3074

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Dec 14, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Conference Session
A11


Paper #

3074

University of Pittsburgh

Swanson Scho
ol of Engineering

April 2
, 2013

1

QUANTUM DOTS: THE FORERUNNER IN ADVANCED COMPUTING
TECHNOLOGY


Michael Dukovic (
mjd106@pitt.edu, Budny 10:00),
Joseph McClain (
jdm135@pitt.edu
, Budny 16:00)



Abstract

The unfathomably powerful
supercomputers that
have only been dreamed about since the mid
-
twentieth
century are now closer to becoming a reality than ever
before. The answer lies in a groundbreaking new
technology known as “quantum dots”. The processing
power and memory capacity o
f a computer is limited mostly
by its hardware components, and traditionally, these
components have been comprised of relatively bulky
semiconducting materials. Quantum dots, however, have
unique properties that unleash the maximum output of a
computer. T
his paper will focus on the future of quantum
computers by analyzing the use of quantum dots in
semiconductors to improve the memory capacity and
processing power of computers.

The paper will present the audience with the technology
behind quantum dots and

quantum computing. Next, we will
explain the chemical processes that create the quantum dots,
as well as how their properties make them ideal for use in
computer hardware. In this paper we will emphasize how
quantum dots utilize quantum bits, or qubits,
to store and
perform information on a miniscule scale, thus allowing for
instantaneous problem solving that would minimize run time
[1]. Also, the paper will depict how their size
-
dependent
photon emissions allow them to act as unique semi
-
conductors in pr
ocessing units [2], [3]. Therefore, we will
show not only why quantum dots are beneficial to
computing, but also how they accomplish this, in terms of
the engineering behind this technology. Furthermore, the
sustainability and ethical issues regarding quan
tum
computers will be investigated and explored [4].

The paper will provide a detailed description and
analysis of quantum dot technology, accompanied by an
overview of the basic fundamental principles of quantum
mechanics, which explain the phenomena ass
ociated with
this technology. This analysis will also include a description
of the complications/efficiencies associated with integrating
quantum dots in computer hardware. In addition the paper
will describe how quantum dots serve as a semi
-
conductor,
a
nd how they operate within semiconductors in computers.

Lastly it will include an analysis of the ethical issues of
quantum dot technology such as the use of quantum
computers for surveillance.


Key Words

Memory, Processing Power,
Quantum Dots,

Quantum T
heory,

Qubits, Semi
-
conductor, Spi
n



QUANTUM DOT TECHNOLOGY: AN
OVERVIEW


In the mid twentieth century
,

with the birth of computing
technology, computers were
housed
in entire rooms.
A
computer occupied dozens upon dozens of cubic feet of
space. In addition, there were also great challenges in
keeping computers from overheating, as they were so large
and energetically inefficient. These ancient computers had
extremely poor memory cap
acities, were slow to process
information, and could perform very few functions. As
technology
has
progressed, however, we have found
ourselves in the age of tablets and
ultrabooks
: small and
portable computers with relatively large memories and
powerful
processors. Although it may at times seem
difficult to imagine smaller yet more powerful
computers,

users
still
y
earn to stream, download, store, and process
more data than ever before. However, i
n order to achieve
the remarkably large memory capacities
and
incredible
processing power
that have been so long desired, we must
look to a new technology and style of computing: quantum
computing. Quantum computing is a
method that

employs
the use of quantum mechanical principles to create ultra
-
fast
processing

units by taking

advantage of the unique

properties of a

technology known as quantu
m dots.
Quantum dots are nanos
cale structures
with

diameters
of
about 180
nanometers
,


which confine electrons and hole
s in
dimensions of their corresponding De Broglie wave
length


[6
]
.

Quantum dots exhibit
very
unique photochemical
properties which make them ideal for use as semiconductors
in computers. However,
in order
to fully understand these
properties and their contribution to memory capacity and
processing power, we

must first examine the fundamental
principles of quantum mechanics which make this possible.


Basic Principles of Quantum Mechanics


The theory of quantum mechanics first arose in the early
twentieth century.
One of t
he overarching theme
s

of
quantum theory is that all energy is quantized as integers of
Planck’s constant
; energy is not one continuous stream

[7
].
With this, it is said that matter and energy are to exist in
various energetic states. However, according to the Pauli
Exclusion

Principle, it is impossible for
two or more local
fermions, or particles with one half integer intrinsic angular
momentum values (including electrons) to occupy the same
energetic state.

For example, no two electrons in any given
atom can have the same s
et of quantum numbers, that is,
Michael Dukovic

Joseph
McClain

University of Pittsburgh

Swanson School of Engineering

April 2
, 2013

2

they cannot occupy the same physical space and energy level
si
multaneously. There is, on the other hand, a phenomenon

known as “quantum entanglement” that allows us to measure
the states of particles
as they relate to one a
nother [7
].

If
two objects are entangled (because of subatomic decay, for
example, in which one particle decays into two by the laws
of conservation of mass and energy), then the state of one
object cannot be fully measured and described without
considering the stat
e of the other object.

This principle of
quantum entanglement is what allows quantum dots to be so
effective at memory storage and processing.


Quantum Dot Properties



Quantum dots exhibit
many
unique photochemical
properties that allow them to be us
eful as semiconductors in
computers
.

One such property of quantum dots is their
ability to take part in quantum entanglement. The electrons
within the quantum dot are entangled in much the same way
as are any two electrons in a molecular orbital of a give
n
atom. Therefore, as some electrons in a quantum dot can
have a “spin
-
up”, the other corresponding electrons will
have a “spin
-
down” (where “spin
-
up” and “spin
-
down” refer
to the intrinsic angular momentum/specific energy state of
the electron). In this

way, it is possible to measure both
states of the quantum dot simultaneously by measuring one
spin state, and deducing the other. Thus, the spin states of a
quantum dot can be assigned values which can be interpreted
and stored as information [5]. Since

the multiple states of
the electrons of quantum dots can be measured concurrently,
it is therefore possible to process multiple bits of information
simultaneously.



Another interesting property

of quantum dots is their
ability to emit photons
(or i
ndividual quanta of light)
of
differing frequencies and wavelengths ba
sed solely on their
diameters [8
]
.

In order for a material to emit light, energy
must be applied to excite the electrons of the material’s
atoms.

As the electrons are excited, they beg
in to
temporarily occupy higher energy molecular orbitals. As the
input of energy to the system ceases, though, the electrons
fall back down to their initial ground states.
The difference
in energy between the excited state of the electron and the
ground

state is known as the band gap.
As the electrons are
transferred to the ground state, they release energy in
amounts proportional to that of the energy input. This
energy is released in the form of photons, which we perceive
as light. Since energy is
equal to the product of frequency
and Planck’s constant, and frequency is inversely
proportional to wavelength, the hue/wavelength of the
perceived light depends on the energy input and

thus
released
.

Quantum dots, however, are able to emit photons
of dif
fering energies and wavelengths based on only their
size.

As the diameter of the quantum dot decreases, the size
of the band gap increases, and consequently the greater the
difference in energy between the highest valence band and
t
he lowest conduction ban
d. The difference in energy

results
in more energy needed to excite the electrons of the dot.
I
n
turn
, this

le
ads to
higher energy photons emitted
[9
].


This behavior is shown perfectly in another application
that is currently being researched: quan
tum dot displays. In
the past, television screens and monitors have evolved from
enormous cathode ray tube devices to modern liquid crystal
displays and light emitting diodes (LED). In older displays,
it was necessary to have

a

lamp that provided back ligh
t for
the actual display screen itself. The screen was made of tiny
little cells, called pixels, that each had a miniscule red, blue,
and green light filter. The electronics in the television would
activate a specific filter in every pixel depending on wha
t the
picture output needed to be, and in turn the television or
display was able to relay this information in the form of
images to the user. Once more advanced flat screen
technology was developed
,

tiny LED lights were placed
inside displays to serve as
small backlights. On the other
hand, since quantum dots can emit their own light depending
on size, new quantum dot displays can be manufactured
with
almost a paper
-
like thickness.
A q
uantum dot solution is
placed throughout the entire screen and once elec
tricity
passes through the screen, every quantum dot can display a
different color that makes the picture
very

vivid

[10
]
. This is
similar to how quantum dots work in computers. Once
electricity is passed through circuitry, quantum dots handle
information
differently depending on their properties. In
essence, the same quantum dot technol
ogy seen in displays
is applied
to computers

in terms of how they handle input
.


The
s
e properties of quantum dots are

crucial to computing
because
the dots can be produced
in certain sizes so they can
emit specific photons. These photons can then be emitted
and used as energy signals within computer hardware, thus
allowing for the transfer and processing of information.

T
he
entanglement of quantum dots can be coupled with t
heir
unique photon emissions in order to store and process
information at incredibly fast speeds.
It is this basic idea
that forms the fundamental principle of quantum dots in
quantum computing.



QUANTUM DOTS IN COMPUTING



In today’s day
and
age, c
omputers represent information
in a binary format. Binary format refers to a series of ones
and zeroes that correspond to specific information,
characters, or numbers. The binary digits are stored in what
is called a bit
,

and multiple bits form a byte. Aft
er the
computer has stored the information, it transfers the
information t
hroughout the system by use of circuitry,
particularly

transistor
s
. These transistors are just a type of
switch that
has

an

on


(one) and

off


(zero) mode.
Depending on whether the transistor is active or inactive,
information is passed on in different ways.
When input is
entered into a computer, certain transistors may be active
and others inactive which produces a certain output. An
ineffectiv
e transistor can cause a process to be faulty and
Michael Dukovic

Joseph
McClain

University of Pittsburgh

Swanson School of Engineering

April 2
, 2013

3

slow.
Different materials may change the effectiveness of
the transistor
, but quantum dots can act as a sort of transistor
and prove

to be the best

[5]
.


Although transistors utilize electric impulses t
o allow for
passage of information, quantum dots can employ multiple
forms of energy to enable a
n


on


or

off


state. When a
quantum dot is hit with energy (e.g. electricity, light), the
electron inside the dot elevates to an excited energy state
which co
rresponds to the

on


position. Once the electron
arrives back at the ground state, the dot again takes on the

off


state. Thus, quantum dots can perform as a logic gate
just as a transistor. The issue that arises from this process is
that the electron ca
n only stay in the on position for a split
second before the energy is lost. In other words, if a
computer process took more than a second or two, it might
not perform properly. Luckily, quantum dots can handle
most processes very quickly.
As afore mention
ed, quantum
dots
engage in a special interaction known as quantum
entanglement that allow for multiple

electron

spins to be
known at once. Due t
o this phenomenon, quantum dots
can
calculate every on
-
off combination
which decrease
s

run
times o
f computer pro
cesses
.

The information that is
processed is stored on a quantum bit, otherwise known as a
qubit. These qubits are much smaller than normal bits and
take up less space.

In this way, quantum dots increase the
memory capabilities and power output

of a computer.
However, quantum dot information transfer relies heavily on
controlling the spin of the individual quantum dots. This is
unlike a conventional computer where electricity is passed
through a regular transistor directly influenc
ing

how
inform
ation is passed

[5]
.


The problem lies in the fact that spin is hard to control
and thus quantum dot computing is still in the early stages of
development.

Once quantum spin is able to be concretely
predicted and controlled, quantum dots will be able
to be
readily used to greatly improve computer technology.
Nonetheless, p
rogress has been made at Purdue University
where scientists were able to create extremely miniscule
circuitry
which demonstrates

that quantum dot information
transfer is possible

[5]
.

This circuitry is shown in
Figure 1.


FIGURE
1



The picture depicts the quantum dot circuitry for information
transfer

[5]


Figure 1
demonstrates that the creation of what was before
known as theoretical quantum dot information transfer
structures is
actually possible.


Quantum Dot Semiconductors



Quantum dots are really jus
t
semiconducting
n
anostructure
s
. A semiconductor is

the material in hardware
components that allows the components to be scaled to
miniature sizes. This includes smaller compon
ents such as a
transistor which is why a group of quantum dots can be
likened to a transistor.
Quantum dots as semiconductors can
be implemented into present computer technology because
they are just a natural extension of what

technology

is
alrea
dy presen
t on a smaller scale [11
]. Luckily, this means
that using quantum dots to make things smaller does not
affect other hardware components and it allows for easier
integration between hardware pieces.
Yet, to actually make a
meaningful calculation with quantu
m dots is much more
difficult. A pronounced calculation could only occur if it
was possible to amass several quantum dots and make sure
that they
stayed coherent

throughout the entire process

[12
]
.

Coherence

refers to the ability for a quantum dot to posse
ss
two states at the same time. To keep a quantum dot coherent
is a very meticulous and belaboring task. It is possible that
even looking at a quantum dot could cause it to decay and
become incoherent [1
1
]. This means that manufacturing as
well as performi
ng a physical action on a quantum dot could
ruin its ability to perform as needed.
Moreover, individual
quantum dots would need to be selected from the group of
quantum dots
,

and their distinct spins would have to be
controlled.


Quantum Dots
in Memory an
d Processing



In previous sections, a general overview of qubits was
introduced. These objects represent a

type of

bit that has the
special ability to perform in both the

on


and

off


state at
the same time. Instead of just being represented as the
number zero or one, qubits actually represent a zero or one
with a probability component
;

this

is why they do not
necessarily have a set value that can be measured.
Technically speaking, qub
its do have a component
called the
single

qubit

state
that we can observe as being a zero or one

displayed by the equation:


|c
0
|
2
+|c
1
|
2

= 1

(1)

[11]


In
equation 1
, c
0

represents
a state value of 0 and c
1

represents a value of
1. Furthermore,

qubits

also incl
ude the
two qubit state displayed by the equation:


|c
0
|
2

+ |c
1
|
2

+ |c
2
|
2

+ |c
3
|
2

= 1

(2)

[11]


In
equation 2
, c
0

represents a double state value of 00, c
1

represents 01, c
2

represents 10, and c
3

represents 11 [11
].
These equations are the normalizations for what state a qubit
could be in
,

and they show that probability does play a role
in the outcome. This concept is important because it shows
how qubits can store much more than a standard bit. B
its can
Michael Dukovic

Joseph
McClain

University of Pittsburgh

Swanson School of Engineering

April 2
, 2013

4

only take either a one or zero into a specific index whereas
qubits could have both.

In this manner, quantum dots utilize
their qubits to store the same amount of data as a regular bit
with less memory allocation

[11]
. If me
mory allocation is
kept
at a minimum
, the Random Access Memory (RAM) of
a computer will not be as occupied as with a regular bit.
RAM is initialized every time that any application runs on a
computer
,

so it is crucial to have proper RAM allocation
.
When several applications are r
un on the same computer, the
load on the RAM becomes substantial and the processes
become slow. With qubits, the encumbrance upon RAM is
greatly reduced, therefore allowing a computer to process at
faster speeds with multiple programs active. Consequently,

memory allocation and processing power are directly related
and can be improved using quantum dot qubits.



One important note is that although quantum dots allow
much faster processing speeds, they cannot beat,
but rather

only match, a conventional c
omputer in more simple tasks
such as multiplication and division. This is because these
processes already take up so little space that it is not possible
to perform them any faster. A specific example where a
quantum computer would outperform a traditional

computer
is shown through Shor’s Algorithm. This algorithm allows a
computer to factor extremely large numbers.
With a number
that has 1000 digits, it could take several

months

or years for
a computer to find every single factor that exists. With a
quantu
m computer this process is estimated to take up about
20 minutes [1].
One application that would utilize this kind
of power is RSA decryption or the breaking of RSA
encoding. RSA encryption is a type of public
-
key
cryptography that is commonly used to encr
ypt data systems
and sensitive information

[13
]
. It is highly probable that a
quantum computer could break this code very quickly which
would aid
in an areas such as cyber warfare and national
security. For example, foreign or terrorist messages would
be a
ble to be decrypted and potential threats to the U.S.
could be stopped before they even become an issue. A
specific example is the terrorist attacks on the World Trade
Center and the Twin Towers. During the summer months of
2001, the U.S. government knew t
hat an attack on the U.S.
was imminent due to the interception of terrorist emails and
messaging. However, the government did not know when or
where the attacks would take place because the messages
could not be fully decoded. If quantum computers were
ava
ilable at that time, the em
ails or messages may have been
decrypted quickly enough to avoid the events of 9/11.


The
entire
process

of solving Shor’s algorithm and decoding

is
possible since quantum dots can realize multiple
combinations at the same momen
t

[1]
.


QUANTUM DOT MANUFACTURING FOR
COMPUTING



Such a technology, however, does come with a price.
Producing q
uantum dots require specialized man
ufacturing
processes.

Presently, there are a few methods of production
including dry and wet colloidal syntheses
, and the tetrapod
synthesis of quantum dots.


Currently, the most predominant methods of production
of quantum dots are the dry and wet colloidal syntheses.

D
ry fabrication techniques including electron beam
lithography and dry etching are among the most common for
the fabrication
of traditional semiconductors [8
]. However,
these cannot effectively produce small/stable enough
quantum dots to achieve the desire
d excitation energy levels.
Thus, a dry synthesis
using crystal growth systems sustained
in a vacuum must be utilized with this method. This

synthesis

results in a pyramidal lattice of quantum dots
formed by minimizing molecular strain within the quantum

dot. This dry synthesis method, however, ultimately yields a
non
-
uniform mixture of

quantum dots of varying size [8
].
This can prove to be quite counterproductive, seeing as how
the electrochemical properties of quantum dots rely on their
size.


Ano
ther alternative for quantum dot manufacturing for
computing is the wet colloidal synthesis method.
In this,
quantum dots are produced in aqueous solution. A metal
sulfide or selenide nanocrystalline

semiconducting

core is
grown in solution
while
free io
ns are introduced to the core
(providing
free electrons). Then, an organo
-
metallic
complex such as mercapto
-
acetic acid is introduced to serve
as a protective cap to the quantum dot.
The
organo
-
metallic
is used to stabilize the negative charges within th
e dot. The
wet synthesis method is advantageous in that it allows for a
more selective production
of specific quantum dot sizes [8
].


However, the wet synthesis does have a few draw
-
backs.
For example, “
Incorporation of these wet colloidal [quantum

dots] into semiconductor devices requires radically different
innovations in semiconductor d
evice fabrication technology”
[8
]. This is due to the

fact that the quantum dots must first
be taken out of solution
, and then implemented as a
semiconductor in c
omputer hardware. The isolation process
of quantum dots can be difficult, and does not always
produce an advantageous yield.


In addition, many of the chemicals used in this synthesis
method a
r
e expensive and highly toxic [14
].

Thus, this
method of
quantum dot synthesis does not

prove to be very
sustainable.
The harsh solvents used in the wet colloidal
synthesis method of quantum dot manufacturing can be very
caustic to the persons exposed to the synthesis process.
Therefore, measures must be taken
to ensure that the health
and welfare of any and all persons associated with the
synthesi
s process are not compromised.
Also, considerations
will have to be made for the disposal of the toxic solvents.
If the proper precautions are not taken by manufactur
ers,
then it is very possible that a large
-
scale disruption of local
eco systems can occur. That is, if the solvents and other
synthesis materials are not properly disposed of, then there is
a risk of contamination in the local waterways and
surrounding en
vironment, ultimately leading to the
disturbance of local eco systems. Therefore, the large
-
scale
Michael Dukovic

Joseph
McClain

University of Pittsburgh

Swanson School of Engineering

April 2
, 2013

5

industrial production of quantum dots using the wet colloidal
synthesis method may not be the most sustainable option.

However, a new emerging synthesis meth
od may prove to be
quite promising in the area of quantum dot synthesis.


Quantum Materials Corporation, a quantum dot and
quantum materials manufacturing company, has developed a
way to produce quantum dots without the high costs and
relatively low
yielding production
typically
associated
t
raditional synthesis methods [14
]. This method involves
producing tetrapod shaped quantum dot
s

with “four arms on
the quantum dot core to enable better electrical conductivity
compared to current quantum dot techn
ology”

[14
]. This
synthetic method

is quite advantageous in that it is very
flexible. Tetrapod quantum dots can be manufactured from
twelve different elements, ultimately allowing their
dimensions to be perfectly tailored to the specifications
defined by

their needed photon output. In addition, the
synthesis of tetrapod quantum dots

does not include the use
of caustic solutions used

in the wet colloidal synthesis; this
method replaces these with solvents that are far
more
inexpensive and less toxic,
making this process more
su
stainable and thus suitable for an
industrial level
manufacturing future.

Therefore the synthesis of tetrapod
quantum dots may be a promising me
thod for quantum dot
production
as it is a quite sustainable process
.
However,
since

the method is proprietary and currently employed by
only one company, it may be difficult to apply this synthesis
to include large scale production for quantum dot use in
electronics.



Q
uantum dot manufacturing does include much
inefficiency that ha
s limited its use in consumer
electronics

and in computer hardware especially. Currently the high
cost and questionable

yields

limit quantum dots’ integration
in computer hardware.

To expand on the cost aspect,
recently Lockheed Martin purchased the world
’s first
commercial quantum computer from D
-
Wave Systems for a
price of $10 million dollars. Obviously, there is no way that
the average consumer could afford such a product. However,
the reason for the ridiculous price tag is due to numerous
factors. One
such factor is that this particular quantum
computer is a 128
-
qubit system which means that computing
processes can be and are completed millions of times faster
than a conventional computer.

Also, the quantum computer
has super cooling systems that keep t
he internal components
near absolute zero which enhances the productivity of the
computer. Once computer components become too hot, they
tend to not operate at top efficiency

so the cooling systems
keep the computer at peak performance
. Additionally, the
p
rocessor for the quantum computer takes up a space
comparable to that of a closet

[13]
.

It is also important to
realize that even though a quantum computer is available
commercially, an average consumer version of this
technology will not be available
for
several years
. This
knowledge is a relief because it provides evidence that by
the time it is possible to mass produce consumer versions of
quantum computers, the price will be drastically reduced just
like any other new technology.
Once methods of
manufac
turing and production are perfected, the price will
drop.
Moreover
, the computing power brought about by
quantum dot semiconductors

demonstrates that such a
technology is beneficial, and that the pursuit of more
efficient methods of manufacturing and synth
esis will
ultimately result in quantum dots being able to be fully
integrated in consumer and industrial computing hardware.






EFFECTS OF QUANTUM COMPUTING



With the incredible processing power brought about by
quantum computing, there will

of course be various ethical
issues that must be considered. Quantum dots have the
ability to unleash computing power that the world has not
yet seen. Because of this, the processing ability brought
about by quantum dots will have major implications on
society.


One of the most important considerations that must be
made is
the implication quantum dots will have on privacy
.
The increases in memory capacity will allow for extremely
vast databases. With advancements in processing speeds,
these
databases will be able to be accessed at incredible
speeds. As a result, this will allow for “very large amounts
of data for the purpose of discovering meaningful and useful
rules a
nd patterns” [15
].

This in turn has the potential to
greatly enhance the
surveillance of individual workers, and
even the general population as a whole.

Therefore the ethical
issue of “how much is too much?” arises. On one hand, the
quantum computing
-
aided surveillance has to potential to do
much good. For example, it can hel
p law enforcement
officials in the capture and arrest of criminals; superior
surveillance can aid in the tracking of criminals, fugitives,
and even terrorists. On the other hand, however, the ability
to have widespread quantum computing backed surveillanc
e
can be seen as an invasion of privacy to some. Quantum
computers may be able to aid in the theft of credit card
information, addresses, etc. Thus, quantum computing may
have both implications and benefits in its ability to possibly
interfere with priva
cy.


In addition, chip implants made of quantum dot
semiconductors may have the ability to enhance the physical
senses of individuals.
The miniscule sizes

and

fast
processing of quantum computer chips make them ideal for
implementation in the human bo
dy. It is quite possible
quantum implants could be used to function as sensor
devices in the human body, thus potentially allowing

them to
fix physical defects [15
]. There
fore
care

must be
taken

to
ensure
that this technology does not overstep its use

in

human physiology, as a line must be drawn between
giving
medical aid and

allowing certain people an unfair advantage
over others
.

This is somewhat similar to how performance
drugs and
steroids give certain athletes an edge over others.



Likewise, ther
e are concerns that if quantum dot computer
chips are inserted into a robot or computer, that device will
become too powerful for anyone to properly handle [4]. It
Michael Dukovic

Joseph
McClain

University of Pittsburgh

Swanson School of Engineering

April 2
, 2013

6

may sound a bit ridiculous upon first inspection, but the sort
of power brought by quantum c
omputer chips could redefine
areas such as cyber warfare and the interactions of robots
with the world. This kind of technology could allow an
ordinary civilian access to information that should not and
could not be accessed before. Although these are
spec
ulations, the technology even today is becoming
advanced enough to grant users power they have never
experienced before.


Though there are some ethical considerations to be made
with this technology, it is still quite evident that quantum
dots and quant
um computing hold the key to the technology
of tomorrow. Quantum dots as semiconductors in computers
have the ability to create processor and memory units with
speeds and capacities unlike any we have seen before. This
will ultimately lead to
ultra
-
fast
and incredibly small

lightweight computers and computing devices.
It is very
clear that with the inevitable implementation of quantum
dots

in computer hardware,
today’s most advanced
ultra
-
books

and tablets will seem archaic. Quantum dots are
clearly the

computing technology of tomorrow, and are
without a doubt, the forerunner in advanced computer
technology.


REFERENCES


[1] S. Bone. “A Brief History of Quantum Computing.”
(Online Journal).
http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~nd/surprise_97/journal/vol4/spb3/

[2] C
. Hsu
-
Buffalo. (2011). “Tug
-
of
-
war gives electrons new
spin.”
Futurity.

(Online Article).
http://www.futurity.org/science
-
technology/tug
-
of
-
war
-
gives
-
electrons
-
new
-
spin/

p. 1

[3] M. Inman. (2008). “Quantum dot memory may be ‘Holy
Grail’ of computing.”
NewScientist
. (Online Article).
http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn13426
-
quantum
-
dot
-
memory
-
may
-
be
-
holy
-
grail
-
of
-
computing.html p. 1

[4] H. Tavani (2006).
ETHICS, COMPUTING, and
GENOMICS
. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
(Print book). pp. 324
-
334

[5] E. Venere. (2001). “ ‘Quantum dots’ could form basis of
new computers.”
Purdue News
. (Online Article).
https://news.uns.purdue.edu/html4ever/010917.Chang.quant
um.html

[6] P. Michler. (2009).
Single Semiconductor Quantum Dots.

Berlin Heidelberg: Sp
ringer
-
Verlag. (Print Book). p. VII

[7] P. Hohenberg. (2010). “Colloquium: An Introduction to
Consistent Quantum Theory.”
Reviews of Modern Physics
.
(Print Article). Vol. 82, No 4. pp. 2828
-
2839

[8] E. Stokes, A. Stiff
-
Roberts, C. Dameron. (2006).
“Quantu
m Dots in Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices.”
The Electrochemical Society Interface
. (Online Journal).
http://www.electrochem.org/dl/interface/wtr/wtr06/wtr06_p2
3
-
27.pdf

pp. 23
-
27

[9] M. Baier, E. Pelucchi, E. Kapon. (2004). “Single Photon
Emission From

Site
-
Controlled Pyramidal Quantum Dots.”
Applied Physics Letters
. (Print Article).
Vol. 84, No. 5
.

pp.
648

650

[10] P. Patel. (2012). “Quantum Dots Are Behind New
Displays.”
IEEE Spectrum.

(Online Article).
http://spectrum.ieee.org/consumer
-
electronics/au
diovideo/quantum
-
dots
-
are
-
behind
-
new
-
displays

[11] J. Adamowski, S. Bednarek, B. Szafran. “Quantum
Computing with Quantum Dots.”
Schedae Informaticae 14

(2005): 95
-
108. Online.

[12
]

C. Day
. (2006).

Semiconductor Quantum Dots Take
First Steps Toward Spin
-
B
ased Quantum

Computation.


Physics Today
,

59(3), 16
-
18.


[13] M Lynley. (2011). “World’s first commercial quantum
computer sold to Lockheed Martin.”
VentureBeat
. (Online
article).
http://venturebeat.com/2011/05/27/first
-
quantum
-
computer
-
sold/

[14
] PR Newswire. (2012). “Frost and Sullivan Lauds
Quantum Materials Corp. for Its Ground
-
Breaking,
Commercially Viable Quantum Dot Manufacturing
Technology.”
PR Newswire
. (Print Article). p.
1


[15] J. Weckert. (2002). “Lilliputian Computer Ethics.”
Metaphilosophy LLC
. (Print Article). Vol. 33, No. 3. pp.
367
-
369



ADDITIONAL SOURCES


Nanoco. (2013). “Quantum dots


background briefing.”
Nanoco Group PLC
. (Online Article).
http://www.nanocote
chnologies.com/content/AboutUs/Abou
tQuantumDots.aspx p. 1


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS



We would like to thank Professor Dan Budny for being a
great teacher, the library faculty for their assistance, and our
co
-
chair Devon Albert for looking over our work. And
Chuck Norris, of course.