on the Global Exploration Roadmap

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NASA Human Exploration Community Workshop
on the Global Exploration Roadmap


Summary to the FISO
Telecon

November 30, 2011

1

NASA/K.
Laurini

(kathy.laurini
-
1@nasa.gov)

NASA/R. Martinez (
roland.m.martinez@nasa.gov
)

Human Space Exploration Workshop on the GER


November
14


16,
2011, in San
Diego,
California


Workshop
Chair: Kathy
Laurini


Objectives of the workshop


Introduce the ISECG GER to the community, highlighting importance of
international cooperation and associated considerations


Begin the process of obtaining feedback from the community on the GER mission
scenarios: Asteroid Next, Moon Next


Discuss ideas which build on SLS and MPCV to enable exploration preparatory
activities and enable exploration missions represented in GER


Workshop timed to follow GER release in September


Community engagement before the ISECG meeting in January


Set
the stage for
the
IAF/AIAA Global Space Exploration Conference next May in
Washington, DC
.


Over 100 participants in San Diego, 630 unique webcast lines established

Human Exploration Community Workshop on the GER

2

Summary of Panel Discussion Topics


Panel 1: Asteroid Next


Availability of suitable asteroid targets


Potential value of early, small, man
-
tended infrastructure at EML1/2

-
Potentially interesting for both GER scenarios


Role of the astronaut at the asteroid, and is the Space Exploration Vehicle really
needed?


Robotic precursors were considered important


Phobos
/
Diemos

as asteroids


they are very hard missions to pull off


Panel 2: Moon Next


Re
-
usable Lander


ISRU


Importance of dissimilar redundancy/architecture robustness


Tele
-
presence opportunities provided by an infrastructure at EML1/2


Science prioritization


Commercial opportunities

3

Human Exploration Community Workshop on the GER

Summary of Panel Discussion Topics


Panel 3: Near
-
Term Implementation Ideas


Importance of planning a transition from ISS


L1/L2 infrastructure


ETM concepts and approach to defining requirements


Importance of using ISS


investing in realizing its potential

4

Human Exploration Community Workshop on the GER

Summary


NASA appreciated the participation of JAXA, CSA and ESA at the
workshop



Workshop presentations are available on the NASA website related to
ISECG matters


Workshop minutes will be posted in the next week or so



NASA will discuss the results of the workshop and identify topics to
discuss within ISECG in support of GER Iteration 2


Key objective for January ISECG Workshop in Montreal



Workshop set the stage for additional dialog at the IAF/AIAA Global
Exploration Conference in May



5

Human Exploration Community Workshop on the GER

Findings Across Panels


Lots of good data being generated by HAT and ISECG; desire to see more
of the data shared outside those communities


Our plans for the future shouldn’t abandon a capability along the way;
we need to consider/plan transition to others, such as commercial, to
continue advancing or using a capability when the focus of human
exploration moves on to the next destination.


Affordability needs to be a driver for any and all future planning
activities


Early alignment with scientific community objectives is important to any
path forward

6

Human Exploration Community Workshop on the GER

Panel 1 Observations


General Observations:


Human missions to Near
-
Earth Asteroids can serve as an analog for the
crew transits to and from Mars orbit and its moons


Proper testing and validation of systems is needed prior to human
missions which are truly beyond Earth’s grasp, such as NEA missions.


Humans exploration in
-
situ at the Near
-
Earth Asteroid improves the
mission return, such as specifically science, operations, repair, etc.


There is substantial value in having a robust target set. Additional
discovery of Near
-
Earth Asteroids prior to the human mission will
improve the number of potential targets.


Define the role of human spaceflight in planetary defense


7

Human Exploration Community Workshop on the GER

Panel 1 (Asteroid Next) Findings


Near
-
Earth Asteroid Discovery and Characterization:


Issue 1: Currently there are few known Near
-
Earth Asteroids with low delta
-
v which also
provide short mission duration


Issue 2: In order to reduce operational risk and maximize science, proper characterization
of potential asteroids is needed prior to the crew mission


Impact to the GER:

-
Earth
-
based observational opportunities should be considered a part of the GER to
increase discovery rate.

-
A prize based approach may also provide incentives to include more public
participation

-
A space
-
based survey mission would increase the discovery rate of NEAs and should
be considered part of the GER

-
The GER inclusion of robotic precursor missions increases the possibility of maximizing
the value of sending humans to a NEA


If direct contact of the NEA by the crew is required, additional in
-
situ robotic
precursor missions should be included in the GER to characterize multiple
NEAs prior to the human mission. Multiple are required to provide adequate
backup opportunities. The number of acceptable backups is future work.

-
Characterization pre
-
mission also enables better science (you know what type of
science instruments to take with the crew)

8

Human Exploration Community Workshop on the GER

Panel 1 (Asteroid Next) Findings


Near
-
Earth Asteroid Exploration by the Crew:


Issue 1: There were two uniquely different strategies provided for
exploration of the NEA with crew

-
Direct interaction by the crew


some suggested this maximizes
science return by being able to bring the crew directly to the field
with the ability to respond directly and quickly to the environment

-
Other approaches utilize
tele
-
robotic/
tele
-
presence exploration with
the crew remaining at a distance from the NEA

-
Combination of all of the above


Impact to the GER:

-
Begin further assessments of the destination activities and
capabilities required to effectively explore NEAs

9

Human Exploration Community Workshop on the GER

Panel 1 (Asteroid Next) Findings


Near
-
Earth Asteroid Mission Scope:


Mars is being used as the long
-
term goal for development of the GER


Issue 1: Constrained budget approaches tend to drive towards low
technology, short missions which are less Mars
-
centric.


Issue 2: There is a strong desire to deploy elements to L1/L2 to show
near
-
term progress.


Impact to the GER:

-
Suggest showing better linkages and growth path between near
-
term
missions in
cis
-
lunar space and eventual Mars missions.

-
Affordability is important. How can we structure the GER with fewer
elements or more commonality? (e.g. Orion and MMSEV commonality)

-
Need to better refine the interactions relationship NEA mission duration,
amount of advanced propulsion technology required and how that relates to
eventual Mars missions including mission duration.

-
Address differences between multiple low
-
technology NEA missions with
fewer crew versus larger crew with more technology

10

Human Exploration Community Workshop on the GER

Panel 1 (Asteroid Next) Findings


Strategic Pathway and Strategic Communication:


Issue 1: Better messaging is required to explain why humans should fly
to a Near
-
Earth Asteroid


Issue 2: Carrying two different strategic paths has value in the early
formulation phase (especially those areas where there is commonality),
but that strategy carried too long can be counter
-
productive. Mission
focus will eventually be required.


Impact to the GER:

-
Improve overall Near
-
Earth Asteroid message (Why NEAs? Why
humans? Why robots? How does it lead to Mars?)

-
Establish additional strategies associated with Mars exploration
which may include exploration of or from the moons of Mars.

11

Human Exploration Community Workshop on the GER

Panel 2 (Moon Next) Observations


General Observations:


There was convergence on L1/L2 based missions as achievable, affordable, and
applicable to a lunar scenario.


The Moon offers unique commercial promise compared to other destinations


Good exploration value, including science on the Moon


Good test bed for sustainability and long durations

12

Human Exploration Community Workshop on the GER

Panel 2 (Moon Next) Findings


Message


Improve overall Moon Next message (Why the Moon? Why
humans?Why

robots? How does it lead to Mars?) What type of commercial markets are
enabled? Short
-
term(10 yr) versus long
-
term (25 yr) strategy for the Moon?


And how do robotic and/or commercial endeavors fit those horizons?


Cost


Issue: Moon seems to be a location that we can get to early, affordably and is
extensible to deep space operations for many capabilities, but the surface
scenario as depicted is perceived as unaffordable


Impact to the GER:

-
Reevaluate the surface elements and their cost/necessity

Early opportunities


Issue: We need to accelerate ISS testing and first lunar missions


Impact to the GER:

-
Use assets on hand to do some early near
-
term missions

-
Assess L1/L2 missions as ways to accomplish early missions including
operating assets on the Moon (
tele
-
presence?)

13

Human Exploration Community Workshop on the GER

Panel 2 (Moon Next) Findings


Habitat at L1/L2


Should deployment of a habitat and L1/L2 be included in the GER?


ISRU


Consensus that ISRU was important and relevant. Is worthy of demonstration to
provide the data for further evaluation.


Consider being more explicit with respect to ISRU in the GER and how it will be
tested/proven


Alternate assets


Assess alternative/additional capabilities for programmatic resiliency, e.g.,
transportation, ground
-
based assessments of existing core samples

-
Smaller CPS

-
Reusable
landers

-
SEP for cargo

14

Human Exploration Community Workshop on the GER

Panel 3 (Near
-
Term Implementation, Strategies, and Plans)
Observations


General Observations:


Too few missions in the GER prior to 2025
-

Need to develop new missions (
i.e
,
E
-
M L1/L2) and show how they led to future exploration activities


Both GER scenarios should look to incorporate gateway at EM L1/L2


Economic challenges will persist

-
Focus on stakeholder values

-
Show benefit with what we have now

-
Strategy of prudence


focus on near
-
term achievability


Strong suite of key enabling capabilities exist today

-
First steps achievable with current and planned capabilities


Global leverage will take effort but will be key

15

Human Exploration Community Workshop on the GER

Panel 3 (Near
-
Term Implementation, Strategies, and Plans)
Findings


Recognize Stakeholder Value


Continued congressional support is not a given and it is important to have early
successes


Better define benefit of ideas to allow countries to obtain support


Large new starts are not reasonable, strategy needs to
focuson

affordability and near term achievements


Identified a first step for exploration that accommodates multiple future
paths


Converging on L1/L2 using existing assets is a good step


Develop objectives and requirements to help focus investments


Use our existing capabilities to help guide development


Accept non
-
optimum solutions with the realization that once we get


systems in space, we will find additional activities to perform


Limit sustainment and operational costs


there is a potential to get


stopped at location paying for operations



Make decision about basic capabilities at L1/L2


What high priority science and other exploration activities should be
accomplished at L1/L2


what are the implications to precursor missions

16

Human Exploration Community Workshop on the GER

Panel 3 (Near
-
Term Implementation, Strategies, and Plans)
Findings


Define a potential near
-
term strategy for using L1/L2 Gateway


Start as short term crew tended facility and evolve based on requirements


Need to utilize existing assets as much as possible including repurposing

-

ISS for testing

-

Existing ISS assets including transportation elements (both on orbit and on
ground)

-
SLS and Orion

-
Habitat, EVA capabilities.

-
Commercial elements


Need to take systematic approach in identifying and developing technologies.


Develop capabilities for moving assets from LEO to EM L1/L2.

17

Human Exploration Community Workshop on the GER

Panel 3 (Near
-
Term Implementation, Strategies, and Plans)
Next Steps


NASA to develop initial assessment of the strategy using an L1/L2
gateway


Need to differentiate between what we could be doing versus what we can do
from a cost, partnership and policy perspective


Share information with partners and stakeholders to collect their
interests and concerns

18

Human Exploration Community Workshop on the GER