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Nov 17, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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By Denise Ogden

Biotechnology

Using Biometrics in online learning systems

By Denise Ogden

Problem


Because of the growing popularity of online learning, there is
an increased need for online universities to find ways to
authenticate student identity.


There is a need to know whether or not the student enrolled
is the one actually doing the work.


Biotemetrics is needed to authenticate student identity in
online learning systems.

Is the goal of online learning institutions to educate
those who are enrolled or to simply make money?

Research



Ph. D. student, Pranab Mohanty (2007) study focused on using a
mantle for hand or face recognition.


Levy & Ramim (2008) focused on learner’s response to
multibiometric systems.


Pons & Polack (2008) focused on potential future users of
biometrics who have the choice between using and not using
biometrics.

Research

Lead Thinkers: Government Officials


Researchers work closely with government officials in
developing high tech biotechnology devices.


Evidence of biotechnology is seen in airports, some
intersections, and mostly in crime solving.


Apple products that uses a form of biometric technology

These devices prove that use of biometric technology is not as costly and difficult to use
as they once were. Would it be to much to ask that online learning universities employ
biometric technology to ensure student authentication?

Development


Biometric technology not fully used by online learning
systems.


Hearsay, Blackboard uses some form of biometric
technology, but research has not confirmed this.


One potential problem with use of biometric software is
compromising users’ privacy.

Cost of Development



of implementation must be considered: How much


will it for universities to install a biometric
device on learning platforms? Will the costs outweigh the
benefits?


Commercialization


Production

development of device that is conducive to an
online platform learning system; pilot test, applied research


Manufacture

university funded


Marketing, packaging, and distribution will depend on the
success of the product. In addition, online learning
universities will need to determine the importance of
authenticating students’ identities.

Innovation
-
Decision Process of
Biotechnology

Knowledge Stage


Biologists studied organisms and cells



Increase of understanding of organisms and cells led to control of
the their many functions



Computer Scientists used a form of biotechnology, called
biometrics for recognition of eyes, hands, fingers, faces, and
body movement

Persuasion Stage



Terrorism

















DNA



Face Recognition



Body movement



Signature



Voice Recognition



Hand or palm geometry



Eye scan



Fingerprints

Decision Stage

1905
--

the U.S. Army put fingerprints to use.


Within the next three years, the U.S. Navy started, and
was joined by the Marine Corp.

During the next 25 years more and more
law enforcement agencies join in the

use of fingerprints as a means of personal
identification

Decision Stage

Most Popular Form of Biometric is use of fingerprints

Explanation of Previous Diagram


Finger touches the silicon sensor, pattern of ridges and
valleys is determined by the capacitance at any point
during cycle of charging and discharging the capacitor
array.


The data are scanned at 500 dots per inch, converted to
digital form,


A map of unique finger characteristics is created on the
basis of minutia detection.



This map is then compared with a data bank of known
prints.

Implementation Stage


Forensics use Fingerprint DNA


Home Security Systems


Surveillance cameras in schools, workplace, airports, traffic
lights,


CCTV to fight crime


Webcams for social networking and education


Banks

Blink!



A biometric technology


using complex algorithms

to enhance the security of
computer use.


Log onto computer using face
-
recognition


Journaling account logins helps identify hijacked accounts
and can determine who logged in using stolen credentials.


Enables users
to add safe
access in
folders and
secure access
to Windows
logon.


O2Face

will recognize
your presence and
provide access as long
as you face the camera
directly. In addition,
O2Face provides
several other modules,
including Live Detection,
Leave Detection, Face
Sense, SSO for
websites, etc.

Confirmation Stage


Using surveillance cameras in airports was first seen as an
invasion of privacy



Face recognition devices are controversial regarding minors;
therefore the education system has to make some decisions

Word of Mouth, usually by innovators

Research Journals

Commercials

Channels of Communication

Education

BIOMETRICS

The S
-
Curve of Biometrics

Computer Scientists use
biotechnology, coining it:

2011

Early 1980’s

Fingerprints

Face Recognition

Voice Recognition

Hand or palm geometry

Eye Scan

Signature Dynamics








Innovators
-

Brave people, pulling the
change

very important to
communication

Early Adopters
-

Respectable people,
opinion leaders
-

Try out new ideas,

but in a careful way

Early Majority
-

Thoughtful people,
careful
-

accepting change more

quickly than the average


Late Majority
-

Skeptic people

-

Will use new ideas or products

only when the majority is using it


Laggards
-

Traditional people, caring for
the 'old ways'
-

Critical towards new ideas
and will only accept it if the new idea has
become mainstream or even tradition




Explanation of Rate


The rate of biometric use is growing due to the government’s
need to stop terrorism.



Another reason for the increase growth is the low cost of
computers and other software to produce biometric devices.



In terms of using biometrics for distance learning, the cheapest,
yet most full
-
proof solution is a fingerprint device

Biometrics in the Future


Growing and controversial field


Civil liberties groups concern over privacy and identity
issues.


Biometric laws and regulations are in process and biometric
industry standards are being tested.


Face recognition biometrics not reached the prevalent level
of fingerprinting


B/C of constant technological pushes & the threat of
terrorism, researchers and biometric developers will hone
this security technology for the twenty
-
first century.


Distance Learning & Future Use of
Biometrics


Regional accreditors state they will not stress the use of
authentication technologies.


Online & distance learning universities are required to use, at
minimum, a secure login and pass code or proctored exam
and, as they become available and widely accepted, new
identification technologies and practices.


When biological technology becomes further
advanced, human beings as we know them, will
become a modified species. If we as human
beings fail to include the possibility of this
development in our overall, social evolution we
will witness the decline of our species”
-
Jacque
Fresco The Best that Money Can’t buy, Beyond
Politics, Poverty, and War.

Quote on future use of
biometrics

Innovators/Early Adopters


The innovators and early adopters of biometrics are
government agencies and computer scientists.


Some strategies to get online universities to adopt biometrics
for authentication may include trialability, relative advantage,
and compatibility.

Laggards


Laggards

feel that using biometric software is a an

Invasion of

Privacy



Observability and trialability are related to the rate of
adoption (Rogers, 2003);

Attributes

All are necessary to diffuse biometrics to the
mass of online universities.

Centralized

Use of
Biometrics

Acxiom®
Corporation and
Blackboard^" Inc

FLHEA

SCHEA

GAHEA

Change Agent

Adopters

Innovation

Most likely key change agents for biometric
technology b/c of their collaboration on
securing online learning activities in the past.

Key Change Agents

KEY CHANGE AGENTS

Critical Mass met in Society


Critical mass has not been reached in distance learning
environments.


Recommend: Incentives for early adoption is free service for a
year to a piloted distance learning institute.

Championship


U. S. Department of Education mandate


For accreditation, all institutions of distance learning and higher
education need to improve on student authenticity.



Is the goal of online learning institutions to educate
those who are enrolled or to simply make money?

Are you a champion for the use of
biometric technology for student
authentication?

References

Levy, Y. & Ramim, M.M. (2009). Initial Development of a Learners'
Ratified Acceptance of Multibiometrics Intentions Model.
Interdisciplinary Journal of E
-
Learning and Learning Objects.

McNabb, L. (2010). An update on student authentication:
Implementation in context.
Continuing Higher Education Review,
74. Retrieved from ProQuest database.


References

Mohaunty, P. (2007).
Learning from biometric distances: Performance and
security related issues in face recognition systems
(Doctoral
dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest database.

Pons, A. & Polak, P. (September 2008). Understanding user
perspectives on biometric technology.
Communications of ACM,
51(9). DOI:10.1145/1378727.1389971

Rogers, E. M. (2003).
Diffusion of Innovations

(5
th

ed). New York, NY:
Free Press.