Introduction to Microbiology

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Feb 20, 2013 (4 years and 7 months ago)

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Introduction

to
Microbiology

Microbiology


Study of microscopic (living ) things


E.g.


viruses, bacteria, algae, protists, fungi

History of Microbiology


1590


First compound light microscope



Zacharias Janssen

History


1676

first observation of bacteria




“animalcules”


Anton Von Leeuwenhoek

History


1796


First vaccine (smallpox)



Edward Jenner

History


1857


Germ Theory of Disease




Louis Pasteur

History


1867 Antiseptic Surgery




Joseph Lister

History


1884 Koch’s Postulates of



Disease Transmission




Robert Koch

History


1885
-

Vaccine against





Rabies




Louis Pasteur

History


1929 Discovery of Penicillin






(first antibiotic)





Alexander Fleming

History


1938


First Electron
Microscope



The electron microscope is capable of
magnifying biological specimens up
to one million times. These computer
enhanced images of 1. smallpox, 2.
herpes simplex, and 3. mumps are
magnified, respectively, 150,000,
150,000 and 90,000 times.


History

1953 Structure of DNA Revealed






Watson & Crick

History

1954 Polio Vaccine




Jonas Salk

Recent History


Genetic engineering


Cloning


Human Genome Project


Biotechnology


Who knows what is next?



Sizes of Microbes


Virus
-

10
→1000 nanometers *


Bacteria
-

0.1 → 5 micrometers **


(Human eye ) can see .1 mm (1 x 10
-
3

m)


* One billionth or 1 x 10
-
9

m

** One millionth or 1 x 10
-
6

m

Tools of Microbiology


Compound light Microscope


-

live specimens

-

1,000 mag. or less


Electron Microscope


-

non
-
living specimens


-

> 1,000 X mag.


Incubator


keep microbes warm for
growth



Techniques of
Microbiology


Staining


to better see structures


Microbial Culture
-

growing the wee


beasties


Container for microbe culture


-

usually Petri dish


Culture media


-

Food for the microbes


-

E.g. Agar


(from red algae)

-

Others such as nutrient broths




Pure Culture Techniques


1.
Inoculation

2.
Isolation

3.
Identification