Biological Safety - Jkinc.biz

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Feb 20, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

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OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL
HYGIENE


UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON



DOWNTOWN CAMPUS

OCTOBER 2012

BIOLOGICAL SAFETY


Discipline

of

Biosafety

grew

out

of

research

involving

biological

warfare

agents

at

Fort

Detrick

in

Frederick,

MD
.

The

Chemical

Warfare

Service

was

established

by

the

US

Army

in

1941

and

the

National

Academy

of

Science

formed

a

biological

warfare

committee

in

1942
.

Microbiologists

from

ASM

served

as

advisors
.



Fort

Detrick

Biological

Defense

Research

Program

formed

the

framework

for

the

discipline

of

biosafety
.

BIOLOGICAL SAFETY


The

responsibility

of

the

biosafety

professional,

infection

control

practitioner,

or

hospital

epidemiologist

again

shifts

to

include

the

task

of

assessing

the

need

for

appropriate

containment

for

patients
.



OSHA

Bloodborne

Pathogens

(
1991
)

developed

as

a

result

of

HIV

in

the

1980
s,

Hepatitis

B

infection,

etc
..


The

biosafety

professional

uses

similar

practices

to

define

and

control

workplace

hazards

re

IH
.

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION


Microorganisms

are

a

diverse

group

of

microscopic

organisms

that

includes

bacteria,

fungi,

algae,

protozoa,

viruses,

and

prions
.

Pathogenic

or

disease
-
producing

are

a

small

portion

of

total

microbials
.

Also,

fungi

produce

spores

and

mycotoxins
.

Other

biological

agents

such

as

pollen,

mites,

urine

proteins,

animal

dander,

and

snake

venoms

broaden

the

scope

of

biological

hazards

to

consider
.


MICROORGANISMS


-

Prokaryotes



organisms

in

which

DNA

is

not

physically

separated

from

the

cytoplasm
;

small

size

(around

1

um

in

diameter)

and

absence

of

a

nuclear

membrane
.


-

Eukaryotes



organisms

containing

a

membrane
-
bound

nucleus
;

larger

and

contain

a

membrane
-
bound

nucleus

and

organelles

such

as

mitochondria
.



-

Four

major

groups

of

eukaryotes

are

algae,

protozoa,

fungi,

and

slime

molds
.



-

Viruses



totally

dependent

on

hosts

for

replication
;

smallest

infectious

agents
.


-

Viroids

and

Prions

INFECTION


Infection

is

a

general

term

applied

to

the

entry

and

development

of

multiplication

of

an

infectious

agent
.



Further

defined

as

an

invasion

of

the

body

by

pathogenic

microorganisms

and

the

reaction

of

the

tissues

to

their

presence

and

to

the

toxins

generated
.



Normal

flora

can

take

advantage

of

a

lowering

of

host

immunity

to

produce

an

infectious

disease
.



Infectious

disease

is

not

always

the

end

result

of

exposure

to

and

colonization

by

an

infectious

agent
;

depends

on

the

virulence

of

the

agent,

the

route

of

infection,

and

the

relative

immunity

and

health

of

the

host
.


EPIDEMIOLOGY


Potential

for

work
-
associated

infection
.



Epidemiology

methods

provide

the

tools

to

evaluate

the

extent

and

nature

of

worker

exposure
.

Defining

the

event

or

illness/infection,

determining

the

population

at

risk,

establishing

the

factors

affecting

exposure,

and

developing

intervention

controls

are

all

part

of

the

process

to

prevent

occurrence

or

recurrence

of

infections
.



Sulkin

and

Pike
;

4
K+

infections

with

168

deaths
.

10

most

frequently

reported

agents

or

diseases

for

lab
-
acquired

infections
:

brucellosis,

Q

fever,

hepatitis,

typhold

fever,

tularemia,

TB,

etc
.;

routes



percutaneous

inoculation
;

aerosol

inhalation
;

mucous

membrane

contact
;

ingestion
.

WORKPLACES


-

Agricultural

environments

and

processing

facilities
;



-

Microbiology,

public

health,

clinical

labs
;


-

Hospital

and

Health

Care

facilities
;


-

Biotechnology

facilities
;


-

Animal

facilities

and

veterinary

practices
;

and,



-

Miscellaneous
.


RISK ASSESSMENT


Modes of
Transmission


Routes of Entry


Infectious Dose


Agent Viability and
Virulence


Host Susceptibility


Other Factors

BIOSAFETY CONTAINMENT


-

CDC/NIH

Guidelines

for

Microbiological

and

Biomedical

Laboratories
.


Risk

management

is

achieved

through

use

of

practices,

facilities,

and

equipment

specified

in

defined

biosafety

containment

levels
.

Biosafety

practices

are

an

important

part

of

a

program

to

manage

the

risk

of

exposure

to

potentially

infectious

agents
.



-

NIH

Guidelines

for

Research

involving

Recombinant

DNA

Molecules
.

BIOSAFETY CONTAINMENT
LEVELS


-

Biosafety

Level

1

(BSL
-
1
)



work

with

defined

and

well
-
characterized

strains

of

viable

microorganisms

of

no

known

or

of

minimal

potential

hazard

to

lab

personnel

or

the

environment
.



-

Biosafety

Level

2

(BSL
-
2
)



work

with

many

moderate
-
risk

agents

present

in

the

community

(indigenous)

and

associated

with

human

disease

of

varying

degrees

of

severity
.



e
.
g
.

clinical,

diagnostic,

teaching,

and

other

research

facilities

with

individual

level

of

competency



BIOSAFETY CONTAINMENT
LEVELS


-

Biosafety

Level

3

(BSL
-
3
)



work

with

indigenous

or

exotic

agents

where

the

potential

for

infection

by

aerosols

is

real

and

the

disease

may

have

serious

or

lethal

consequences
.



e
.
g
.

clinical

diagnostic

microbiology

work

when

TB

or

brucellosis

is

suspected,

etc
.



-

Biosafety

Level

4

(BSL
-
4
)



work

with

dangerous

and

exotic

agents

that

pose

a

high

individual

risk

of

life
-
threatening

disease
.

Agents

have

a

low

infectious

dose

and

poses

a

danger

for

the

community

from

person
-
to
-
person

spread
.



e
.
g
.

stringent

requirements

such

as

a

Class

III

BSC,

etc
.




HAZARD CONTROL


Containment


Facility Design


Safety Equipment

-

BSCs (Class I, II, III)


Work Practices


Decontamination

BIOSAFETY PROGRAM
MANAGEMENT


Program Support


Biosafety Specialist


Institutional Biosafety
Committee


Biosafety Manual


Occupational Health Program


Information and Education

TOPICS IN BIOSAFETY


Bloodborne Pathogens


Hepatitis B and C Viruses


HIV


Tuberculosis


Bioterrorism


Legionellosis


Occupational Health Program


BRI vs. SBS