Russia, Supercourse and bioterrorism preparedness

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Feb 20, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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History of Biological
Warfare
-

Globally


1925

Geneva Protocol


1972

Biological Weapons




Convention

»
signed by 103 nations


1975

Geneva Conventions




Ratified

PROTOCOL FOR THE PROHIBITION OF
THE USE IN WAR OF ASPHYXIATING,
POISONOUS OR OTHER GASES, AND OF
BACTERIOLOGICAL METHODS OF
WARFARE


Opened for signature: 17 June
1925, entered into force: 8
February 1928


Geneva Protocol

ПРОТОКОЛ О ЗАПРЕЩЕНИИ
ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ НА ВОЙНЕ УДУШАЮЩИХ,
ЯДОВИТЫХ ИЛИ ДРУГИХ ПОДОБНЫХ
ГАЗОВ И

БАКТЕРИОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ
СРЕДСТВ


Женева, 17 июня 1925 года


Biological Weapons
Convention

Convention on the Prohibition of the
Development, Production and Stockpiling of

Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons
and on Their Destruction

Signed at Washington, London, and Moscow
April 10, 1972

Joint Statement by President George W. Bush and
President Vladimir on Cooperation Against Bioterrorism


November 13, 2001

At Shanghai, we resolved to enhance cooperation in
combating new terrorist threats, including those involving
weapons of mass destruction.

We agree that, as a key element of our cooperation to
counter the threat of terrorist use of biological materials,
officials and experts of the United States and Russia will
work together on means for countering the threat of
bioterrorism, now faced by all nations, and on related
health measures, including preventive ones, treatment and
possible consequence management.


What role can Russia play in

Combating
Infectious Diseases And Bioterrorism Threats


The threat of biological weapons and their use
in bioterrorism have increased. At the same
time there are huge improvements in the
knowledge of infectious diseases. How do we
contain the threat of biological warfare (BW)
and bioterrorism and continue to make
progress in eliminating and treating infectious
diseases?


S.V. Netesov, L.S. Sandakhchiev, VECTOR, Novosibirsk

In the past 20 years, more than 30 previously
unknown infectious agents have been identified.


They causing such diseases as AIDS, hemorrhagic
fevers, antibiotic resistant bacterial strains, hepatitis C,
etc.,

A significant part of these infectious diseases
result from the ability of microorganisms to mutate
and adapt to humans and their medical treatment
environment of medical prophylaxes and treatments.
These properties, combined with increasing human
mobility and migration and the increasing number of
people with suppressed immunity, and several other
factors, make the emergence of new diseases and
variants more likely.


Biological Warfare Nonproliferation
and Threat Reduction


The issues of nonproliferation and threat
reduction of biological weapons based on
infectious agents are different from other weapons
of mass destruction (WMD).

We believe that the major nonproliferation and
threat reduction efforts should focus on already
working with emerging pathogens research
centers, which might present a source of expertise
for potential bioterrorists.

Russia’s Role in Infectious Disease
Research and International Cooperation


Russia has great potential in the area of infectious
disease research, as well as in development and
manufacture of therapeutic and prophylactic
preparations at facilities of the Russian Ministry of
Public Health, those of BIOPREPARAT and of local
public health establishments. Two large State Research
Centers of the Russian Ministry of Public Health


for
Applied Microbiology

(Obolensk, European region)
and Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR

(Koltsovo,
eastern region)


were involved in biological defense
programs of the former Soviet Union before 1990.


VECTOR


The State Research Center of
Virology and Biotechnology
VECTOR, operated by the
Russian Ministry of Public
Health, is a large research
and production complex,
whose primary activities are
focused on basic and applied
research in the theoretical
virology, molecular biology,
virology, immunology,
aerobiology, epidemiology,
and biotechnology. VECTOR
also develops and
manufactures preventive,
therapeutical and diagnostic
preparations.

VECTOR is one of two scientific and experimental facilities
in Russia mainly
focusing on virus infection research
. The
State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Russian
Ministry of Public Health (Obolensk, Moscow Oblast), is a
similar scientific and experimental center, involved in
bacterial infections research. VECTOR and Obolensk are
the only institutions in both Russia and the rest of the CIS
countries in which studies of highly dangerous pathogens
can be done at an up
-
to
-
date level.

VECTOR


VECTOR’s research and production
facilities amount to more than 250,000
m2 on over 8,000 hectares (19,768
acres). The research and experimental
facilities at VECTOR are equipped for
up
-
to
-
date scientific work with highly
pathogenic human and animal viruses,
under conditions of complete biosafety
.
Several buildings meet special
biosafety requirements for high
containment facilities (BSL 2, 3, and
4): an air
-
tight external perimeter,
negative pressure in the working zone,
complete sterilization (liquid, and
solid) or reliable filtration (air) of all
types of discharge.

VECTOR


The research and technical
staff of the Center are highly
qualified personnel,
specializing in the field of
genetic engineering, molecular
biology, virology, theoretical
virology, immunology,
epidemiology, and ecology. The
staff has extensive experience in
highly dangerous viruses
research and in production of
diagnostic and prophylactic
preparations for public health
and veterinary needs.


VECTOR


The Collection of Cultures of
Microorganisms in VECTOR
contains over
10,000

deposit
entries: various viral strains,
including the national collection
of variola virus strains

and
strains of BSL
-
4 viral pathogens;
recombinant viral strains; strains
of microorganisms, including
producer strains. The Collection
received international recognition
in 1995 when it was affiliated with
the European Culture Collection
Organization (ECCO).

VECTOR


VECTOR also houses one of the
two WHO Collaborating Centers
for orthopoxvirus diagnosis and
repository for variola virus
strains and their DNA.

The other
WHO Collaborating Center for
smallpox and other poxvirus
infections is at the CDC in
Atlanta, USA. As a WHO
Collaborating Center, VECTOR
preserves and studies the Russian
collection of variola virus isolates.
The research collaboration
between these two Centers is
promising in terms of basic
science and confidence building.

VECTOR


VECTOR’s Breeding and
Holding Facility for
laboratory animals, which
includes one of only two
monkey breeding facilities
operating in Russia, is used
for testing therapeutic and
diagnostic preparations.
Facilities for the
performance of preclinical
and clinical trials of new
medicinal preparations are
available at VECTOR.

VECTOR


Possible research at the proposed
International Center

could focus on
arboviruses, including tick
-
borne
encephalitis virus that is endemic in
Russia; HFRS virus, Omsk
hemorrhagic fever virus


both endemic
in Siberia; filoviruses: Marburg and
Ebola; orthopoxviruses: smallpox virus,
monkeypox, and cowpox viruses;
viruses causing hepatitis A, B, C;
paramyxoviruses, rabdoviruses,
influenza viruses, etc. This list of
viruses could be extended by bacteria
and parasites, such as tuberculosis,
which is increasing sharply now in
Russia, and opisthorchiasis


human
parasitic disease affecting the liver. The
latter is endemic in Siberia, too.


The aims of the Federal Center of
Hygiene and Epidemiology



Sanitary and Epidemiological measures
in case of situation with the outbreaks of
infectious diseases or during disasters;



Statistical monitoring for control of
infectious diseases at the federal level,
reporting;

The structure of the Federal Center
of Hygiene and Epidemiology


Disaster
department



Epidemiological
department



Laboratory
services

The period until 1991


Life expectancy (both sexes)


32
43
59
47
63
47
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
1900
1938
Russia
France
USA
The period until 1991


Life expectancy in 1965

64,3
73,4
74,7
66,8
73,7
67,3
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Men
Women
Russia
France
USA
The health care principles upon which
the Soviet health care system was to
be based (Nikolai Semashko):



government responsibility for health



universal access to free services



a preventive approach to “social
diseases”



quality professional care



a close relation between science and
medical practice



continuity of care between health
promotion, treatment and rehabilitation.


Next steps following the
establishment of the “Semashko”
model in 1918



The health care system was under the
centralized control of the state, which
financed

services by general government revenues as
part of national social and economic
development plans.


All health care personnel became employees of
the centralized state, which paid salaries and
provided supplies to all medical institutions.


The main policy orientation throughout this
period was
to increase numbers of hospital
beds and medical personnel
.

Next steps following the
establishment of the “Semashko”
model in 1918 (cont.)



Russia made massive strides in arresting the
spread of infectious diseases.


Drastic epidemic control measures were
implemented, particularly in the cases of
tuberculosis, typhoid fever, typhus, malaria and
cholera
.


These involved community prevention approaches,
routine check
-
ups,
improvements in urban
sanitation and hygiene
, quarantines, etc.


Health crisis


The diverging paths of Russia and other
industrialized nations with respect to
health status from the 1960s onward
has been attributed to the
failure of the
Russian health care system to
successfully respond to the
epidemiological transition.


The leading causes of death
in the Russia Federation


Cardiovascular diseases with rates that are
the highest in the European Region.



External causes of injury and poisoning



Cancer

CVD

Injury

Cancer

Average
for 1999
-
2001


Source: New York Department of Health

Source: New York Department of Health

WHY was prophylaxis with Ciprofloxacin extended to 60 days?

BECAUSE in Sverdlovsk cases appeared more than 40 days
after exposure, and because of data from animal experiments

More on Sverdlovsk


Lidia Tretyakova looks at the tombstone of her father, Lazar
Karsayev, at a cemetery in Yekaterinburg, Russia, Thursday, Oct.
18, 2001. A mysterious outbreak of anthrax killed at least 68
people, including Karsayev, 22 years ago in the Russian industrial
center of Sverdlovsk, today known as Yekaterinburg. At the time,
neither the victims nor their families suspected they had been hit by
a biological weapon
.

(AP Photo/Alexei Vladykin)


Laboratory workers at the Sverdlovsk regional epedemiological
service put on the special suits they wear when working with
anthrax and other dangerous bacteria in Yekaterinburg,
Russia, Wednesday, Oct. 17, 2001

1. Establish an Expert Task Force
2. Establish FSU Disaster network
3. Build Disaster Data and Lecture Bank
4. Establish a system for JIT Networks, Data and Lectures
FSU Epidemiologic Disaster Network
Terrorism


Is an unlawful act of violence



Intimidates governments or societies



Goal is to achieve political, religious or
ideological objectives


Arthur H. Garrison

Prevention of Terrorism


Primary prevention:


Education!!!


Understand the differences in cultures,
religions, beliefs and human behaviors


Think of the peace, freedom and equality
of all human beings, not just “my group
of people”


Eliminate the root of terrorism


Prevention of Terrorism


Secondary prevention:


Establish surveillance and monitoring
system on terrorism attack


Improve protective system for citizens

Prevention of Terrorism


Tertiary prevention


Early detection of the sources


Prevent the extension of impairments


Rescue the survivors


Console the rest of the population


Proportion of death from terrorism
in total death in the United States

0.12

2404624

2893

2001

0.0003

2534203

8

1990’s

Proportion
(%)

From all
causes

From
terrorism

Average
death per
year

Risk of Dying

One in 50,000,000


Terrorism attack in 1990’s

One in 10,000,000

Hit by lightning

One in 100,000

Terrorism attack in 2001

One in 100,000

Homicide

One in 25,000

Playing soccer

One in 8,000

Road accident

One in 850

All natural causes age 40

One in 200

Smoking 10 cigarettes a day

Penguin Books, 1987

Death Rate of Various Causes in
2000 USA and that from Terrorism

One in 50,000,000

Terrorism in 1990’s

One in 100,000

Terrorism in 2001

One in 20,000

Homicide*

One in 10,000

Suicide*

One in 4,000

Diabetes*

One in 3,000

Accidents *

One in 2,000

Cerebrovascular diseases*

One in 500

Cancer *

One in 400

Heart disease*

Why did terrorism draw
considerable attention in 2001?


The risk of dying from terrorism was
extremely low in 1990’s, and was still
relatively low compared with some
diseases in 2001


But the death rate increased by 500 times
in 2001 due to Sept. 11


Overall the death rate of terrorism has
not been high


Despite the low risk, shock, surprise and
fear engulfed the United States and world

Conclusion


Terrorism is unlawful act


Terrorism has a long history of being used
to achieve political, religious and ideological
objectives


Terrorism can be conducted through
firearms, explosive devices and biological,
chemical, nuclear materials


Even through the events of 2001, the risk of
dying from terrorism has remained much
lower than that from motor vehicles,
smoking, and alcoholic beverage
.