Spirulina (Arthrospira): Βιολογία, Ταξινόμηση και Βιοτεχνολογικές ...

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Feb 19, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

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Spirulina (Arthrospira): ǺȚȠȜȠȖȓĮ, ȉĮȟȚȞȩȝȘıȘ țĮȚ ǺȚȠIJİȤȞȠȜȠȖȚțȑȢ İijĮȡȝȠȖȑȢ

ǺĮȡįȐțĮ ǼȜȚıȐȕİIJ*

ȉȝȒȝĮ ȉİȤȞȠȜȠȖȓĮȢ ǹȜȚİȓĮȢ țĮȚ ȊįĮIJȠțĮȜȜȚİȡȖİȚȫȞ, ǹȜİȟȐȞįȡİȚȠ ȉİȤȞȠȜȠȖȚțȩ
ǼțʌĮȚįİȣIJȚțȩ ǴįȡȣȝĮ ĬİııĮȜȠȞȓțȘȢ, ȆĮȡȐȡIJȘȝĮ ȃȑĮ ȂȠȣįĮȞȚȐ, ȉ.Ĭ. 157, 632 00 ȃȑĮ
ȂȠȣįĮȞȚȐ
*email:
evardaka@aqua.teithe.gr


ǼȚıĮȖȦȖȒ

ȉĮ IJİȜİȣIJĮȓĮ ȤȡȩȞȚĮ, Ș țĮȜȜȚȑȡȖİȚĮ țĮȚ ȤȡȒıȘ IJȦȞ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȓȦȞ ıİ ȑȞĮ
İȣȡȪIJĮIJȠ ijȐıȝĮ İijĮȡȝȠȖȫȞ ȩʌȦȢ ȖȚĮ ʌĮȡȐįİȚȖȝĮ ıIJȠȣȢ IJȠȝİȓȢ IJȦȞ IJȡȠijȓȝȦȞ,
ijĮȡȝȐțȦȞ, țĮȜȜȣȞIJȚțȫȞ, ʌĮȡĮȖȦȖȒȢ ȕȚȠĮİȡȓȦȞ İȝijĮȞȓȗİȚ İȞIJȣʌȦıȚĮțȒ ĮȞȐʌIJȣȟȘ ıİ
ʌĮȖțȩıȝȚȠ İʌȓʌİįȠ. ǿįȚĮȓIJİȡĮ ıIJȠ ȤȫȡȠ IJȦȞ IJȡȠijȓȝȦȞ ʌĮȡĮIJȘȡİȓIJĮȚ ȝȚĮ ıȣȞİȤȒȢ ĮȪȟȘıȘ
IJȘȢ ȗȒIJȘıȘȢ IJȦȞ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȓȦȞ (țȣȡȓȦȢ ĮȣIJȫȞ ʌȠȣ ĮȞȒțȠȣȞ ıIJĮ ȖȑȞȘ
Aphanizomenon, Arthrospira, Spirulina țĮȚ Nostoc) ȦȢ ıȣȝʌȜȘȡȫȝĮIJĮ ȣȖȚİȚȞȒȢ
įȚĮIJȡȠijȒȢ, ĮȞIJȚțĮIJȠʌIJȡȓȗȠȞIJĮȢ IJȠ ʌȡȩIJȣʌȠ ȣȖȚİȚȞȒȢ įȚĮIJȡȠijȒȢ ʌȠȣ ʌȡȠȕȐȜȜİIJĮȚ ʌȜȑȠȞ,
ıIJȚȢ ĮʌĮȚIJȒıİȚȢ IJȠȣ ȠʌȠȓȠȣ ijĮȓȞİIJĮȚ ȞĮ ĮȞIJĮʌȠțȡȓȞȠȞIJĮȚ IJĮ įȚĮȚIJȘIJȚțȐ ȤĮȡĮțIJȘȡȚıIJȚțȐ
IJȦȞ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȓȦȞ (ʌ.Ȥ. ȣȥȘȜȒ ʌİȡȚİțIJȚțȩIJȘIJĮ ʌȡȦIJİȧȞȫȞ țĮȚ ȤĮȝȘȜȩ İȞİȡȖİȚĮțȩ
ʌİȡȚİȤȩȝİȞȠ).
ȉȠ ʌȜĮȓıȚȠ IJȠȣ ĮȞIJĮȖȦȞȚıȝȠȪ, ıIJȠ ȠʌȠȓȠ įȡĮıIJȘȡȚȠʌȠȚȠȪȞIJĮȚ ȠȚ
ȣįĮIJȠțĮȜȜȚȑȡȖİȚİȢ IJȦȞ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȓȦȞ, İʌȚȕȐȜȜİȚ IJȠȞ ȑȜİȖȤȠ țĮȚ IJȘ įȚĮıijȐȜȚıȘ IJȘȢ
ʌȠȚȩIJȘIJĮȢ IJȦȞ ʌȡȠȧȩȞIJȦȞ ĮȣIJȫȞ, ȝİ țȪȡȚȠȣȢ ıIJȩȤȠȣȢ: (Į) IJȘȞ ȚțĮȞȠʌȠȓȘıȘ IJȦȞ
ĮʌĮȚIJȒıİȦȞ IJȠȣ țĮIJĮȞĮȜȦIJȒ (ȣȥȘȜȒ țĮȚ ıIJĮșİȡȒ ʌȠȚȩIJȘIJĮ) țĮȚ (ȕ) IJȘȞ ʌȡȠıIJĮıȓĮ IJȘȢ
įȘȝȩıȚĮȢ ȣȖİȓĮȢ. īȚĮ IJȠ ȜȩȖȠ ĮȣIJȩ ĮʌĮȚIJİȓIJĮȚ Ș İȝʌİȡȚıIJĮIJȦȝȑȞȘ țĮȚ ȠȜȠțȜȘȡȦȝȑȞȘ
ȖȞȫıȘ ĮijİȞȩȢ IJȘȢ ȕȚȠȜȠȖȓĮȢ, IJȘȢ ȤȘȝȚțȒȢ ıȪȞșİıȘȢ țĮȚ IJȘȢ șȡİʌIJȚțȒȢ ĮȟȓĮȢ IJȦȞ
țĮȜȜȚİȡȖȠȪȝİȞȦȞ İȚįȫȞ, țĮȚ ĮijİIJȑȡȠȣ IJȦȞ ʌȚșĮȞȫȞ ȕȚȠȜȠȖȚțȫȞ țȚȞįȪȞȦȞ ʌȠȣ İȞȑȤȠȣȞ
IJĮ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȚĮțȐ ʌȡȠȧȩȞIJĮ (ʌ.Ȥ. ȕȚȠIJȠȟȓȞİȢ) țĮșȫȢ țĮȚ IJȦȞ ȝİșȩįȦȞ İȜȑȖȤȠȣ ĮȣIJȫȞ.
ȆĮȡȩȜȠ ʌȠȣ IJĮ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȒȡȚĮ Arthrospira țĮȚ Spirulina ȑȤȠȣȞ ĮȞĮȖȞȦȡȚıIJİȓ ȦȢ
įȚĮijȠȡİIJȚțȐ ȖȑȞȘ Įʌȩ IJȠ 1989, IJȠ İȝʌȠȡȚțȩ ȩȞȠȝĮ «Spirulina» ȤȡȘıȚȝȠʌȠȚİȓIJĮȚ İȣȡȑȦȢ
țĮȚ ıȣȤȞȐ ĮıȪȞİȚįĮ, ȖȚĮ ȞĮ įȘȜȫıİȚ İȝʌȠȡȚțȐ İțȝİIJĮȜİȣȩȝİȞĮ İȓįȘ țĮȚ IJȦȞ įȪȠ ȖİȞȫȞ.
ȀȠȚȞȐ ȝȠȡijȠȜȠȖȚțȐ, ijȣıȚȠȜȠȖȚțȐ țĮȚ ȠȚțȠȜȠȖȚțȐ ȤĮȡĮțIJȘȡȚıIJȚțȐ ȝİIJĮȟȪ IJȦȞ
Arthrospira țĮȚ Spirulina įȘȝȚȠȣȡȖȠȪȞ ȣȥȘȜȩ ȕĮșȝȩ įȣıțȠȜȓĮȢ ıIJȘȞ ĮȞĮȖȞȫȡȚıȒ IJȠȣȢ,
İȞȫ Ș IJȡȠʌȠʌȠȓȘıȘ IJȦȞ ȤĮȡĮțIJȘȡȚıIJȚțȫȞ IJȠȣȢ (ȚįȚĮȓIJİȡĮ IJȦȞ ȝȠȡijȠȜȠȖȚțȫȞ) ʌȠȣ
ʌĮȡĮIJȘȡİȓIJĮȚ ıİ ıȣȞșȒțİȢ țĮȜȜȚȑȡȖİȚĮȢ İȞIJİȓȞİȚ ʌİȡȚııȩIJİȡȠ IJȠ ʌȡȩȕȜȘȝĮ. Ǿ ʌĮȡĮʌȐȞȦ
įȚĮʌȓıIJȦıȘ İȖİȓȡİȚ ıȘȝĮȞIJȚțȐ İȡȦIJȒȝĮIJĮ ıȤİIJȚțȐ ȝİ IJȘȞ ȠȡșȒ «IJĮȣIJȩIJȘIJĮ» IJȦȞ İȚįȫȞ
ʌȠȣ țĮȜȜȚİȡȖȠȪȞIJĮȚ Ȓ ıȣȜȜȑȖȠȞIJĮȚ Įʌȩ ijȣıȚțȠȪȢ ȕȚȠIJȩʌȠȣȢ ȝİ ıțȠʌȩ IJȘȞ İȝʌȠȡȚțȒ IJȠȣȢ
İțȝİIJȐȜİȣıȘ ȦȢ ıȣȝʌȜȘȡȫȝĮIJĮ ȣȖȚİȚȞȒȢ įȚĮIJȡȠijȒȢ,İȞȫ IJĮȣIJȩȤȡȠȞĮ, IJȓșİIJĮȚ șȑȝĮ
ʌȠȚȩIJȘIJĮȢ (ʌ.Ȥ. įȚĮijȠȡİIJȚțȒ șȡİʌIJȚțȒ ĮȟȓĮ ȝİIJĮȟȪ IJȦȞ İȚįȫȞ) țĮȚ ĮıijȐȜİȚĮȢ (ʌ.Ȥ.
ʌĮȡȠȣıȓĮ ȕȚȠIJȠȟȚȞȫȞ) IJȦȞ ʌȡȠȧȩȞIJȦȞ ĮȣIJȫȞ.

ȂȠȡijȠȜȠȖȓĮ-ȉĮȟȚȞȩȝȘıȘ

ȉȠ IJĮȟȚȞȠȝȚțȩ ȩȞȠȝĮ «Spirulina» ȑȤİȚ ȤȡȘıȚȝȠʌȠȚȘșİȓ Įʌȩ IJȠ 1932 ȖȚĮ ȞĮ
įȘȜȫıİȚ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȒȡȚĮ ʌȠȣ ȝȠȡijȠȜȠȖȚțȐ İȝijĮȞȓȗȠȞIJĮȚ ȦȢ ʌȠȜȣțȪIJIJĮȡĮ ȝȘ
įȚĮțȜĮįȚıȝȑȞĮ IJȡȚȤȫȝĮIJĮ ȝİ ıʌİȚȡȠİȚįȒ ʌİȡȚȑȜȚȟȘ. ȉȠ ȖȑȞȠȢ Spirulina ĮʌȠIJȑȜİıİ ȖȚĮ
ȤȡȩȞȚĮ ıȘȝİȓȠ ĮȞIJȚʌĮȡȐșİıȘȢ ȝİIJĮȟȪ IJȦȞ IJĮȟȚȞȩȝȦȞ ȠȚ ȠʌȠȓȠȚ ȕĮıȚȗȩȝİȞȠȚ țȣȡȓȦȢ ıİ
ȝȠȡijȠȜȠȖȚțȐ įȚĮȖȞȦıIJȚțȐ ȖȞȦȡȓıȝĮIJĮ, İʌĮȞİȚȜȘȝȝȑȞĮ ĮȞĮșİȫȡȘıĮȞ IJĮȟȚȞȠȝȚțȐ IJȠ
ȖȑȞȠȢ. ȉĮ IJİȜİȣIJĮȓĮ ȤȡȩȞȚĮ, Ș ȤȡȒıȘ IJȘȢ ʌȠȜȣijĮıȚțȒȢ ʌȡȠıȑȖȖȚıȘȢ ıIJȘȞ IJĮȟȚȞȩȝȘıȘ
IJȦȞ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȓȦȞ Ș ȠʌȠȓĮ ıȣȞįȣȐȗİȚ ȝȠȡijȠȜȠȖȚțȐ, țȣIJIJĮȡȠȜȠȖȚțȐ, ȠȚțȠȜȠȖȚțȐ,
ȕȚȠȤȘȝȚțȐ țĮȚ ijȣȜȠȖİȞİIJȚțȐ ȖȞȦȡȓıȝĮIJĮ ȠįȒȖȘıİ ıIJȘ IJĮȟȚȞȠȝȚțȒ IJȠʌȠșȑIJȘıȘ IJȦȞ
țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȓȦȞ ȝİ IJȡȚȤȫȝĮIJĮ ıʌİȚȡȠİȚįȫȢ ıȣȞİıIJȡĮȝȝȑȞĮ ıİ įȪȠ įȚĮțȡȚIJȐ ȖȑȞȘ, IJĮ
Arthrospira țĮȚ Spirulina. īȚĮ IJȠ ȜȩȖȠ ĮȣIJȩ ʌȠȜȜȐ İȓįȘ ʌȠȣ ĮȞȒțĮȞ ıIJȠ ȖȑȞȠȢ Spirulina
ȩʌȦȢ ȖȚĮ ʌĮȡȐįİȚȖȝĮ IJĮ ıȘȝĮȞIJȚțȐ Įʌȩ ȠȚțȠȞȠȝȚțȒȢ ĮʌȩȥİȦȢ țĮȜȜȚİȡȖȠȪȝİȞĮ İȓįȘ
Spirulina maxima țĮȚ Spirulina platensis, ĮȞȒțȠȣȞ ȝİ IJȘ ȞȑĮ IJĮȟȚȞȠȝȚțȒ ʌȡȠıȑȖȖȚıȘ ıIJȠ
ȖȑȞȠȢ Arthrospira țĮȚ IJĮ ʌĮȡĮʌȐȞȦ İȓįȘ ȝİIJȠȞȠȝȐıIJȘțĮȞ ıİ Arthrospira maxima țĮȚ
Arthrospira platensis.
ȉĮ țȣȡȚȩIJİȡĮ įȚĮȖȞȦıIJȚțȐ ȖȞȦȡȓıȝĮIJĮ ȖȚĮ IJȠ įȚĮȤȦȡȚıȝȩ IJȦȞ ȖİȞȫȞ Arthrospira
țĮȚ Spirulina İȓȞĮȚ IJĮ ĮțȩȜȠȣșĮ: (1) ʌȜȐIJȠȢ IJȡȚȤȫȝĮIJȠȢ, (2) ĮȡȤȚIJİțIJȠȞȚțȒ IJȦȞ ıʌİȚȡȫȞ
IJȠȣ IJȡȚȤȫȝĮIJȠȢ, (3) ȠȡĮIJȐ (ȝİ ȠʌIJȚțȩ ȝȚțȡȠıțȩʌȚȠ) İȖțȐȡıȚĮ IJȠȚȤȫȝĮIJĮ IJȦȞ țȣIJIJȐȡȦȞ
IJȠȣ IJȡȚȤȫȝĮIJȠȢ, (4) țĮIJĮȞȠȝȒ IJȦȞ ʌȩȡȦȞ ıIJĮ țȣIJIJĮȡȚțȐ IJȠȚȤȫȝĮIJĮ, (5) IJȡȩʌȠȢ
țĮIJȐIJȝȘıȘȢ IJȦȞ IJȡȚȤȦȝȐIJȦȞ, (6) ʌĮȡȠȣıȓĮ ĮİȡȠIJȠʌȓȦȞ, (7) ʌȜĮȖțIJȚțȩȢ Ȓ ȕİȞșȚțȩȢ
IJȡȩʌȠȢ ȗȦȒȢ, (8) ȝȘȤĮȞȚıȝȩȢ ĮȞȠȟȣȖİȞȠȪȢ ijȦIJȠıȪȞșİıȘȢ, (9) ʌĮȡȠȣıȓĮ Ȗ-ȜȚȞȠȜİȞȚțȠȪ
ȠȟȑȠȢ, (10) ʌĮȡȠȣıȓĮ C-ijȣțȠİȡȣșȡȓȞȘȢ, (11) įȚĮijȠȡİIJȚțȒ ĮȜȜȘȜȠȣȤȓĮ IJȦȞ 16S rRNA
ȖȠȞȚįȓȦȞ. ȋĮȡĮțIJȘȡȚıIJȚțȩ İȓȞĮȚ ȩIJȚ ȠȡȚıȝȑȞĮ Įʌȩ IJĮ ʌĮȡĮʌȐȞȦ įȚĮȖȞȦıIJȚțȐ
ȖȞȦȡȓıȝĮIJĮ ȝİIJĮȕȐȜȜȠȞIJĮȚ ıİ ıȣȞșȒțİȢ țĮȜȜȚȑȡȖİȚĮȢ (ʌ.Ȥ. ĮʌȫȜİȚĮ IJȘȢ ıʌİȚȡȠİȚįȒȢ
įȠȝȒȢ IJȦȞ IJȡȚȤȦȝȐIJȦȞ), ȖİȖȠȞȩȢ ʌȠȣ țĮșȚıIJȐ IJȘȞ ȝȠȡȚĮțȒ ʌȡȠıȑȖȖȚıȘ (ĮȜȜȘȜȠȪȤȚıȘ
16S rRNA ȖȠȞȚįȓȦȞ) ʌȚȠ ĮȞIJȚțİȚȝİȞȚțȩ țȡȚIJȒȡȚȠ ȖȚĮ IJȘȞ ȠȡșȒ ĮȞĮȖȞȫȡȚıȘ IJȦȞ ȖİȞȫȞ.

ȈIJȠȚȤİȓĮ ijȣıȚȠȜȠȖȓĮȢ țĮȚ țĮȜȜȚȑȡȖİȚĮȢ

ȉĮ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȒȡȚĮ Arthrospira țĮȚ Spirulina İȓȞĮȚ ʌȡȠțĮȡȣȦIJȚțȠȓ ȠȡȖĮȞȚıȝȠȓ
ʌȠȣ įȚİȟȐȖȠȣȞ ȠȟȣȖİȞȒ (įȘȜ. ʌĮȡȐȖȠȣȞ ȠȟȣȖȩȞȠ) ijȦIJȠıȪȞșİıȘ ʌĮȡȩȝȠȚĮ ȝİ ĮȣIJȒ IJȦȞ
İȣțĮȡȣȦIJȚțȫȞ ijȣțȫȞ țĮȚ ĮȞȫIJİȡȦȞ ijȣIJȫȞ. ȅȚ țȪȡȚȠȚ ʌĮȡȐȖȠȞIJİȢ ʌȠȣ İʌȘȡİȐȗȠȣȞ IJȘȞ
ĮȪȟȘıȒ IJȠȣȢ İȓȞĮȚ Ș ȘȜȚĮțȒ ĮțIJȚȞȠȕȠȜȓĮ, Ș șİȡȝȠțȡĮıȓĮ, Ș ĮȜĮIJȩIJȘIJĮ, IJȠ pH, țĮȚ Ș
ıȣȖțȑȞIJȡȦıȘ IJȦȞ șȡİʌIJȚțȫȞ ĮȜȐIJȦȞ. ȈIJȘ ijȪıȘ ĮʌĮȞIJȫȞIJĮȚ ıȣȞȒșȦȢ ıİ ĮȜțĮȜȚțȑȢ,
İȪIJȡȠijİȢ țĮȚ ȝİ ȣȥȘȜȒ ĮȜĮIJȩIJȘIJĮ ȜȓȝȞİȢ. Ǿ ĮȪȟȘıȒ IJȠȣȢ İȣȞȠİȓIJĮȚ ıİ ȣȥȘȜȑȢ IJȚȝȑȢ
șİȡȝȠțȡĮıȓĮȢ.
Ǿ ȖȞȫıȘ IJȘȢ ijȣıȚȠȜȠȖȓĮȢ IJȦȞ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȓȦȞ ʌȠȣ țĮȜȜȚİȡȖȠȪȞIJĮȚ İȓȞĮȚ
ĮʌĮȡĮȓIJȘIJȘ țĮȚ ĮʌȠIJİȜİȓ, ȓıȦȢ, IJȘȞ țĮȜȪIJİȡȘ İȖȖȪȘıȘ ȖȚĮ IJȠȞ İʌȚIJȣȤȘȝȑȞȠ țĮȚ
ĮʌȠįȠIJȚțȩIJİȡȠ ıȤİįȚĮıȝȩ IJȠȣ ıȣıIJȒȝĮIJȠȢ țĮȜȜȚȑȡȖİȚȐȢ IJȠȣȢ. ǻİįȠȝȑȞȠȣ ȩIJȚ IJĮ
țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȒȡȚĮ ʌȑȡĮȞ IJȘȢ ȝȠȡijȠȜȠȖȓĮȢ IJȠȣȢ İȝijĮȞȓȗȠȣȞ țĮȚ įȚĮijȠȡȑȢ ıIJȘ șȡȑȥȘ, ıIJȘȞ
ȚțĮȞȩIJȘIJĮ ȤȡȘıȚȝȠʌȠȓȘıȘȢ IJȘȢ ȘȜȚĮțȒȢ İȞȑȡȖİȚĮȢ, ıIJȘȞ ĮȞİțIJȚțȩIJȘIJĮ ıİ ıȣȞșȒțİȢ
țĮIJĮʌȩȞȘıȘȢ (stress) țĮșȫȢ țĮȚ ıIJȘ ȤȘȝȚțȒ ıȪıIJĮıȘ (Ș ȠʌȠȓĮ İȝijĮȞȓȗİȚ įȚĮțȪȝĮȞıȘ
IJȩıȠ ȝİIJĮȟȪ İȚįȫȞ ȩıȠ țĮȚ ȝȑıĮ ıIJȠ İȓįȠȢ ȩIJĮȞ ĮȣIJȩ ĮȞĮʌIJȪııİIJĮȚ ıİ įȚĮijȠȡİIJȚțȑȢ
ıȣȞșȒțİȢ ʌİȡȚȕȐȜȜȠȞIJȠȢ), șĮ ʌȡȑʌİȚ ȑȞĮ ıȪıIJȘȝĮ țĮȜȜȚȑȡȖİȚĮȢ ȞĮ ıȤİįȚȐȗİIJĮȚ ȑIJıȚ ȫıIJİ
ȞĮ ʌȡȠıĮȡȝȩȗİIJĮȚ ıIJȚȢ ĮʌĮȚIJȒıİȚȢ IJȠȣ İțȐıIJȠIJİ ȠȡȖĮȞȚıȝȠȪ ʌȠȣ ʌȡȩțİȚIJĮȚ ȞĮ
țĮȜȜȚİȡȖȘșİȓ, ȝİ ıIJȩȤȠ IJȘȞ İʌȓIJİȣȟȘ ȣȥȘȜȒȢ ʌĮȡĮȖȦȖȒȢ ʌȠȚȠIJȚțȒȢ (Įʌȩ ȐʌȠȥȘ
șȡİʌIJȚțȒȢ ĮȟȓĮȢ) ȕȚȠȝȐȗĮȢ İȞȫ IJĮȣIJȩȤȡȠȞĮ ȞĮ ȑȤİȚ ȤĮȝȘȜȩ țȩıIJȠȢ țĮIJĮıțİȣȒȢ țĮȚ
ȜİȚIJȠȣȡȖȓĮȢ.
ȉĮ țȣȡȚȩIJİȡĮ İȝʌȠȡȚțȐ İȓįȘ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȓȦȞ ʌȠȣ ʌȡȠȠȡȓȗȠȞIJĮȚ ȦȢ
ıȣʌȜȘȡȫȝĮIJĮ ȣȖȚİȚȞȒȢ įȚĮIJȡȠijȒȢ İȓȞĮȚ IJĮ Arthrospira maxima țĮȚ Arthrospira platensis.
ȈȒȝİȡĮ IJĮ İȓįȘ ĮȣIJȐ țĮȜȜİȡȖȠȪȞIJĮȚ țȣȡȓȦȢ ıİ ȣʌĮȓșȡȚĮ ıȣıIJȒȝĮIJĮ ĮȜȜȐ țĮȚ ıİ țȜİȚıIJȐ
ıȣıIJȒȝĮIJĮ – ijȦIJȠȕȚȠĮȞIJȚįȡĮıIJȒȡİȢ. ǹȞȐȜȠȖĮ ȝİ IJȠ ıȪıIJȘȝĮ țĮȜȜȚȑȡȖİȚĮȢ ʌȠȣ
İʌȚȜȑȖİIJĮȚ ȣʌȐȡȤȠȣȞ ʌȜİȠȞİțIJȒȝĮIJĮ țĮȚ ȝİȚȠȞİțIJȒȝĮIJĮ. ȉȠ țȪȡȚȠ ʌȜİȠȞȑțIJȘȝĮ ıIJȘȞ
IJİȤȞȠȜȠȖȓĮ IJȦȞ ȣʌĮȓșȡȚȦȞ ıȣıIJȘȝȐIJȦȞ İȓȞĮȚ IJȠ ȤĮȝȘȜȩ țȩıIJȠȢ țĮIJĮıțİȣȒȢ țĮȚ
ȜİȚIJȠȣȡȖȓĮȢ IJȠȣȢ, ȦıIJȩıȠ ȝİȚȠȞİțIJȠȪȞ ȜȩȖȦ IJȠȣ țȚȞįȪȞȠȣ İʌȚȝȩȜȣȞıȘȢ IJȘȢ țĮȜȜȚȑȡȖİȚĮȢ
Įʌȩ ȐȜȜĮ ĮȞIJĮȖȦȞȚıIJȚțȐ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȒȡȚĮ Ȓ ȐȜȜȠȣȢ ȝȚțȡȠȠȡȖĮȞȚıȝȠȪȢ (ʌ.Ȥ. ȝȚțȡȠijȪțȘ,
ȝȪțȘIJİȢ, ȕĮțIJȒȡȚĮ țĮȚ ʌȡȦIJȩȗȦĮ), ȖİȖȠȞȩȢ ʌȠȣ ȣʌȠȕĮșȝȓȗİȚ IJȘȞ ʌȠȚȩIJȘIJĮ IJȘȢ
ʌĮȡĮȖȩȝİȞȘȢ ȕȚȠȝȐȗĮȢ. ȅ ijȦIJȠȕȚȠĮȞIJȚįȡĮıIJȒȡĮȢ ĮʌȠIJİȜİȓ ȑȞĮ ʌȚȠ ʌȡȠȘȖȝȑȞȠ ıȪıIJȘȝĮ
țĮȜȜȚȑȡȖİȚĮȢ ȩʌȠȣ ȠȚ ıȣȞșȒțİȢ ĮȪȟȘıȘȢ İȜȑȖȤȠȞIJĮȚ, Ș ʌĮȡĮȖȦȖȒ ȕȚȠȝȐȗĮȢ İȓȞĮȚ ʌȠȜȪ
ȣȥȘȜȒ, țĮȚ įİȞ İʌȚIJȡȑʌİȚ Ȓ ʌİȡȚȠȡȓȗİȚ ıȘȝĮȞIJȚțȐ, IJȘȞ ȐȝİıȘ ĮȞIJĮȜȜĮȖȒ ĮİȡȓȦȞ țĮȚ
ȝȠȜȣıȝĮIJȚțȫȞ ʌĮȡĮȖȩȞIJȦȞ (ıțȩȞȘ, ȝȚțȡȠȠȡȖĮȞȚıȝȠȓ, ț.Ȝʌ.) ȝİIJĮȟȪ IJȘȢ țĮȜȜȚȑȡȖİȚĮȢ
țĮȚ IJȠȣ İȟȦIJİȡȚțȠȪ ʌİȡȚȕȐȜȜȠȞIJȠȢ. ȍȢ İț IJȠȪIJȠȣ, ıIJȠȣȢ ijȦIJȠȕȚȠĮȞIJȚįȡĮıIJȒȡİȢ
įȚĮıijĮȜȓȗİIJĮȚ Ș ʌĮȡĮȖȦȖȒ ȕȚȠȝȐȗĮȢ ȣȥȘȜȒȢ șȡİʌIJȚțȒȢ ĮȟȓĮȢ IJȩıȠ Įʌȩ ʌȠȚȠIJȚțȒȢ ȩıȠ
țĮȚ ʌȠıȠIJȚțȒȢ ĮʌȩȥİȦȢ. ȉȠ țȪȡȚȠ ȝİȚȠȞȑțIJȘȝĮ ĮȣIJȠȪ IJȠȣ ıȣıIJȒȝĮIJȠȢ İȓȞĮȚ IJȠ ȣȥȘȜȩ
țȩıIJȠȢ țĮIJĮıțİȣȒȢ țĮȚ ȜİȚIJȠȣȡȖȓĮȢ IJȠȣ. ȆȑȡĮȞ IJȦȞ ıȣıIJȘȝȐIJȦȞ țĮȜȜȚȑȡȖİȚĮȢ, ıȣȜȜȠȖȒ
ȕȚȠȝȐȗĮȢ IJȦȞ Arthrospira maxima țĮȚ Arthrospira platensis ʌȡĮȖȝĮIJȠʌȠȚİȓIJĮȚ țĮȚ Įʌȩ
ijȣıȚțȑȢ ȜȓȝȞİȢ. ȈIJȘȞ ʌİȡȓʌIJȦıȘ ĮȣIJȒ ȣʌȐȡȤİȚ ȣȥȘȜȩȢ țȓȞįȣȞȠȢ ȖȚĮ IJȘȞ ʌȠȚȩIJȘIJĮ IJȦȞ
ʌȡȠȧȩȞIJȦȞ țĮȚ IJȘȞ ĮıijȐȜİȚĮ IJȦȞ țĮIJĮȞĮȜȦIJȫȞ įȚȩIJȚ ıİ ȑȞĮ ijȣıȚțȩ ʌȜȘșȣıȝȩ
ıȣȞȣʌȐȡȤȠȣȞ ʌȠȜȜȠȓ țĮȚ įȚĮijȠȡİIJȚțȠȓ ȝȚțȡȠȠȡȖĮȞȚıȝȠȓ țĮȚ ȦȢ İț IJȠȪIJȠȣ ĮʌĮȚIJİȓIJĮȚ
ıȣȤȞȒ țĮȚ İȞįİȜİȤȒȢ ʌĮȡĮțȠȜȠȪșȘıȘ.

ȅijȑȜȘ țĮȚ ʌĮȡİȞȑȡȖİȚİȢ Įʌȩ IJȘȞ țĮIJĮȞȐȜȦıȘ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȓȦȞ

ȊʌȐȡȤİȚ ȝȓĮ ʌȜȘșȫȡĮ İȡİȣȞȘIJȚțȫȞ İȡȖĮıȚȫȞ ʌȠȣ ȝȚȜȠȪȞ ȖȚĮ ȠijȑȜȘ ʌȠȣ
ʌȡȠțȪʌIJȠȣȞ Įʌȩ IJȘȞ țĮIJĮȞȐȜȦıȘ Arthrospira ȦȢ ıȣȝʌȜȒȡȦȝĮ ȣȖȚİȚȞȒȢ įȚĮIJȡȠijȒȢ.
ǻȚĮȚIJȘIJȚțȐ IJȠ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȒȡȚȠ Arthrospira ȤĮȡĮțIJȘȡȓȗİIJĮȚ Įʌȩ ȣȥȘȜȒ șȡİʌIJȚțȒ ĮȟȓĮ
įȚȩIJȚ Ș ʌİȡȚİțIJȚțȩIJȘIJȐ IJȠȣ ıİ ʌȡȦIJİȓȞİȢ İȓȞĮȚ ȣȥȘȜȒ (ȑȦȢ țĮȚ 65% IJȘȢ ȟȘȡȒȢ ȕȚȠȝȐȗĮȢ),
țĮȚ İʌȚʌȡȩıșİIJĮ İȓȞĮȚ ʌȜȠȪıȚȠ ıİ ʌȠȜȣĮțȩȡİıIJĮ ȜȚʌĮȡȐ ȠȟȑĮ (ʌ.Ȥ. Ȗ-ȜȚȞȠȜȚțȩ ȠȟȪ),
ijȚțȠȕȚȜȚʌȡȦIJİȧȞİȢ (ʌ.Ȥ. C-ijȣțȠțȣĮȞȓȞȘ), țĮȡȠIJİȞȠİȚįȒ (ʌ.Ȥ. ȕ-țĮȡȠIJȑȞȚȠ), ȕȚIJĮȝȓȞİȢ
(țȣȡȓȦȢ Ǻ
12
) țĮȚ ȝİIJĮȜȜȚțȐ ıIJȠȚȤİȓĮ.
ȉĮ IJİȜİȣIJĮȓĮ ȤȡȩȞȚĮ IJȠ İȞįȚĮijȑȡȠȞ ʌȠȜȜȫȞ İȡİȣȞȘIJȫȞ İıIJȚȐȗİIJĮȚ ıIJȘ ȕȚȠȜȠȖȚțȒ
įȡȐıȘ ȠȡȚıȝȑȞȦȞ ȝİIJĮȕȠȜȚIJȫȞ ʌȠȣ ʌĮȡȐȖȠȞIJĮȚ Įʌȩ IJȠ Arthrospira țĮȚ Įʌȩ IJĮ
țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȒȡȚĮ ȖİȞȚțȩIJİȡĮ. ǼȞįİȚțIJȚțȐ ĮȞĮijȑȡİIJĮȚ Ș ĮʌȠȝȩȞȦıȘ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȚĮțȫȞ
ȕȚȠįȡĮıIJȚțȫȞ İȞȫıİȦȞ ȝİ ıțȠʌȩ IJȘȞ ʌĮȡĮȖȦȖȒ ijĮȡȝȐțȦȞ ȝİ ĮȞIJȚȝȚțȡȠȕȚĮțȒ, ĮȞIJȚȚțȒ,
țĮȚ ĮȞIJȚȞİȠʌȜĮıȝĮIJȚțȒ įȡȐıȘ, țĮșȫȢ İʌȓıȘȢ țĮȚ Ș ȤȡȒıȘ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȚĮțȫȞ
ȝİIJĮȕȠȜȚIJȫȞ ıIJȘȞ ʌĮȡĮȖȦȖȒ țĮȜȜȣȞIJȚțȫȞ.
DzȞIJȠȞȘ ĮȞȘıȣȤȓĮ ʌĮȡȠȣıȚȐȗİȚ Ș įȚĮʌȓıIJȦıȘ ȩIJȚ ȑȞĮȢ ȝİȖȐȜȠȢ ĮȡȚșȝȩȢ İȚįȫȞ
țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȓȦȞ ȑȤİȚ IJȘȞ ȚțĮȞȩIJȘIJĮ ȞĮ ʌĮȡȐȖİȚ IJȠȟȓȞİȢ ȦȢ ʌȡȠȧȩȞIJĮ IJȠȣ ȝİIJĮȕȠȜȚıȝȠȪ
IJȠȣ (țȣȡȓȦȢ ȘʌĮIJȠIJȠȟȓȞİȢ țĮȚ ȞİȣȡȠIJȠȟȓȞİȢ). Ǿ ȑțșİıȘ ıIJĮ IJȠȟȚțȐ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȒȡȚĮ ȝȑıȦ
IJȘȢ țĮIJĮȞȐȜȦıȘȢ ʌȡȠȧȩȞIJȦȞ ȣȖȚİȚȞȒȢ įȚĮIJȡȠijȒȢ ĮʌȠIJİȜİȓ țȪȡȚĮ ĮȞȘıȣȤȓĮ ȖȚĮ IJȘȞ ȣȖİȓĮ
IJȠȣ ĮȞșȡȫʌȠȣ ȩıȠȞ ĮijȠȡȐ IJȩıȠ ıİ ȠȟİȓİȢ (IJȠȟȓȞȦıȘ, șȐȞĮIJȠȢ) ȩıȠ țĮȚ ıİ ȤȡȩȞȚİȢ
İʌȚʌIJȫıİȚȢ (țĮȡțȚȞȠȖȑȞİıȘ). ȆȡȩıijĮIJȘ ȑȡİȣȞĮ ʌȠȣ ȑȖȚȞİ ıİ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȚĮțȐ ʌȡȠȧȩȞIJĮ
ȝİ IJȠ ȩȞȠȝĮ «Spirulina» ʌȠȣ țȣțȜȠijȠȡȠȪıĮȞ ıIJȘȞ ĮıȚĮIJȚțȒ ĮȖȠȡȐ ȑįİȚȟİ ȩIJȚ IJȠ 94%
IJȦȞ ıțİȣĮıȝȐIJȦȞ ʌİȡȚİȓȤĮȞ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȚĮțȑȢ ȘʌĮIJȠIJȠȟȓȞİȢ, İȞȫ ȑȞĮ șĮȞĮIJȘijȩȡȠ
İʌİȚıȩįȚȠ ʌȠȣ ȑȤİȚ ĮȞĮijİȡșİȓ țĮȚ ıȣȞįȑİIJĮȚ ȝİ IJȘȞ țĮIJĮȞȐȜȦıȘ «Spirulina», ıȣȞȑȕȘ
ıIJȘȞ ȀȡȒIJȘ. ǿįȚĮȓIJİȡȘȢ ĮȞȘıȣȤȓĮȢ İȓȞĮȚ Ș ıȣȞİȤȒȢ ıȣııȫȡİȣıȘ įİįȠȝȑȞȦȞ ʌȠȣ
ȣʌȠįİȚțȞȪȠȣȞ ȩIJȚ ȕȚȠȝȐȗĮ Arthrospira ʌȠȣ ʌĮȡȐȖİIJĮȚ ıİ ĮȞȠȚțIJȐ ıȣıIJȒȝĮIJĮ Ȓ
ıȣȜȜȑȖİIJĮȚ Įʌȩ ijȣıȚțȐ ıȣıIJȒȝĮIJĮ ʌİȡȚȑȤİȚ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȚĮțȑȢ IJȠȟȓȞİȢ. ȉȠ ȖİȖȠȞȩȢ ĮȣIJȩ
ĮʌȠįȓįİIJĮȚ țȣȡȓȦȢ ıIJȘȞ ȝȩȜȣȞıȘ IJȘȢ țĮȜȜȚȑȡȖİȚĮȢ Įʌȩ ȐȜȜĮ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȒȡȚĮ ʌȠȣ
ʌĮȡȐȖȠȣȞ IJȠȟȓȞİȢ (ʌ.Ȥ. İȓįȘ IJȠȣ ȖȑȞȠȣȢ Microcystis) țĮȚ ȩȤȚ ıIJȠ ȓįȚȠ IJȠ Arthrospira,
ȦıIJȩıȠ İȓįȘ Arthrospira ȑȤȠȣȞ İȞȠȤȠʌȠȚȘșİȓ ȖȚĮ IJȠ șȐȞĮIJȠ ʌIJȘȞȫȞ ıİ ijȣıȚțȑȢ ȜȓȝȞİȢ
IJȘȢ ǹijȡȚțȒȢ.
ǼȓȞĮȚ ȖȞȦıIJȩ ȩIJȚ ıİ ȑȞĮ ʌȜȘșȣıȝȩ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȓȦȞ (İȓIJİ ĮȣIJȩȢ ĮȞĮʌIJȪııİIJĮȚ ıİ
ȑȞĮ ijȣıȚțȩ ıȪıIJȘȝĮ İȓIJİ țĮȜȜȚİȡȖİȓIJĮȚ ıİ ıȣȞșȒțİȢ țĮȜȜȚȑȡȖİȚĮȢ) ȝʌȠȡİȓ ȞĮ
ıȣȞȣʌȐȡȤȠȣȞ IJȠȟȚțȐ țĮȚ ȝȘ IJȠȟȚțȐ ıIJİȜȑȤȘ țĮȚ țȐIJȦ Įʌȩ ȠȡȚıȝȑȞİȢ ıȣȞșȒțİȢ ȞĮ
ȝİIJĮȕȐȜȜİIJĮȚ Ș ıȪȞșİıȘ IJȦȞ IJȠȟȚțȫȞ țĮȚ ȝȘ IJȠȟȚțȫȞ ıIJİȜİȤȫȞ ȝȑıĮ ıIJȠȞ ʌȜȘșȣıȝȩ Ȓ
țĮȚ ȞĮ ȝİIJĮȕȐȜȜİIJĮȚ Ș ıȣțȑȞIJȡȦıȘ IJȦȞ IJȠȟȚȞȫȞ İȞIJȩȢ IJȠȣ țȣIJIJȐȡȠȣ. ǼʌȓıȘȢ ȑȞĮ
țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȒȡȚȠ ȝʌȠȡİȓ ȞĮ ʌĮȡȐȖİȚ Ȓ ȩȤȚ IJȠȟȓȞİȢ țȐIJȦ Įʌȩ ȠȡȚıȝȑȞİȢ ıȣȞșȒțİȢ. Ǿ
įȚȐțȡȚıȘ İȞȩȢ IJȠȟȚțȠȪ Įʌȩ ȑȞĮ ȝȘ IJȠȟȚțȩ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȒȡȚȠ įİȞ ȝʌȠȡİȓ ȞĮ ȖȓȞİȚ ȝİ
ȝȚțȡȠıțȠʌȚțȒ ʌĮȡĮIJȒȡȘıȘ ĮȜȜȐ ȝȠȞȐȤĮ ȝİIJȐ Įʌȩ ĮʌȠȝȩȞȦıȒ IJȠȣ ıİ ȝȠȞȠțĮȜȜȚȑȡȖİȚĮ
țĮȚ IJȘȞ İʌĮțȩȜȠȣșȘ ȤȘȝȚțȒ Ȓ ȝİ ȕȚȠįȠțȚȝȑȢ ĮȞȓȤȞİȣıȘ IJȘȢ IJȠȟȓȞȘȢ Ȓ IJȦȞ IJȠȟȚȞȫȞ IJȠȣ.
ȍıIJȩıȠ, Ș İʌȚȕİȕĮȓȦıȘ IJȘȢ «ĮșȦȩIJȘIJĮȢ» İȞȩȢ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȓȠȣ ĮȞĮijȠȡȚțȐ ȝİ IJȘȞ
ʌĮȡĮȖȦȖȒ IJȠȟȚȞȫȞ İʌȑȡȤİIJĮȚ ȝȩȞȠȞ ȝİIJȐ Įʌȩ ȝȠȡȚĮțȒ ĮȞȐȜȣıȘ țĮȚ İʌȚȕİȕĮȓȦıȘ IJȘȢ
ĮʌȠȣıȓĮȢ IJȦȞ ȖȠȞȚįȓȦȞ ȣʌİȪșȣȞȦȞ ȖȚĮ IJȘȞ ʌĮȡĮȖȦȖȒ IJȠȟȚȞȫȞ. ȅȚ ʌĮȡĮʌȐȞȦ
įȚĮʌȚıIJȫıİȚȢ İȖİȓȡȠȣȞ ıȘȝĮȞIJȚțȐ İȡȦIJȒȝĮIJĮ ıȤİIJȚțȐ ȝİ IJȘȞ ʌȠȚȩIJȘIJĮ țĮȚ ĮıijȐȜİȚĮ IJȦȞ
țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȚĮțȫȞ ʌȡȠȧȩȞIJȦȞ țĮȚ ȖȚĮ IJȠ ȜȩȖȠ ĮȣIJȩ ʌȠȜȜȑȢ ȤȫȡİȢ ȑȤȠȣȞ ȒįȘ
ʌȡȠȤȦȡȒıİȚ ıIJȠȞ IJĮțIJȚțȩ ȑȜİȖȤȠ IJȦȞ țȣĮȞȠIJȠȟȚȞȫȞ ıİ țȣĮȞȠȕĮțIJȘȡȚĮțȐ ʌȡȠȧȩȞIJĮ
ȣȖȚİȚȞȒȢ įȚĮIJȡȠijȒȢ țĮȚ ȑȤȠȣȞ ȣȚȠșİIJȒıİȚ ĮȞȫIJĮIJĮ ȩȡȚĮ ıȣȖțȑȞIJȡȦıȘȢ ȖȚĮ IJȘȞ ĮıijĮȜȒ
țĮIJĮȞȐȜȦıȒ IJȠȣȢ.
ǺȚȕȜȚȠȖȡĮijȚțȑȢ ʌȘȖȑȢ

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