Collaboration, Leadership, Control, and Conflict Negotiation ...

bravesnailsSoftware and s/w Development

Jun 7, 2012 (5 years and 2 months ago)

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1
Collaboration, Leadership, Control, and Conflict Negotiation in the
Netbeans.org
Open Source Software Development Community
Chris Jensen and Walt Scacchi
Institute for Software Research
Donald Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences
University of California, Irvine
Irvine, CA, USA 92697-3425
{cjensen, wscacchi}@ics.uci.edu
Abstract
Large
open
source
software
development
communities
are
quickly
learning
that,
to
be
successful,
they
must
integrate
efforts
not
only
among
the
organizations
investing
developers
within
the
community
and
unaffiliated
volunteer
contributors,
but
also
negotiate
relationships
with
external
groups
hoping
to
sway
the
social
and
technical
direction
of
the
community
and
its
products.
Leadership
and
control
sharing
across
organizations
and
individuals
in
and
between
communities
are
common
sources
of
conflict.
Such
conflict
often
leads
to
breakdowns
in
collaboration.
This
paper
seeks
to
explore
the
negotiation
of
these
conflicts,
collaborative
efforts,
and
leadership
and
control
structures
in
the Netbeans.org community.
Keywords
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Much of the development work that occurs in an
open source software project centers around the
creation, update, and other actions (e.g., copy,
move, delete) applied to a variety of software
development artifacts. These artifacts serve as
coordination mechanisms [Schmidt and Simone
1996, Simone and Mark 1999], in that they help
participants communicate, document, and
otherwise make sense of what the emerging
2
software system is suppose to do, how it should
be or was accomplished, who did what, what went
wrong before, how to fix it, and so forth.
Furthermore, within a project community these
artifacts help coordinate local, project-specific
development activities, whereas between multiple
project communities, these artifacts emerge as
boundary objects [Star 1990] through which inter-
community activities and relations are negotiated
and revised. The artifacts may take the form of
text messages posted to a project discussion list,
Web pages, source code directories and files, site
maps, and more, and they are employed as the
primary media through which software
requirements and design are expressed. These
“software informalisms” [Scacchi 2002] are
especially important as coordination mechanisms
in OSSD projects since participants generally are
not co-located, they do not meet face-to-face, and
authority and expertise relationships among
participants is up for grabs.
The NetBeans IDE is intended to support the
development of Web-compatible Java
applications. In the context of the NetBeans.org
project and its role within a larger Web-
compatible information infrastructure, additional
artifacts come into play within and across
projects. These include the content transfer
protocols like the HyperText Transfer Protocol
(http) which are systematically specified in
Internet standards like RFC documents, as well as
more narrowly focused communication state
controllers associated with remote procedure calls
(or remote method invocations). They also
include shared data description formats like the
HyperText Markup Language (html) and the
eXtensible Markup Language (XML), as well as
client-side or server-side data processing scripts
(e.g., CGI routines). Such descriptions may be
further interpreted to enable externally developed
modules to serve as application/module plug-ins,
which enable secondary or embedded applications
to be associated with an OSS system. Other
artifacts are brought in from other OSSD projects
to serve as project support tools, such as those
used to record and store system defect (bug)
reports (Issuzilla), email list managers, and even
large comprehensive collaborative software
development environments and project portals,
like SourceCast [
Augustin, Bressler, and Smith
2002]. Finally, OSSD projects may share both
static and operational artifacts in the course of
collaborating or cooperating through mutually
intelligible and interoperable development
processes, which might take an explicit form like
the Java Community Process (JCP), or an implicit
and embedded form such as that which emerges
from use of project repositories whose contents
are shared and synchronized through tools that
control and track alternative versions (CVS), bug
reports, or Web site content updates.
Accordingly, in order to explore where issues of
collaboration, leadership, control and conflict may
arise within or across related OSSD projects, then
one place to look to see such issues is in how
project participants create, update, exchange,
debate, and make sense of the software
informalisms that are employed to coordinate
their development activities. This is the approach
taken here in exploring the issues both within the
NetBeans.org project community, as well as
across the (fr)agile ecosystem [Highsmith 2002]
of inter-related OSSD projects that situate
NetBeans.org within a Web information
infrastructure.

3
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6
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.
4
.
1
.

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8
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4
.
2
.

L
e
a
d
e
r
s
h
i
p

a
n
d

C
o
n
t
r
o
l
OSSD
generally
embrace
the
notion
of
choice
between
software
products
to
build
or
use.
At
the
same
time,
developers
in
any
community
seek
success
for
their
community,
which
translates
to
market share.
In some cases, communities developing
alternative
tools
do
so
in
peaceful
coexistence,
even
collaboratively.
In
other
cases,
there
is
a
greater
sense
of
competition
between
rivals.
NetBeans
and
its
chief
competitor
Eclipse
(backed
largely
by
IBM)
fall
into
the
latter
category.
Eclipse
has
enjoyed
some
favor
from
users
due
to
performance
and
usability
issues
of
NetBeans,
as
well
as
IBM's
significant
marketing
and
development
resource
contributions.
Yet,
they
have
a
willingness
to
consider
collaborative
efforts
to
satisfy
demands
for
a
single,
unified
IDE
for
the
Java
language
that
would
serve
as
a
platform
for
building
Java
development
tools
and
a
formidable
competitor
to
Microsoft's
.NET.
Ultimately,
the
union
was
defeated,
largely
due
to
technical
and
organizational
differences
between
Sun
and
IBM
1
0
, including the inability or


9
h
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t
p
:
/
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3
2
9
5
9
9
1
1
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http://www.adtmag.com/article.asp?id=8634
,
and
6
unwillingness
to
determine
how
to
integrate
the
architectures
and
code
bases
for
their
respective
user
interface
development
frameworks
(Swing
for NetBeans and SWT for Eclipse).
4
.
3
.

C
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s
)
.


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d
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r
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c
t
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o
n
.
5
.

D
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c
u
s
s
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n

a
n
d

C
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s
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n
G
e
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a
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l
y
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r

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p
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S
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p
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l
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d
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r
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h
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b
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n
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c
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t
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l
.
P
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the
National
Science
Foundation
#ITR-0083075
and
#ITR-0205679
and
#ITR-0205724.
No
endorsement
implied.
Contributors
to
work
described
in
this
paper
include
Mark
Ackerman
at
the
University
of
Michigan
Ann
Arbor;
Les
Gasser
at
the
University
of
Illinois,
Urbana-Champaign;
John
Noll
at
Santa
Clara
University;
and
Margaret
Elliott at the UCI Institute for Software Research.
7
.


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e
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9
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8
Figure 1. A rich picture view of the roles (labeled icons), concerns (clouds), and activities
(hyperlinked text) found in the intra-community context of NetBeans.org
[cf. Oza,
et al
, 2002].
9
Figure 2. An overview of the inter-community ecosystem for NetBeans.org