Linux Basics

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Dec 9, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Linux

Basics

What is an Operating System (OS)?


An Operating System (OS)
is an interface between
hardware and user which
is responsible for the
management and
coordination of activities
and the sharing of the
resources of the computer
that acts as a host for
computing applications
run on the machine.

What is an Operating System (OS)?


An Operating System is a
computer program that
manages the resources
of a computer. It accepts
keyboard or mouse
inputs from users and
displays the results of the
actions and allows the
user to run applications,
or communicate with
other computers via
networked connections.

Functions Of Operating System

Today most operating systems perform the following important functions:



1. Processor management, that is, assignment of processor to different
tasks being performed by the computer system.


2. Memory management, that is, allocation of main memory and other
storage areas to the system programs as well as user programs and
data.


3. Input/output management, that is, co
-
ordination and assignment of the
different output and input device while one or more programs are being
executed.


4. File management, that is, the storage of file of various storage
devices to another. It also allows all files to be easily changed and
modified through the use of text editors or some other files manipulation
routines.



……

Common Operating Systems

The primary operating systems in use are Windows
(Windows 98, XP, Vista, 7), Macintosh OS X, the many
versions of Linux and Unix. DOS is still used for some
applications, and there are many other special
-
purpose
operating systems

(Embedded Linux).


What is Linux?


The GNU operating system is a complete free software system, upward
-
compatible with Unix. GNU stands for “GNU's Not Unix”.
Richard Stallman

made the
Initial Announcement

of the GNU Project in September 1983. A
longer version called the
GNU Manifesto

was published in September 1985.
It has been translated into several
other languages
.



Linux is an
operating system

that was initially created as a hobby by a
young student, Linus Torvalds, at the University of Helsinki in Finland. Linus
had an interest in Minix, a small
UNIX system
, and decided to develop a
system that exceeded the Minix standards. He began his work in 1991
when he released version 0.02 and worked steadily until 1994 when version
1.0 of the Linux Kernel was released. The kernel, at the heart of all Linux
systems, is developed and released under the
GNU General Public License

and its source code is freely available to everyone. It is this kernel that
forms the base around which a
Linux operating system

is developed. There
are now literally hundreds of companies and organizations and an equal
number of individuals that have released their own versions of operating
systems based on the Linux kernel.




Richard Stallman,

father of the GNU Project


Linus displays Linux running on a
notebook pc


Linux Kernel


The Kernel is the heart of the Linux operating system,
responsible for controlling the computer’s resource and
scheduling user jobs so that each one gets its fair share
of the resources. Programs interact with the kernel
through special functions with well
-
known names, called
system calls.

The shell and other basic
Time
-
sharing utilities
The Linux
System kernel
Computer
hardware
Complier
Spreadsheet
Calculators
Inventory
Control
System
Formatters
Editors
Calendar
Systems
Mail and
Message
facilities
Interpreters
Database
Management
systems
Word
processors
The Linux Operating System
Different Distributions of Linux


Red Hat:
http://fedoraproject.org


CentOS :
http://www.centos.org/


Ubuntu:
http://www.ubuntu.com


Mandrake:
http://www.linux
-
mandrake.org


Debian:
http://www.debian.org


Knoppix:
http://www.knoppix.net/



CentOS

(
http://www.centos.org
)


Cent OS’s main advantage
over RedHat enterprise is
the fact that it is free.


Download:
http://mirror.centos.org/centos/5/isos/

or

http://mirror.centos.org/centos/6/isos/


Burn:
Roxio Creator or

Nero Burning ROM

How to Get CentOS


See Installation Guide
(
http://www.centos.org/docs/5/html
/5.2/Installation_Guide/
)


CentOS 5 Installation Process

(
http://www.ee.cuhk.edu.hk/~htlau
/CentOS5InstallationProcess.ppt
)


Installation


After installation, remember to
start the services (SSH, FTP,
Web, etc.) you want to run by
using System


Administration


Server Settings


Services


SSH and FTP: already started
Web: httpd



Start Services

Menu


Software Collection (Firefox, OpenOffice,
multimedia software, etc.)


Similar to Windows and quite easy to use


But Linux is mainly used to act as free (SSH,
Web, FTP, Email, etc.) server

Environment

Up already


Use terminal to try


Other computers can use SSH client to
connect to SSH server


SSH client can be downloaded from
https://www.cuhk.edu.hk/itsc/ssh/index2.html


SSH Server

Up already


Other computers can use Secure File
Transfer Client to connect and then upload
or download files



FTP Server

You may use other computers (Frontpage,
Dreamweaver, etc.) to create homepage
and then use FTP or USB drive to copy
the homepage files to /var/www/html/


Other computers use browsers to connect to
http://hostname

or http://IPAddress, e.g.,
http://137.189.35.222

Apache Web Server

The Linux Home Page at Linux Online
(
http://www.linux.org/
)


鳥哥的

Linux
私房菜

(
http://linux.vbird.org/
)


Google (use it to search useful information)


Basic UNIX commands
(
http://mally.stanford.edu/~sr/computing/basic
-
unix.html
)

Linux Documentation

The most useful documentation
(
http://www.centos.org/docs/5/html/5.2/De
ployment_Guide/
)


CentOS Documentation