Cognitive Technology applications as domestic ... - PST - ISTC - Cnr

bouncerarcheryAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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Lorenza Tiberio


ISTC
-
CNR

[PST]

Institute for Cognitive Science and Technology

National Research Council of Italy

Planning and Scheduling Team

http://pst.istc.cnr.it

Workshop on
Telematics

and Robotics for the Quality of Life of the Elderly


ISTC
-
CNR


Rome 28 September 2009


Introduction

&
Rationale


Literature

Review


Cognitive
decline

in
aging


Memory

Training
Intervention



Assistive

Technology

for

Cognition

(ATC)


About

PST
Projects

Experience


RoboCare


The system Design


User

Evaluation


Outcomes

of

RoboCare

Evaluation


CogGym


Project
Motivation


Architecture


Current

Implementation

and future work


Conclusions


I
n
t
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

Elderly

population

increase
!

Mobility

and cognitive impairments lead to

functional decline, thereby reducing independence

Active

lifestyle

Cognitive
activity

Social
engagement

Physical


activity



Can physical activity and cognitive training intervention


prevent or delay the onset of age
-
related cognitive impairment?

(
Verhaeghen

et. al., 1992; Floyd &
Scogin
, 1997; Willis et al., 2006;
Craick

et al., 2007, Rockwood& Middleton, 2007)



Can technology contribute to improve cognitive function in


older adults?
(
Basak

et

al., 2008; Kirsch
et

al., 2004)

L
i
t
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

R
e
v
i
e
w


Performance

Infancy

Middle

Adulthood

Childhood

Young
Adulthood

Late

Adulthood

Crystallized


Intelligence

Fluid

Intelligence



Natural decline in bodily function


Decline

of

fluid

intelligence
but


maintenance of crystallized


intelligence.



Organic brain disorder



Severe irreversible cognitive


decline

Memory

Training
Literature

L
i
t
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

R
e
v
i
e
w


Cognitive

training

may

have

substantial

and

lasting

effects

on

the

cognitive

abilities

of

older

adults

(e
.
g
.

Ball

et

all
.
,

2002
;

Wolinsky

et

al
.
2006
;

Park

et

all
.
,

2007
)
.



Recent

researches

indicate

that

regularly

scheduled

cognitive

exercises

can

not

only

improve

cognitive

functioning
,

but

also

reduce

the

risk

of

dementia

(Wilson

et

all
.
,

2002
)
.



Traditional

training

usually

consist

in

simple

exercises

“paper

and

pencil”

or

computerized
-
based

including

different

tasks

(
e
.
g

reasoning,

recognition,

perception,

speed

of

information

processing,

attention

and

memory)

Computer

training

programs

may

improve

specific

skills

generically

involved

with

games

But

there

is

a

little

evidence

yet

that

“playing

computer

games”

improves

other

skills

or

reduce

the

risk

of

memory

loss

Computer training
programs


Brain Age (Nintendo Japan)


Brain Fitness (Posit Science, CA)


Happy Neuron (Quixit, France)


Mindfit (Cognitive Fit, Israel)


Lumonosity (Stanford University)


L
i
t
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

R
e
v
i
e
w

Compensative

or

training

technological

devices

that

support

and

stimulate

cognitive

functions,

in

order

to

improve

or

maintain

functional

abilities

in

daily

activities

(
LoPresti

et

al
.
,

2004
;

Scherer

et

al
.
,

2005
)
.

ATC interventions can represent an
innovative support in case of :



Cognitive Impairment & Dementia



Traumatic Brain injury



Cerebrovascular

injury



Autism



Learning

disabilities

Technology

contribute

to

mental

health

L
i
t
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

R
e
v
i
e
w

ATC in
Eldercare

L
i
t
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

R
e
v
i
e
w


A

cognitive

orthotic

system

intended

to

help

older

adults

adapt

to

cognitive

decline

and

continue

the

satisfactory

performance

of

routine

activities
.

Autominder

achieves

this

goal

by

providing

adaptive,

personalized

reminders

of

(basic,

instrumental,

and

extended)

activities

of

daily

living

.

(Pollack

et

al
.
,

2003
)

PEAT

(Planning and Execution Assistant and
Trainer) is an
hand
-
held device
increasing the
independence of persons with brain injury by
compensation for executive function deficits.
(Levinson R., 1997)

COACH

supports

older

adults

with

moderate
-
levels

of

dementia

and

their

caregivers

by

a
udio

and/or

audio
-
video

prompts
.

(
Mihailidis

et

al
.

2008
)

L
i
t
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

R
e
v
i
e
w

When

dealing

with

technological applications the
acceptability

by elderly users is a relevant issue.



People
overestimate

manipulative


and
underestimate

cognitive
abilities
;



People prefer
small robots, hardly


resembling

human

beings
;



Robots should
intrude as little as


possible

in
domestic

life;



Robots should
simply respond to


the task to be performed.



Privacy

violation
;



Lack

of

human

responders

or

a



replacement

of

human

assistance



by

technology
;



User
-
friendliness

of

the

devices
;



Need

for

training

tailored

to

elderly
.

Demiris

et

al., 2008

Scopelliti

et

al., 2005

P
S
T
P
r
o
j
e
c
t
s



E
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e



The
objective

of

the project
is

to

build

a
distributed

multi
-
agent

system

which

provides

assistance

services

for

elderly

users

at
home.


The
agents

are a
highly

heterogeneous

collection

of

fixed

and
mobile
robotic
,
sensory

and

problem

solving

components
.


The project
is

centered

on
obtaining

a
virtual

community

of

human

and
artificial

agents

who

cooperate

in the
continuous

management
of

an

enclosed

environment
.”

Quote
from

the
original


project
proposal

(2001)

Undestanding

users


attitudes

and

psychological

variables

affecting

acceptability

of

cognitive

support

system

in

domestic

environment
:



Likelihood

of the proposed scenarios



Utility

and
acceptability

of the system



Users’
preferences

with respect to
proactive

and
on
-
demand



interaction



Influence of
psychological variables
on acceptability and


usefulness

P
S
T
P
r
o
j
e
c
t
s



E
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e

Participants

100

elderly

(average

age

of

70

years)

recruited

through

the

support

of

an

university

for

the

elderly

in

Rome

and

a

snowball

sampling

procedure
.

Materials

Eight

short

movies

(<

2

minutes

each)

showing

potential

interaction

scenarios

between

an

elderly

person

and

the

robotic

agent

in

a

real

domestic

environment
.

P
S
T
P
r
o
j
e
c
t
s



E
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e

Scenarios
'
Description

System
Initiative

(
Emergency

&
Safety
)

The

system

takes

the

initiative

for

safety

related

situations

Environmental

safety

The

robot

warns

the

assisted

person

of

a

potentially

dangerous

situation

(e
.
g
.
,

the

kettle

was

forgotten

on

the

stove
.
)

Personal
safety

The

system

detects

a

medical

emergency

and

alarms

the

assisted

person's

family
.

User

Initiative

The

user

asks

for

the

system

help

Finding

objects

The

person

asks

for

the

robots'

help

to

find

objects

within

the

environment

Activity

planning

The

system

supports

the

activity

planning

of

the

assisted

person

(e
.
g
.

planning

his/her

weekly

appointments)
.

Reminding

medication

The

assisted

person

does

not

remember

whether

or

not

he/she

took

his/her

medicine

after

lunch,

and

asks

the

robot
.

System
Initiative

(
Suggestion
)

The

system

takes

the

initiative

for

suggestions

or

warnings

Reminding

analyses

The

robotic

assistant

reminds

the

user

of

a

medical

appointment

he/she

had

forgotten
.

Suggestions

The

system

suggests

to

go

for

a

walk

as

the

user

has

been

watching

television

all

day

(noncritical

situation)
.

Reminding

events

The

system

reminds

the

assisted

person

of

the

birthday

of

the

user's

acquaintance

(noncritical

situation)
.

Tools

Questionnaire
divided

into

3
sections, plus socio
-
demograpichs

focused on:

a)
likelihood of the situations
presented, usefulness and
acceptability of the system;

b)
user’s attitude towards intelligent
system;

c)
emotional reaction to possible
implementation of the system in
user’s home.

Disagree

completely

Disagree

Undecided

Agree

Agree

completely

0

1

2

3

4

1

The robot
is

nice

to

look at

0

1

2

3

4

2

The robot
allows

someone

living
alone
to

feel

safer

0

1

2

3

4

3

The robot
moves

too

slowly

0

1

2

3

4

Likert

Scale

Procedure

Participants were shown the eight videos:



on a notebook monitor in a face
-
to
-
face administration



on a larger screen in a small
-
group administration

P
S
T
P
r
o
j
e
c
t
s



E
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e

Likelihood

0.00
4.00
Suggestions
Reminding for analyses
Activities planning/scheduling
Environmental safety
Reminding for events
Reminding for medicines
Personal safety
Finding objects
0.00
4.00
Suggestions
Reminding for events
Activities planning/scheduling
Reminding for analyses
Finding objects
Environmental safety
Reminding for medicine
Personal safety
Usefulness

P
S
T
P
r
o
j
e
c
t
s



E
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e

0.00
4.00
Suggestions
Reminding for analyses
Activities planning/scheduling
Reminding for events
Environmental safety
Reminding for medicine
Finding objects
Personal safety
Acceptability

A
signicant

correlation

emerged

(Pearson's r)
between likelihood

of a
specic

scenario,
usefulness and acceptability
of the system in that
scenario.

(i.e., the higher the likelihood of the scenario, the higher the users‘ perceived
usefulness and the probability they would accept such a device at home).

P
S
T
P
r
o
j
e
c
t
s



E
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e

Interactive

situations
:
User
-
initiative

vs.
System
-
initiative


System
-

initiative

and

User
-
initiative

situations

involving

emergency



and

healthcare

(safety)

were

evaluated

as

significantly

more

likely,

more



useful

and

more

acceptable

than

System
-
initiative

situations

referring



to

suggestions
.

0
1
2
3
4
System Initiative
(Emergency )
User Initiative
System Initiative
(Suggestions)
Likelihood
Utility
Acceptability
P
S
T
P
r
o
j
e
c
t
s



E
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e

Influence

of

psychological

aspects
.



Perceived health
was not found
to

significantly

influence

the


attitude

towards

the cognitive system.



Worry about future cognitive impairment have an effect on user’s


attitude.



0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Likelihood
Utility
Acceptability
High Worry
Low worry
Does

age
-
related

memory

loss
worry

you
?

P
S
T
P
r
o
j
e
c
t
s



E
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e

Influence

of

psychological

aspects
.


Would

you

like

the
support

system
to

keep

your

memory

active

through

games
/
exercises
?”

Not al all
Not much
Quite
Very much
A lot
People

reporting

a

higher

level

of

worry

expressed

a

better

evaluation

of

Advantages

and

capabilities

of

the

cognitive

system

support

(possibility

for

the

system

to

perform

tasks

at

home,

support

the

users'

activities

and

reduce

age
-
related

impairments)
.

P
S
T
P
r
o
j
e
c
t
s



E
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e


A

well

defined

relationship

between

likelihood

of

situations,

perceived

utility

of

and

acceptability

for

the

cognitive

system

support

(emergency

situation

vs
.

uncritical

activities

in

everyday

life)






The

distinction

between

User
-
initiative

vs
.

System
-
Initiative

situations

showed

to

be

meaningful

as

well,

because

elderly

people

evaluations

of

the

system

are

influenced

by

the

specific

typology

of

the

activity

in

which

assistance

is

given
.

Key role of
safety

in
elderly people’s
experience

Important
vs.

unimportant activities

What

these

results

suggest
?

P
S
T
P
r
o
j
e
c
t
s



E
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e


Elderly

persons

showing

a

great

apprehension

for

age
-
related

cognitive

impairments

perceived

an

higher

utility

and

acceptability

of

the

system

in

terms

of

a

cognitive

resource

for

daily

activities

demanding

use

of

memory
.

What

these

results

suggest
?

Possibility to interact with the system
through an
active training
to enhance
their cognitive functioning.

P
S
T
P
r
o
j
e
c
t
s



E
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e

Aging
is responsible for a
progressive decline of cognitive functions.

Empirical evidences outline that
cognitive stimulation
had a
significant
positive impact
as well for maintaining a
high
-
quality
cognitive performance.


The

CogGym

Framework

is

intended

to

exploit

Assistive

Technology

for

Cognition

(ATC)

by

providing

immediate

access

to

training

services

in

an

ecological

context

in

order

to

reinforce

elderly

declining

cognitive

resources


The

framework

integrates

a

number

of

techniques

from

constraint

based

problem

solving

techniques

to

cognitive

systems

research

(e
.
g
.
,

for

the

user

related

issues)

P
S
T
P
r
o
j
e
c
t
s



E
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e

Case
-
study driven development: each case is a known instance of age

related cognitive decline



Problem solving


the ability to solve new, non
-
routine problems, e.g., using new
technology



Spatial orientation

the ability to locate places and objects, orientation in geographical
space and path planning (e.g., finding shortcuts)



Prospective memory

the ability to manage tasks which are planned to occur in the
future




Case
Study

driven

development

P
S
T
P
r
o
j
e
c
t
s



E
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e



Smart

blackboard

maintains

a

list

of

grocery

items


the

blackboard

is

both

written

by

the

assisted

person

and

read

by

the

system


the

system

can

propose

a

cognitive

exercise

pertaining

the

list

of

shopping

items


the

system

may

be

aware

of

missing

items

before

the

user

notices

(e
.
g
.
,

through

RFIDs
),

and

stimulate

the

user

accordingly

P
S
T
P
r
o
j
e
c
t
s



E
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e

Traditional

cognitive

training

exercise


Memorization

of

generic

grocery

items

or

actions

to

be

performed,

carried

out

with

pen

and

paper

Traditional

AAL

technology


Compensatory

support

(e
.
g
.
,

reminding),

or

not

contextualized

training

COGGYM Training


Related to real aspects of the user needs
(i.e., the need to
prepare the shopping list);

Difficulty and frequency are decided on the basis of previous
users performances.

Contextualizing
and
personalizing

the exercises enhances
the
training efficacy
and increases the probability that the

memorization strategies
are employed in real
-
life situations

P
S
T
P
r
o
j
e
c
t
s



E
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e

TRAINING KNOWLEDGE

REPOSITORY

PROBLEM SOLVER

INTERACTION

MANAGER

USER MODELER

SCENARIO MODELER

PERFORMANCE

DATA BASE

ENVIRONMENTAL

SENSORS

DATA FILTERING

DATA FILTERING

User status
assessment

Environmental
assessment

P
S
T
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r
o
j
e
c
t
s



E
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e


Improving

of

prospective

memory

case:


We

are
adding

different

types

of

exercises


We

are
studing

wheter

alternative
modalities

would

be

more
suitable

for

elderly

people


Testing

the software
framework

on
additional

cases



We

plan

to

include the
spatial

orientation

and
problem

solving

case


We

plan

to

adopt

the

experimental

methodology

we

have

developed

from

RoboCare



Participatory

Design

and

development

process

together

with

users

(older

people,

caregivers,

gerontologist,

computer

scientists)



Current

and future work

P
S
T
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r
o
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e
c
t
s



E
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e


We have presented an overview of recent and current efforts in


synthesizing cognitive technology for elderly population


integrating heterogeneous AI technologies to obtain innovative
interactive systems


understanding critical features for user’s involvement and
acceptance


A multi
-
disciplinary team of people


RoboCare and CogGym generate from an hybridization of teams
that used to work in parallel


The obtained flavor is quite unique


Even if … a non trivial effort to understand each other is
always required.

C
o
n
c
l
u
s
o
i
n
s