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Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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The Affective
Loop

Kristina
Höök



Kristina Höök


Swedish Institute of Computer Science
www.sics.se


Professor in human
-
machine interaction
at the IT
-
university, Stockholm
University/KTH, www.dsv.su.se

Mostly hate?


Emotions do not hinder
rational thinking!


Emotions are the basis
for rational thinking


Emotions and
reasoning is based both
in the brain but also in
our bodies

Gestures & tangible
interaction


Laban:


Analysis of dance, factory
work, human movement


Certain body postures
and gestures ”encourage”
certain emotions


Ishii:


Tangible interaction,
embodied






Exertion:

Light

Strong

Fluent

Bound

Control:

Time:

Space:

Direct

Flexible

Sustained

Quick

Affective computing

Make computers:


Express emotions


Influence user emotions


Understand user emotions


Allow users to express emotions


”Have” emotions?



Express emotions

Facial expressions

Affective computing


Make computers:


Express emotions


Influence user emotions


Understand user emotions


Allow users to express emotions


”Have” emotions?




Influence user emotions

AIBOs


Affective computing

Make computers:


Express emotions


Influence user emotions


Understand user emotions


Allow users to express emotions


”Have” emotions?





Understand user emotions

Recognize emotions


Affective computing

Make computers:


Express emotions


Influence user emotions


Understand user emotions


Allow users to express emotions


”Have” emotions?






Allow users to express emotions

SenToy

Affective computing

Make computers:


Express emotions


Influence user emotions


Understand user emotions


Allow users to express emotions


”Have” emotions?







”Have” emotions?

Influencing Machine

Emotional in Florida?

John Thackara

A culture is surely in deep, if not terminal, crisis when engineers
start talking about the design of emotions. Now even Don
Norman is at it.

"In the past year I've been catching up on the scientific work in
emotion", he writes in the programme for an up
-
coming CHI
conference; "the result is a new theory of emotion, with
implications for the development of autonomous machines and
robots as well as to design".

Now Professor Norman is a great man, but this is both ridiculous
and....sad. To talk about putting emotions into products, in the
same way that Del Monte puts tomatoes into cans, is literally
meaningless. I will spell it out: emotion is a quality of
consciousness. Consciousness is something that people have,
and machines don't. It follows that the only "implication for
design" of emotion is: steer well clear of the subject, or risk
looking ridiculous.

The affective loop...


Inspired by Influencing Machine by
Phoebe Sengers & collegues and
SenToy by Ana Paiva & collegues


Emotions reside in and are
induced by both body and mind


Not recognise emotion as a one
-
step process


instead enter an
interaction? Needs strong narrative
(or context)

Influencing Machine

Phoebe Sengers & others


I
ntimate relationship between humans and
computational ‘beings’


C
hild
-
like drawings drawn in real time

project on the walls and music reflects the
agent’s emotional state


Users can send the agent postcards in a
mailbox


T
he postcard affects the agent’s emotional
state, which in turn changes the pictures
that are being drawn

and music played






Affective input

Mailbox

Affective expressions:


Complexity of shape


Pressure of pen


Colour


Speed


Shape


Size



....

Affective output:

childlike drawings &
music

Inspiration: kids’ drawings


The point?


To provoke our cultural notions of
whether a machine can ”have”
emotions and act on its own


(..but also to be charming)

The

enthusiastic quartet

”We might have influenced his
feelings, through holding up a
pink cards. Think of how a child
would react, sits there and
feels really sad and is thinking
about sad things, and then I
give him a pink card, and he
becomes happy, though he is
still somewhat cold, so I give
him a yellow card, so he
becomes warm.”

What they do

vs. what they say...

Video observation:


One of the women made an interesting
comment: she pointed at the computer
under the table with the table cloth, and
asked the man in the group whether this
computer was in fact connected to the
machine?

She meant that if it was connected, then
the Influencing Machine was just a
computer


not a machine in its own right.

It seems that to her a computer cannot be
what she perceives that the Influencing
Machine is. If it is a computer, it must be
predictable, not influenced by them.

Affective loop...?


No ”model” of users’ emotion


Tangible input


Interaction over a longer time span: 20


40 minutes

SAFIRA demo:

SenToy in FantasyA


A

role
-
playing game


A
gents in the game have emotional
states


To advance in the game, the user has
to understand the agents’ emotional
states, get magical tools, and fight
magical fights


The user has a plush toy
, SenToy,

with
sensors that s/he can use to direct
his/her character and express its
emotions

Affective input:

SenToy


...

(( ))

Surprise

Fear

Sad

Happy

Angry

...


Gloat

User

experience

Affective loop...?


No ”model” of users’ emotion


Tangible input


Gestures


induce emotional state through
body posture?


Make narrative in the game, avatar
expressions, and gesture input into a
coherent whole that captures the mind &
body


Interaction over a longer time span 30
minutes


2 hours


Affective loop?


The user expresses an emotion to a system
(intentionally, not true emotion)


The system computes an affective response making
sense in the application (be it a game, a narrative,
an e
-
commerce application, ...)


The response speaks to our senses and mind
(music or an activity in the game that induces a
state of stress or fear)


The user reacts affectively

New group at SU


Affective bandwidth


Gestures


Multimodal output


MMS

Narrative intelligence


Narrative context for emotions


Collaborative storytelling


Interactive storytelling with synthetic
characters

Centre of the Cassiandora square marketplace. A small, ivy
-
covered
milestone at your feet reads “Mercinae”.

-

goods

We have nothing to sell right now; please come back later.



sigh

You sigh heavily.



citizens

Allanon; Grim, the Alchemist; Mage Sparky, the Incandescent; Cinaed y
Llawen; Feanor.



tell cinaed excuse me, milord, but I cannot find any clothes in the
city stalls, and I’m freezing. Can you help?

You tell Cinaed y Llawen, “Excuse me milord, but I cannot find any
clothes in the city stalls, and I’m freezing. Can you help?”.



Cinaed y Llawen tells you, “Hmm, let me check the city stores. One
moment please…”.



Cinaed y Llawen tells you, “I’m afraid the city is very low on cotton
and wool at the moment, but I have put a simple robe in the clothing
stall for you <smile>”.



tell cinaed oh, that is all I need. My thanks for your aid, baron

You tell Cinaed y Llawen, “Oh, that is all I need. My thanks for your
aid, baron”.



buy robe

You buy a grey robe for 40gp.



wear robe

You are now wearing a grey robe. Cinaed y Llawen tells you, “Any time,
Feanor <smile>. Life be with you”.

MUD


Palace


Sam


Imagine a 3
-
D
animated character
who can pass multiple
toys back

and forth
through the seemingly
immutable boundary
of a projection

screen,
and thus tell stories
and share experiences
together with
a child.


Pirates (Göteborg!)


Research questions


Artistic freedom versus proper models


Models: appraisal versus discrete
emotions


Understanding user emotions from
body sensors?


New input/output modalities


Emotions as social constructs


Relationship narrative
-

character

Summary

Cool expressions:


Affective computing


Pervasive computing


Synthetic characters


Narrative intelligence


Social capital and communities


Jakub Wejchert

”We live in a time in which objective
reality is given much more importance
than the subjective. It is in this context
that most technological and scientific
developments are carried out. The
danger is that the personal, the
subjective and the world of inner
experience is becoming reduced to an
insignificant by
-
product.”

kia@dsv.su.se

www.sics.se/~kia

www.sics.se/safira/