPTION SELECTION

The purpose of this research is to
inform the reader that preschool readiness programs are
necessary and many children in society lack gross motor abilities
. While there were other
m
ethods that I examined; Applied Design Intervention is the one that I chose. My intent is to
address the issue of children exhibiting cognitive and motor deficiencies, while subsequently,
implementing and explaining the need for pre


readiness programs fo
r these children.

Sta
tement of Research Goals

The overall principle of this research is
to implement

and study the effects and
importance of pre
-

readiness programs. The project focuses on the ideal that motor development
and physical activity plays a vital role in a child’s learning capabilities. Preschool readiness
programs are necessary because many c
hildren lack gross motor abilities. However, children lack
these skills for many reasons. Ideally, my goal is to address the problem. On the other hand,
preschool learning programs should be universal and government mandated to all children.

Review of Ea
ch Option

The Archival Study was not appropriate to use, due to the fact that it focuses on
submission of historical data and findings. That is, this design was not relevant or befitting to the
topic that the researcher elected to examine. M
y purpose is to

address

the reality that children are
suffering due to these predicaments.

The Grant Proposal Submission was not preferred, as it involves seeking funding for the
implementation of a new program. Therefore, my goal is to address the issue, and execute way
s
to lessen the limitations of preschool instructions as opposed to proposing a new program. This
option was not conducive to the research design.


MOTOR SKILLS

19



The Alternative Design was not determined an option as it involves evaluating probable
consequences, strengt
hs and weaknesses within an organization or community setting. The
researcher has established weaknesses with the preschool programs, however, this option is not
deemed relative to the researcher’s topic of discussion. The research goal is to provide dat
a
addressing the problem.

The Ethnological Design was to study a group of preschoolers with motor deficiencies,
which would include consistent commitment and involvement in the preschool setting.
Consequently, the researcher concluded that this design could not be performed in a t
imely
manner; therefore this option was excluded.

The Experimental Design Option involved conducting experimental research which
requires studying a group’s relationships and/ or interactions. Thus, the researcher determined
that relationships are importa
nt in the preschool setting; the researcher’s goal is to formulate a
solution to a given problem. Alternatively, this design option was also excluded.

Choosing the Option

The Applied Design Intervention entails providing a solution to a given problem.
Sele
cting this option enables the researcher to examine the consequences of the lack of the pre
-

readiness instructions. Pre
-

readiness programs are necessary to meet the needs of preschool age
c
hildren who
demonstrate gross

motor deficits. For this reason, t
hese preschool programs will
have positive effects on the child’s motor, cognition, social and physical development. The
Applied Design Intervention is the most effective approach for the research.




MOTOR SKILLS

20



Conclusion

While several of the research designs could

have been utilized, the researcher decided
that the Applied Design Intervention was most suitable for the project. The Applied Design
Intervention is conducive in the research, study, and implementation of pre readiness programs
for children who lack gros
s motor deficiencies.




















MOTOR SKILLS

21



CHAPTER IV
-

DESCR
IPTION OF THE INTERVENTION

Statement of Objectives

The overall principle of this research is to implement and study the effects and
importance of pre
-

readiness programs. The project
focuses on the ideal that motor development
and physical activity plays a vital role in a child’s learning capabilities.


Preschool readiness
programs are necessary because many children lack gross motor abilities. However, children lack
these skills for many reasons. Ideally, my goal is to address the problem.

Objective One: To raise awareness that many children lack motor
skills.

Objective 2: Explain how the motor developmental delays affect how the child transitions in
school and society.

Objective 3: Explain the need for training programs to help these children.

Descr
iption of the Intervention

By the time children reache
s a specific age, motor skills should be evident, however,
children lack gross motor skills because they are not permitted to enroll in the preschool
curriculum
.

This research project is designed to identify that preschool readiness programs are
necessary
for children. Early education and playing provides children the ability to increase
cognition and movement offers the ability to strengthen muscles and dexterity. The
study was

performed both indoors and outdoors. The demographics of the children were 4 ye
ar old
preschool girls and boys. With the consent and participation of parents we began the experiment
outside, where an obstacle course was created to observe the children engaging in play. Games
such as kickball, soccer ball, and horse shoes were emplo
yed to assess the children agility.
Basketballs were also used to see if the children would dribble or catch them. Jump ropes and
hopscotch was set up to see if the children could jump, hop and maintain their balance. The
MOTOR SKILLS

22



researcher asked the respondents

to execute minimal physiological behaviors.

Parents were asked to observe and monitor their child’s patterns of physical activity.
Inside, we incorporated music to see if children would dance or clap their hands to the beat of the
music. We used games suc
h as Simon says, red
-

light, green


light
-

stop, and bean bag toss to
observe if the children could follow simple commands that they were instructed to do. Another
area was installed which included toys such as cars, airplanes, legos, puppets and dress

up items
to really capture the child’s reactions to these objects. The researcher provided a questionnaire
and motor skills checklist to identify their child’s developmental benchmarks.

Conclusion

There is a vital need to educate society about the ins
ufficiencies that these children face.
Generally, preschool is a child’s first experience in a structured environment away from parents.
Preschool learning programs should be universal and government mandated to all children but it
is not a requirement in
all states. Consequently, these programs will have positive effects on the
child’s motor skills; therefore the cognitive, social and physical developments will thrive as well.
Movement is essentially important to maintain coordination and balance. Without
gross motor
coordination and balance children will have difficulty processing simple actions such as hopping,
skipping, throwing or even writing.







MOTOR SKILLS

23



CHAPT
ER V


THE EVALUATION PLAN

Introduction




Chapter 4 of this research project describes an Applied Design Intervention to address
the issue of children exhibiting motor deficiencies. This project is designed to evaluate and
inform the reader that preschool readiness programs are necessary, as well

as study the effects of
how these programs impact a child’s life and learning capabilities. Chapter 5 will also examine
the objectives of the Applied Design study as well as the hypothesis of the stated objectives, and
conclude with written report and a q
uestionnaire.

Hypoth
esis Related to Objectives

Objective One: To raise awareness that many children lack motor skills.


Hypothesis One: 25% of readers will have a clear understanding that motor acquisition should
begin at home.


Hypothesis Two:
75% of readers will agree that parents are responsible for teaching their
child/ children motor skills.


Hypothesis Three: 25% of readers will acknowledge that many preschool aged children
demonstrate deficits because they haven’t fully developed these

skills.

Objective 2: Explain how the motor developmental delays affect how the child transitions in
school and society.


Hypothesis One: 25 % of readers will understand that motor development and physical
activity plays a vital role in a child’s le
arning capabilities.



Hypothesis Two: 50% of readers will agree that parents who actively teach their children
motor skills help their children progress physically, socially and academically.


Hypothesis Three: 50% of readers will agree that chi
ldren attain milestones at different rates,
MOTOR SKILLS

24



because no two children develop the same.

Objective 3: Explain the need for training programs to help these children.


Hypothesis One: 25% of readers will understand that sometimes people are only concerned
with motor development when they notice a dysfunction in a child’s motor behaviors.


Hypothesis Two: 25% will have a clear understanding that preschool instructions are limited
to children due to their motor deficiencies.


Hypothesis Three: 20 %
of readers will agree that preschool learning programs should be
universal and government mandated to all children.

The Evaluation Plan

The process of the Applied Design Intervention is to first identify and acknowledge the
problem that children are prese
nted to pre
-
school programs lacking gross motor abilities. The
evaluation process will implement a plan to address the problem. The next process will discuss
the fact that preschool instructions are limited to these children. Lastly, evaluate the effective
ness
of the preschool learning curricula. The evaluation will include a questionnaire, and power point
which explains and emphasizes the effects of utilizing motor instruction programs in the
preschool programs. The researcher will analyze and compile the
feedback which will be
included in the portion of the Applied Design Intervention re
search project.

Data Collection Plan

Qualitative,
Quantitative
, and

Census

data is

presented in the project. Researcher
enclosed charts to indicate and analyze the statistics relating to the problem. The intent is to
study the demographics and tren
ds associated with the
subject matter
.
The Researcher assessed
the children’s physical int
eractions in order to formulate positive results. Additional data was
obtained by observing children for 3 weeks in a controlled setting, then children in an
MOTOR SKILLS

25



uncontrolled setting. In both scenarios, parental consent was granted. Parents were asked to ass
ist
their children playing. The researcher noticed many different reactions and responses; and
analyzed data by tracking the number and ability of the child’s gross motor skills.

Limitations of t
he Data Collection Plan

Data collection could be limited

if individuals refuse to take the survey. Additionally, time is
another factor that could limit the data collection plan because people might not have time to
take the survey. A child’s physical limitations could also hinder the data collection plan due
to
disabilities.
















MOTOR SKILLS

26



CHAPTER V
I
-

SUMMARY OF THE RESULTS

Introduction

Speech and language proficiency were previously viewed as the dominant factors for the
entrance of preschool instruction

programs, but .studies

show that motor skills are als
o necessary
in a child’s preschool performance. Early education provides children a better advantage. This
chapter represents a synopsis of findings which are also found in the stated objectives, with the
survey presented in Appendix A.

Objective One:
To raise awareness that many children lack motor skills.

STASTISTICS
--

(Gross Motor Skills Coordination
)




Approximately 15% of students attending primary schools experience motor difficulties.



Of the students diagnosed as having poor coordination the
lowest 5% have severe
problems and 10 % have moderate problems.



The ratio of boys
-

girl with motor disability is 3:1



60 % of the identified student also have problems in areas such as:

1.

Speech

2.

Short attention span

3.

Poor listening

4.

Poor self concept

5.

Abnormal
or unacceptable behavior

6.

Learning problems


Objective
2
:

Explain how the motor developmental delays affect how the child transitions in
school and society.

According to/ or the Encyclopedia of Children’s Health , Four year olds can typically balance or
MOTOR SKILLS

27



hop on one foot, jump forward and backwards over objects, and climb and descend stairs
alternating feet, They can bounce and catch balls and throw accurately. Some four

year

olds
can also skip. Children this age have gained an increased degree of self
-

consciousness about
their motor activities that leads to increased feelings of pride and success when they master a
new skill. However, it can also create feelings of inadequacy when they think they have failed
.
Children

also learn social skills through in
teracting with others; prepare and hones their reading
skills; and transitions them to the next successive phase of their lives.

Below are a number of examples of indicators of average motor development within
children across a varying age range:

48 month
s

May ascend a ladder by leading with alternate feet, jumps, balances, hops on one foot

52 months

Displays highly synchronous walking, descends stairs by leading with alternate feet.

56 months

Is able to hop on one foot, able to throw a ball

5 years

Is be
ginning to skip, walk backward, gallops, hops





MOTOR SKILLS

28



Gross Motor Skills

As teachers and parents it is important to provide experiences to develop the following:

Balancing

Hanging

Pulling

Swaying

Bouncing

Hopping

Punching

Stretching

Bending

Hitting

Running

Swinging

Crawling

Jumping

Rolling

Twisting

Climbing

Kicking

Sliding

Turning

Curling

Leaping

Shaking

Tumbling

Catching

Lifting

Skipping

Throwing

Galloping

Pushing

Stepping

Walking

Children who do not master these skills will fall under the statistics
of the 75 percentile of
college students who lack the literacy to handle complex, real


life tasks such as understanding
credit card offers (
E
HLT
).
Without proficient skills, or those needed to perform tasks, students
fall behind.

Objective 3: Explain the
need for training programs to help these children:

In the U. S.; 2% of children have a
serious developmental

disability, and many more have
moderate delays in language and motor skills. Yet less than half of children with developmental
delays are identifie
d before starting school

(WEBMD 2012)
.

Special education is instruction
specifically designed to meet the educational and developmental needs of children with
disabilities, or those who are experiencing developmental delays. Services for preschool children
(ages 3 through 5) are provided free
of charge through t
he public school system (NICHCY
2012).

MOTOR SKILLS

29



CHAPTER VII
CONCLUSIONS AND

RECOMMENDATIONS

My purpose is to inform the reader that preschool readiness programs are necessary
because there are many children in society who lack gross motor a
nd c
ognitive abilities. In most
cases, children lack these skills because they aren’t permitted to enroll in the preschool
curriculum. Preschool instructions are limited to some children, which is primarily due to their
difficulties. Documentation and statisti
cs of the means scores of the value of preschool training is
listed below. According to the results of the questionnaire; It is apparent that there are numerous
benefits to early learning instructions for children who demonstrate gross motor deficiencies.

Conclusions
/
Recommendations

Objective One:


To raise awareness that many children lack motor skills.

The first objective was to
develop a

tool to educate, and
state the reality

of children experiencing
gross motor deficits. The researcher was able to compi
le reliable data to fully describe the
magnitude of this problem. In light of the data and
questionnaire

presented in this project; it
is
suggested that this

research addresses
the problem
.

Objective 2

The second objective was to provide
data verifying

the effects of children who exhibit
developmental delays. The data compiled in the project improves and supports the
researcher’s

rationale regarding this topic. The research
concluded with

the
collection and documentation of

data to determine whether the project met all objectives.




MOTOR SKILLS

30



Objective 3

The third objective was to explain
the fact

that children need early education programs
because not all children achieve their gross motor milestones. Charts
and graphs were also

des
igned to give details that the programs are necessary
for disadvantaged

children. The
researcher attempt is to provide data which is thorough and concise to meet the stated objectives.
























MOTOR SKILLS

31



Table 1









Survey

Agree

Strongly Agree

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

Neutral


Questions







#1

10

2

2


6


#2

1



10

2

5


#3

3

1

7

2

6


#4

9

3

2


5


#5

9

4

2


5


#6

9

3

1


4


#7

7

4

4


5


#8

6

3

3


7


#9

5

2

2


8


#10

4

1

3


10


















The mean scores of the value of
preschool training



Total

5.3

2.1

3.4

0.8

5.5



























MOTOR SKILLS

32



ORAL REPORT

The children responded
effectively to

verbal cues
and stimuli.
Children progressed
considerably with their gross motor skills and weren’t proficient in meeting all the gross motor
milestones. Girls achieved their milestones much better/ faster than the boys. They exhibited
more functional behaviors than the boys did.
Findings confirm that
preschool readiness

programs
can have long term effects on children, and development is based
upon experience.
My findings
suggest that if children aren’t cognitively capable of
performing menial

physiological commands
then they

are u
nlikely to achieve gross motor functions.

Most preschool children had difficulty with gross motor development than their peers;
and need more time to perfect these skills. There are a growing number of children who are
developmentally delayed due to their
gross motor inabilities. As parents and advocates of these
children it is our responsibility to facilitate, understand, and develop ways to assist them in
developing to their full potential. First and foremost, parents have to be open
-
minded and
receptiv
e to learn about the inabilities that these children face. Recognition and early intervention
could help children reach their developmental milestones. Parents must also exercise patience
and compassion while supporting their child’s development. Children
may attain milestones at
different rates, because no two children develop the same. For this reason, disadvantaged
children should be afforded the opportunity to meet their desired developmental milestones at
their own pace. Additionally, these children ar
e likely to suffer from obesity as a result of their
lack of mobility. Obesity occurs because the child isn’t utilizing muscles to play, run, skip, etc.
Movement
helps the child burn energy
and sedentary

time should be reduced regardless of the
motor delay
s.


MOTOR SKILLS

33



Recommendat
ions for further research


Freelibrary.com,

states that “During infancy, development is evaluated almost
exclusively by motor development (Berk, 2003). Once a child can reach, grasp and walk,
however interest in the further development of
more complex movement skills is reduced and
more attention is given to the development of cognitive, social and emotional aspects. Motor
development is basically only taken into consideration when dysfunctions or inefficient
movement behaviors appears (Dav
ies, 2003)”
With the
documentation
, analysis
and description

of

the intervention

of this p
roject, the
research shows

that

the stated objectives were met.

















MOTOR SKILLS

34



CHAPTER VIII
-

REFLECTION

ON TH
E PROJECT

The research project was important to me because I have a 17 year old niece who suffers
from cerebral palsy. She’s aphasic and unable to move due to
contractured joints
. In addition, I
have had the opportunity of working with children in a structured setti
ng and watched children
who were unable to run, jump, or perform physically. Children are our future leaders and as
parents,

and advocates it is our job to prepare o
ur children for the future.
Parenting is one of the
most difficult and important challenges

we experience in lif
e, and

having children requires lots
of
love, patience responsibility

and discipline.

Family dynamics also play a pivotal role in child
-
rearing.

Parents must invest years of quality time with their children, individually, and
collectively.

It’s usually in the family where children learn who they are, what they can attai
n
and how far they go in life.

We must educate and nurture these young impressi
onable minds.


I believe that children who attend
preschool have

a head
start on

learning both
academically, socially. Sometimes we take things for
granted,

and might not
recogniz
e the fact
that our child
may have

gross motor deficits. Movement and physic
al
activity is

extremely
important

part of a child’s early development. Motor deficits can lead to negative connotations
and
stereotypes

for the
child.

Preschool
readiness gives

children the opportunity
to acquire

and
enhance their motor
skills.
This give
s
them a basic

concept
of their

environment.

A parent’s

love
for their child n is perhaps the strongest love on earth, next to God’s love.

I thank

God, first and foremost for giving me the wisdom, discernment, fortitude and the
ability to

complete this as
s
ignment. With heartfelt

appreciation, to Professor Shirley Roddy for
her support and primarily just having an open door policy, when her students needed to confer
with her. To all my instructors (of all my classes); thank you, thank you, thank you. To m
y
classmates, I thank you for your support and inspiring words of encouragement throughout our
MOTOR SKILLS

35



tenure. To my graduation coaches; Mr. Eric
Butler,

thank you for you
r

dedication
professionalism
, and powerful prayers,
every time

that I called you;

you were th
ere. For that, I’m
eternally grateful. To Mr. Zack Dickson, thank you, for listening and supporting me
every time

that
I had

a problem. To Mr. Kevin L. Handley and all the
teachers,

parents and students wh
o
participated in this project.
It was truly an honor to work with each of you. A very special thank
to my three beautiful children and granddaughter
for understanding

when I wasn’t able to cook,
or spend time with them. Thank you all for believing in me, when there were times that
I fe
lt

like
I couldn’t go on. I look forward to taking what I’ve
learned

into my career and to edify my
community.















MOTOR SKILLS

36



REFERENCES

Cools. W; De Martelaer, K; Samaey, C.Andries, C.(2009). Movement skill

Assessment of

typically developing preschool children: a review of seven movement skill assessment
tools. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, retrieved from
http://www.freelibrary.com

D’Amico
,

D.

(2012, April 20) Spending more, falling behind. The Press of Atlantic City, p.1

Hogben, J.(1981) Gross Motor Chart .retrieved from

http://www.ehlt.flinders.e
du.au/education/DLit/2000/Final/grossmotors.htm

Leifer, G. & Harston, H. (2004). Growth and Development Across the Lifespan: A
Health
Promotion Focus. Saunders an imprint of Elsevier (USA) p. 56, 98
-
99

Morris, C.
G.,
Maisto
.
A.A.
(2006).
Motor Development: Understanding Psychology.
New




Jersey

Prentice Hall p
p
. 291
-

294

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (Sept. 2010) Special Education

Services for Preschoolers with Disabilities.
retrieved from
http://nichcy.org/schoolage/preschoolers

Rauh, S. (
2012) Is Your Baby On Track?

retrieved fro
m


http://ch
ildren.webmd.com/features/isyour
-
baby
-
on
-
track?page=2

Swartout

Corbeil, D. (2006) Infancy Through Adoles
cence. The Gale Encyclopedia
Children’s

Health retrieved from
http://www
.encyclopedia.com/topic/preschool_education.aspx

Unknow
n. (2011). Data and Statistics.

Centers for Disease Control and

Prevention retrieved from


http://www.cdc.gov

Unknown.(2006)

Gross Motor Skills.
The Encyclopedia o
f Children’s Health. Retrieved from
http://www.healthofchildren.con/G
-
H/Gross
-
Motor
-
Skills.html



MOTOR SKILLS

37



White, Lois (2005). Foundations of Basic Nursing 2
nd

Ed.
Delmar Cengage Learning p. 178,

187


189

Williams ET AL. (2009) A Field Based Testing Pro
tocol for Assessing Gross Motor
Skills in
Preschool Children: The Children’s Activity and Mo
vement in Preschool Study Motor
S
kills Protocol. Journal of Measurement
in Physical Education and Exercise Science. 13;
151
-
165 p.152












MOTOR SKILLS

38



APPENDIX
A

Description of the Intervention

By the time children reaches a specific age, motor skills should be evident, however,
children lack gross motor skills because

they are not permitted to enroll in the preschool
curriculum. This research project is designed to identify that preschool readiness programs are
necessary for children. Early education and playing provides children the ability to increase
cognition and m
ovement offers the ability to strengthen muscles and dexterity. The study was
performed both indoors and outdoors. The demographics of the children were 4 year old
preschool girls and boys. With the consent and participation of parents we began the experi
ment
outside, where an obstacle course was created to observe the children engaging in play. Games
such as kickball, soccer ball, and horse shoes were employed to assess the children agility.
Basketballs were also used to see if the children would dribble

or catch them. Jump ropes and
hopscotch was set up to see if the children could jump, hop and maintain their balance. The
researcher asked the respondents to execute minimal physiological behaviors.

Parents were asked to observe and monitor their child’
s patterns of physical activity.
Inside, we incorporated music to see if children would dance or clap their hands to the beat of the
music. We used games such as Simon says, red
-

light, green


light
-

stop, and bean bag toss to
observe if the children cou
ld follow simple commands that they were instructed to do. Another
area was installed which included toys such as cars, airplanes, legos, puppets and dress up items
to really capture the child’s reactions to these objects. The researcher provided a ques
tionnaire
and motor skills checklist to identify their child’s developmental benchmarks.



MOTOR SKILLS

39



APPENDIX
B

DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS QUESTIONNAIRE:


Please be as objective as possible in your responses, your comments are greatly appreciated.


1. Can

your child walk a straight line, hop,
or

throw a ball?


Strongly Strongly


Agree Agree Disagree Disagree Neutral

1


2 3 4 5

2.
Does your child consistently exhibit “clumsy” behaviors or mannerisms?


Strongly Strongly



Agree Agree Disagree Disagree Neutral


1 2 3 4 5

3. Does

your child avoid physical

activity?


Strongly Strongly


Agree Agree Disagree Disagree Neutral

1


2 3

4 5

4. Do

you believe that children entering preschool have better success acquiring their
developmental milestones?


Strongly Strongly



Agree Agree Disagree Disagree Neutral

1


2 3 4 5




MOTOR SKILLS

40



5.

Do you think preschool instructions provide beneficial outcomes for all children?


Strongly Strongly


Agree Agree D
isagree Disagree Neutral

1


2 3 4 5

6. Do

you think the preschool programs in your area

f
ocus on both gross motor development as
well as the cognitive abilities?


Strongly Strongly


Agree Agree Disagree Disagree Neutral



1 2 3 4 5

7. Do

you think preschool programs should be evaluated
regularly

to determine whether or
not they adhere to the preschool child’s learning?



Strongly Strongly


Agree Agree Disagree Disagree Neutral

1


2 3 4

5

8. Do

you think children with gross motor insufficiencies lack socialization skills?


Strongly Strongly



Agree Agree Disagree Disagree

Neutral


1

2 3 4 5

9. Do you believe preschool instructions

should be government regulated?



Strongly Strongly


Agree Agree Disagree Disagree Neutral

1


2 3 4

5

MOTOR SKILLS

41



10. Does this research provide you with the desire to become more proactive in helping children
with developmental delays?


Strongly Strongly





Ag
ree Agree

Disagree

Disagree


Neutral





1 2 3

4 5


















MOTOR SKILLS

42



APPENDIX C

THE SELF DEVELOPED DATA COLLECTION

Survey

Agree

Strongly Agree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Neutral

Questions






#1

10

2

2


6

#2

1



10

2

5

#3

3

1

7

2

6

#4

9

3

2


5

#5

9

4

2


5

#6

9

3

1


4

#7

7

4

4


5

#8

6

3

3


7

#9

5

2

2


8

#10

4

1

3


10















The mean scores of the value of preschool training


Total

5.3

2.1

3.4

0.8

5.5