Culture of Poverty - Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics

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Culture of Poverty


Children’s Mercy Hospital and Clinics

May 7, 2011



Based on A Framework for Understanding Poverty

aha! Process, Inc., Highlands, TX

www.ahaprocess.com


by Ruby K. Payne, Ph.D.

People



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Copyright © 2005 aha! Process, Inc.


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aha

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Judy Bennett and Carol Hailey

Shawnee Mission School District

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Outcomes


Enhance the understanding of children
and families from poverty



Strengthen interactions with families
and children

2

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“The Perfect Classroom”



by Dr. Rita Pierson

3

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4

What are the poverty guidelines?

Persons

in Family or
Household

2008

2007

1

$10,400

$10,210

2

$14,000

$13,690

3

$17,600

$17,170

4

$21,200

$20,650

5

$24,800

$24,130

6

$28,400

$27,610

7

$32,000

$31,090

8

$35,600

$34,570

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2008). The 2008 HHS Poverty Guidelines.
http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/index.shtml

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5

Who is most at risk for being in poverty?


Children (18 years old or younger)


Immigrants


Female
-
headed households


Persons with Disabilities


Minorities

Source: 2008 Report on Illinois Poverty (www.heartland alliance.org/maip).

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Module 1: Key Point
s

Establish a cognitive
framework for
understanding
economic realities
.


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1.
Poverty is relative.


2. Generational and situational
poverty are different.



Generational


Situational

Middle

New



Old



Poverty



Poverty

Class


Money


Money

Key Points


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3.
This work is based on
patterns. All patterns have
exceptions.


4. Most schools and businesses
operate from middle
-
class
norms and values.






Key Point


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5. Individuals bring with them the
hidden rules of the class in which
they were raised.

Key Point


Poverty

Middle Class

Wealth

Survival


Relationships


Entertainment

Work


Achievement


Material

security

Political
connections


Financial
connections


Social connections

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6. We can neither excuse nor scold students.
We must teach our students.


7. We must teach students that there are two
sets of rules.



Key Point


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8. Poverty occurs in all races. The focus of
this work is economic diversity.



9. Two things that help one move out of
poverty are:



Education



Relationships

Key Point


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Dr. James Comer

"No significant

learning occurs

without a

significant

relationship."

12

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13

Module 2: Resources

Analyze the nine resources
of an individual and make
interventions based on the
resources that are present.


Understand that failure is
often related to missing
pieces and identify ways to
provide missing
resources.


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To better understand people
from poverty, the definition of
poverty will be:

“The extent to which an individual
does without resources.”

Resources

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15

1.
Financial
-
Having the money to purchase goods and services.


2.
Emotional
-
Being able to choose and control emotional responses, particularly to
negative situations, without engaging in self
-
destructive behavior. This is an internal
resource and shows itself through stamina, perseverance, and choices.


3.
Mental
-
Having the mental abilities and acquired skills (reading, writing, computing) to
deal with daily life.


4.
Spiritual
-
Believing in divine purpose and guidance. Having hope or a future story.


5.
Physical
-
Having physical health and mobility.


6.
Support Systems
-
Having friends, family, and backup resources available to access in
times of need. These are external resources.


7.
Relationships/Role Models
-
Having frequent access to adult(s) who are appropriate,
who are nurturing to the child, and who do not engage in self
-
destructive behavior.


8.
Knowledge of Hidden Rules
-
Knowing the unspoken cues and habits of a group.


9.
Formal Register
-
Having the vocabulary, language ability, and negotiation skills
necessary to succeed in school and/or work settings.

Resources

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Resource Analysis

Adapted from
Bridges Out of Poverty Workbook.
Devol, Payne, Dreussi Smith. (2006).

5

4

3

2

1

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REGISTER

EXPLANATION

FROZEN

Language that is always the same.

For example: Lord

s Prayer, wedding vows, etc.

FORMAL

The standard sentence syntax and word choice of
work and school. Has complete sentences and
specific word choice.

CONSULTATIVE

Formal register when used in conversation.
Discourse pattern not quite as direct as formal
register.

CASUAL

Language between friends, characterized by a 400
-

to
800
-
word vocabulary. Word choice general and not
specific. Conversation dependent upon nonverbal
assists. Sentence syntax often incomplete.

INTIMATE

Language between lovers or twins. Language of
sexual harassment.

Registers of Language



Adapted from Martin Joos

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Research About Language in Children, Ages 1 to 4, in
Stable Households by Economic Group

Number of words
exposed to

Economic

group

Affirmations

(strokes)

Prohibitions

(discounts)

13 million words

Welfare

1 for every

2

26 million words

Working
class

2 for every

1

45 million words

Professional

6 for every

1

Source:
Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children.

(1995). Betty Hart and Todd R. Risley.

18

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Kaplan Discourse

FORMAL

CASUAL

19

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Think about Two Patients



20

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Module 5: Hidden Rules

Understand and give
examples of the
hidden rules of the
three socioeconomic
classes.

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Hidden Rules


Hidden rules are the
“unspoken cues
and habits of a group.”


These rules become part of your belief
system and guide how you behave.


Relationships can be broken when you
do not know the hidden rules.


Hidden rules can limit your interaction
with people who are different from you.

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Food

POVERTY

Do you have enough?

Quantity is important.


MIDDLE CLASS

Do you like it?

Quality is important.


WEALTH

Was it presented well?

Presentation is important.





23

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POVERTY


Present most important


Decisions made for the moment
based on feelings or survival



MIDDLE CLASS


Future most important


Decisions made against future
ramifications


WEALTH


Traditions and past history most
important


Decisions made partially on basis
of tradition/decorum

Time

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Could you survive in wealth?

COMPLETE THE QUIZ:

Put a check by each item that applies to you.


______1. I can read a menu in French, English, and another language.

______2. I have several favorite restaurants in different countries of the




world.

______3. During the holidays I know how to hire a decorator to identify



the appropriate themes and items with which to decorate the



house.

______4. I know who my preferred financial advisor, legal service,



designer, domestic employment service, and hairdresser are.

______5. I have at least two residences that are staffed and maintained.

______6. I know how to ensure confidentiality and loyalty from my



domestic staff.

______7. I have at least two or three “screens” that keep people I


do not wish to see away from me.

______8. I fly in my own plane or the company plane.

______9. I know how to enroll my children in the preferred private



schools.

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Could you survive in middle class?

COMPLETE THE QUIZ:

Put a check by each item that applies to you.


______1. I know how to get my children into Little League, piano



lessons, soccer, etc.

______2. I know how to set a table properly.

______3. I know which stores are most likely to carry the clothing



brands my family wears.

______4. My children know the best name brands in clothing.

______5. I know how to order in a nice restaurant.

______6. I know how to use a credit card, checking account, and



savings account

and I understand an annuity. I understand



term life insurance, disability insurance, and 20/80 medical



insurance policy, as well as house insurance, flood insurance,


and replacement insurance.

______7. I talk to my children about going to college.

______8. I know how to get one of the best interest rates on my



new
-
car loan.

______9. I understand the differences among the principal, interest, and


escrow statements on my house payment.

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COMPLETE THE QUIZ:

Put a check by each item you know how to do.


______1. I know which churches and sections of town have the


best rummage sales.

______2. I know which rummage sales have “bag sales.”


______3. I know which grocery stores’ garbage bins can be




accessed for thrown
-
away food.

______4. I know how to get someone out of jail.

______5. I know how to physically fight and defend myself




physically.

______6. I know how to get a gun, even if I have a police record.

______7 . I know how to keep my clothes from being stolen at



the Laundromat.

______8. I know what problems to look for in a used car.

______9. I know how to live without a checking account.

______10. I know how to live without electricity and a phone.

______11. I know how to use a knife as scissors.

______12. I can entertain a group of friends with my personality


and my stories.

Could you survive in poverty?

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28

POVERTY

MIDDLE CLASS

WEALTH

POSSESSIONS

People.

Things.

One
-
of
-
a
-
kind objects,
legacies, pedigrees.

MONEY

To be used, spent.

To be managed.

To be conserved,
invested.

PERSONALITY

Is for entertainment.

Sense of humor is highly
valued.

Is for acquisition and
stability.

Achievement is highly
valued.

Is for connections.

Financial, political, social
connections are highly
valued.

SOCIAL

EMPHASIS

Social inclusion of the
people they like.

Emphasis is on self
-
governance and self
-
sufficiency.

Emphasis is on social
exclusion.

FOOD

Key question: Did you have
enough?

Quantity important.

Key question: Did you like
it?

Quality important.

Key question: Was it
presented well?

Presentation important.

CLOTHING

Clothing valued for
individual style and
expression of personality.

Clothing valued for its
quality and acceptance into
the norms of middle class.
Label important.

Clothing valued for its
artistic sense and
expression.

Designer important.

TIME

Present most important.

Decisions made for
moment based on feelings
or survival.

Future most important.

Decisions made against
future ramifications.

Traditions and past
history most important.

Decisions made partially
on basis of tradition
decorum.

Hidden Rules of Economic Class

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29

POVERTY

MIDDLE CLASS

WEALTH

EDUCATION

Valued and revered as
abstract but not as reality.

Education is about facts.

Crucial for climbing success
ladder and making money.

Necessary tradition for
making and maintaining
connections.

DESTINY

Believes in fate. Cannot do
much to mitigate chance.

Believes in choice. Can
change future with good
choices now.

Noblesse oblige.

LANGUAGE

Casual register. Language
is about survival.

Formal register. Language is
about negotiation.

Formal register.

Language is about
connection.

FAMILY
STRUCTURE

Tends to be matriarchal.

Tends to be patriarchal.

Depends on who
has/controls money.

WORLD VIEW

Sees world in terms of
local setting.

Sees world in terms of
national setting.

Sees world in terms of an
international view.

LOVE

Love and acceptance
conditional, based on
whether individual is liked.

Love and acceptance
conditional, based largely on
achievement.

Love and acceptance
conditional, related to
social standing and
connections.

DRIVING FORCES

Survival, relationships,
entertainment.

Work and achievement.

Financial, political, social
connections.

Hidden Rules of Economic Class

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30


Support:

the direct teaching of process and
mental models.


Insistence:

the motivation and persistence that
comes from the relationship.


High Expectations:

the approach of,


“I know you can do it, and you will.”


Mutual Respect

Relationships of mutual respect
must have three things present:


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31


Dr. James Comer

"No significant

learning occurs

without a

significant

relationship."