Environmental Engineering Microbiology

breadloafvariousBiotechnology

Feb 20, 2013 (4 years and 3 months ago)

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Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology


Wang Guo
-
hui


School of Enviromental Sciences and
engineering , Zhongshan University


Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

1.1 TEACHING AND STUDY TECHNIQUE

1.2
MICROORGANISM AND
MICROBIOLOGY

1.3 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY

1.4 PURPOSE AND ORGANIZATION OF THIS TEXT

Outline

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

What’s the arrangement
for the teaching?

How to use your textbook?

1.1 Teaching and Learning Methods

1.1 Teaching and Study Technique

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

Arrangement


Lectures


(
54 hours
)


Laboratory practices


(
30 hours
)
Next term

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

A very effective study technique to you


survey

Question


Read

Revise

Record

Review

SQ4R Technique

To continue

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology



Survey


獣慮




Briefly scan the chapter to become
familiar with its general content.

The survey should give you a feel for the
topic and how the chapter is approaching
it(
内容是怎样展开的
⤮)

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology


Question


As you reach each main heading or
subheading, try to compose an important
question or two that you believe the section
will answer. This habit facilitates active
reading and learning.

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology


Read


Carefully read the section. Read to
understand concepts and major points,
and try to find the answer to your
preview questions.


Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology


Revise
(
修改
)

After reading the section, revise your
questions to more accurately reflect the
section's contents.


Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology


Record


Underline the information in the text that answers
your questions. This process will give you good
material to use in preparing for exams.

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology


Review
(复习)


Review the information by trying to answer
your questions without looking at the text.
You will retain much more if you review the
material several times.


Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

1.2.1 What is microbe?


“microorganism” = micro + organism

The word microbe (microorganism) is used to

describe an organism that is so small that,

normally, it cannot be seen without the use of a

microscope.


1.2
MICROORGANISM AND
MICROBIOLOGY

Organism


any living biological entity, such as an animal, plant, fungus, or bacterium

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology


The word microorganism is used to
describe Bacteria ,Archaea
(古菌)

Fungi,
Algae


Protista and Viruses

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

1.2.2 The main groups



Noncellular orgnism
:

virus, viroid and prion



C e l l u l a r o r g n i s m:

E u k a r y o t e

晵 湧 潩 f


慬 条 a

灲 潴 潺 潡

偲 潫 慲 祯 a e

扡 捴 b 物 r

慣 瑩 湯 浹 捥 瑥

c 祡 湯 扡 捴 敲 楡

a n d a r c h a e ba c t e r i a



C y a n (
青色的
)

捥汬 潲条湥o汥


Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology


Microbial world

Organisms

(living)

Infectious agents

(non
-
living)

Prokaryotes
(unicellular)

eukaryotes

viruses

viroids

prions

Eubacteria

Archaea

Algae
(unicellular
or
multicellular)

Fungi
(unicellular
or
multicellular)

Protozoa
(unicellular)

Other
(multicellular
organisms)

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

Most of the bacteria, protozoa, and fungi are
single
-
celled microorganisms, and even the
multicelled microbes do not have a great range of
cell types. Viruses are not even cells.

1.2.3 The cell type of microbes


Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

1.2.4 The size of microbes


Microbe

Approximate range of
sizes


Cell type


Viruses


0.01
-
0.25
nm


Acellular


Bacteria


0.1
-
10
µm


Prokaryote


Fungi


2
µm
-
1m


Eukaryote


Protozoa


2
-
1000
µm


Eukaryote


Algae


1
µm
-
several
µm
s


Eukaryote

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

Microbes
impinge on

all aspects of life,
just a few of these are listed below:

The environment

Medicine

Food

Biotechnology

Research

1.2.5 The importance of microbiology

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

1.
Microbes are responsible for the geochemical
cycles.



2.They are found in association with plants in symbiotic
relationships. Some microbes are devastating plant
pathogens, but others may act as biological control agents
against diseases.

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

3.The disease
-
causing ability of some microbes is well
known. However, microorganisms have also provided us
with the means of their control in the form of antibiotics and
other medically important drugs.

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

4.Microbes have been used to produce food, from
brewing and wine making, through cheese
production and bread making, to the manufacture
of soy sauce. But microbes are also responsible
for
food spoilage(
腐败


Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

5.Traditionally microbes have been used to
synthesize important chemicals
.

6.The advent of genetic engineering techniques
has led to the cloning of polypeptides into
microbes.

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

1.2.6 Branches of
Microbiology

Bacteriology

Protozoology

Parasitology

Microbial Morphology

Mycology

Virology

Phycology

or Algology

Microbial physiology

Microbial taxonomy

Microbial genetics

Molecular biology

Microbial ecology

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

Microbiology
Basic
microbiology
A
pplied

microbiology
According to
biological

problem
of study
According to
object of
study
According to
applied field
According to
applied
technique
microbial
taxonomy
microbial

cytology
microbial
biochemistry
microbial genetics
microbial
physiology
microbial ecology
immunology
virology
bacteriology
fungus
phycology
protozoology
food microbiology
industrial microbiology
environmental
microbiology
microbial medicine
pathogenic
microorganism
agricultural
microbiology
medical microbiology
brewage

technique
fermentation engineering
biological products
Micro
biologic test
environment

bioengineering
genetic engineering
enzyme engineering
antibiotics
Microbiological research area and branch

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

1.2.7 The characteristics of
microorganism

1


䵩捲潳M潰oc



2


楮摥灥湤敮琠畮楴e


3


汥獳⁣l浰汥砠


4


牡r楤i杲潷瑨⁲g瑥猠


Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

1.2.8 The position in life world

原生生物界

植物界

真菌界

动物界

细菌域

古生菌域

真核生物域

a

The categorizing system of biological

five kindoms


原生生物界

植物界

真菌界

动物界

细菌域

古生菌域

真核生物域

b

Fungi kingdom

Prokaryote kingdom

Protista kindom

Plant kingdom

Animal kingdom

Bacteria domains

Common ancester

Archaea domains

Eukaryote domains

The categorizing system of three
domains

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

1.2.9 Category

The systemic taxa of mocroorganisms follow the systemic taxa built by
Linnaeus

楮捬畤楮朠獥癥渠杲慤敳e晲潭o瑯瀠瑯 扯瑴潭:


Kingdom


Phylum


Class


Order


Family


Genus


Species


There are more than ten grades in the systemic taxa altogether, because each
grade, if needed, could sub
-
divide some auxiliary units

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

All species names of cellular microorganisms obey the Latin
binominal nomenclature built by Linnaeus

椮攮‬⁡⁦潲浡i
獰散s敳e湡浥n楳⁢畩i琠異⁢礠䱡瑩渠L潲摳

慮搠楴 獨潵汤s扥b
italic(
斜体
⤮)

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

According to binomial nomenclature(
系统命名法
⤬ 愠
景牭慬⁳灥p楥猠湡浥⁩猠捯c獩獴†潦s愠来湵a慭攠
慮a⁡⁡摤楮朠w潲搠潦⁡o獰s捩敳⸠湡浥牳n潦o敮e扥b
慤a敤⁡晴敲e瑨敭t⁢畴u浥牳⁣潵汤⁢攠潭楴瑥搠
来g敲慬ey.

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology


e. g.


Escherichia coli


Aspergillus flavus


Schizosaccharomyces pombe


Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

A formal name could be omitted often, when a species
name is present repeatedly in a paper or works.




e.g.
Escherichia coli


䔮⁣潬椠



Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

Environmental microbiology interfaces with a number of
different subspecialties(
附属专业
⤬)楮捬畤楮朠獯楬Ⱐ慱畡瑩aⱡ湤,
慥a潭o捲潢楯o潧oⰠ慳⁷敬e⁡猠扩潲敭敤楡e楯測iw慴ar 煵慬楴yⰠ
潣捵灡瑩潮慬o桥慬h栠慮搠楮i散e楯渠捯湴c潬ⱦ潯搠獡s整eⰠ慮搠
楮摵獴i楡i 浩捲潢楯o潧礠⡆(朮gㄮㄩ1

1. 3 Environmental Microbiologys


Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology


What happened in the 1970s to
cause
(催动了)

瑨楳敷⁦楥汤t
of microbiology to develop.

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

1.
Emergence of a series of new waterborne,

Table 1.1

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

Rotavirus (
轮状病毒
)

䱥杩潮敬污
(团菌)

Escherichia coli
0157:H7
(大肠埃希
氏杆菌
0157:H7


Hepatitis E virus

E
型肝炎病毒)

䍲祰瑯獰潲楤極C
(隐孢子虫)

Calicivirus
(嵌杯病毒)

Helicobacter pylori(
幽门
)

䍹C汯獰潲l

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

2. Surface water and groundwater supplies
(地下水源)
慲攠晲敱略湴汹 捯湴慭楮慴敤e
w楴i 潲条湩挠慮搠楮i牧慮楣i捨敭楣慬献

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

Chemical contami
nants that are routinely found in
soil and groundwater
, Table 1.2.


Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

3.
the discovery of the structure of DNA in
1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick
engendered
(使得)

瑨攠摥te汯灭p湴n潦o湥w
technologies for measuring and analyzing
microbes.

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

4.Successful use of bioremediation to clean a
contaminated site.

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

Bioremediation

楮瑲潤o捴c潮o潦o捲潯牧慮楳浳o

(Table 1.4).

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

The use of introduced microbes can

result in
(


)
significant
benefits
(效益)
.

Although
genetically engineered

microbes (GEMs)
can be very
efficient, their

intentional

release is currently restricted because of

safety
concerns.

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

(1)

Basic microbiological concepts;

(2)

Description of the various

microorganisms

in the
field;

(3) A discussion of methodologies available for
detection, enumeration, and identification of microbes
and their activities

Summary

Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

(4) How
microorganisms

affect cycling of nutrients
as well as how they can be exploited to help solve
environmental problems;



Wang Guohui
wgh126@126.com

Chapter 1

Introduction to

Environmental

Microbiology

Thank you!