Mobile broadband network principles

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Dec 12, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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12. desember 2013

Mobile broadband network principles


EBU workshop May 12
th

2011


Stein Erik Paulsen

Radio Technology Manager

Corporate Development

Telenor

stein
-
erik.paulsen@telenor.com


CONTEST

12. desember 2013

CONTENTS

How to avoid
interference?

How can
capacity be
increased?

Why use
indoor
antennas?

Why do we need
so much
spectrum?

What about
the future?

How to build
a mobile
network?

12. desember 2013

-
The journey has just started

Radio access network evolution

12. desember 2013

The future contains frequent
Techno
-
strategic decisions

12. desember 2013

Ericsson:

In 3 years network
traffic has increased
by a factor of 10…

…and revenue
increased by 35%...

12. desember 2013

Example of
establishing a
GSM radio
network

12. desember 2013

The base stations
(BTS)

are distributed
to give

RADIO COVERAGE

En

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The base stations
(BTS)

are distributed
to give

RADIO COVERAGE


and Capacity

En

12. desember 2013

Requested traffic

Phase 2: Capacity

limited network

Phase 1: Coverage

limited network

Larger spectrum

Smaller spectrum

Challenge!

Network


cost


Start
-
up cost

Increased traffic drives cost

The challenge of mobile broadband

COST

Revenue

$

Traffic

12. desember 2013

With boosting data traffic there is a need for
more frequent network updates than before

Traffic load

Basic

3G

HSPA

HSPA+

LTE

= Resulting network cost

Network cost

12. desember 2013

Area= 50km2

Population= 1 M

Subscribers= 346k

15 mErl/sub (*)

Tot. traffic= 5190 Erl


Limited spectrum drives cost!



Example: Two operators with very different spectrum size


Country 1: 8,8MHz band
-
>44 channels


=>132 Erlang per base station


=>
40 base stations

needed to handle total
traffic of 5190 Erlang




Country 2: 4,4 MHz band
-
> 22 channels


=>29 Erlang per base station


=>
179 base stations

needed to handle
total traffic of 5190 Erlang


=> Having only half of the spectrum can
mean 4,5 times the cost.

For illustration purpose only


the conclusions and calculations are simplified


(*) Meaning that the average customer calls for 1,5% of the most busy hour of the day

12. desember 2013

Frequency spectrum for mobile communication

CDMA

Digital
Dividend

3G

(UMTS2100)

GSM1800

GSM900

Mobile broadband


extension band

2500 MHz

500 MHz

2000 MHz

1000 MHz

1500 MHz

3000 MHz

Getting more spectrum essential for
meeting future service demand

12. desember 2013

3G in new frequency bands
-

refarming

In
-
Building
coverage area for
suburban terrain


(Source: Nokia Siemens Networks & Elisa)

(WCDMA = UMTS/HSPA = 3G)

(HSPA)

Access to low frequency spectrum:

-
High impact on mobile broadband


Profitable coverage even outside
the urban areas


Potential for saving 50
-
70% of site
costs

=> A fair amount of low
-
frequency
spectrum per operator is a prerequisite.

Digital Dividend band: A desire and a curse:

Too little of something good can be bad!

2600 MHz

11%

800 MHz

800 MHz:

Very attractive for coverage, but how to
avoid traffic congestion if 89% of all
users only have coverage from the 800
MHz system?

12. desember 2013

Network capacity is hard to predict

10 Mbit/s

5 Mbit/s

2 Mbit/s

0.5 Mbit/s

Total

Capacity

10 Mbit/s

2.5 Mbit/s

5 Mbit/s

7.5 Mbit/s

1 Mbit/s

0.5 Mbit/s

0.2 Mbit/s

0.05 Mbit/s

Growing need for indoor coverage systems


Urban building walls block
99% of the outdoor signal


Safe to re
-
use the same
carriers indoors


Buildings with heavy data
traffic: Use indoor antenna
systems, WiFi or femtocells


Need fixed broadband lines
to provide connection and
offload mobile network

12. desember 2013

The future

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-
Is the path towards LTE evident?

12. desember 2013

-
or will we need proper guidance?

12. desember 2013

Mob.

WiMAX

Low Frequency

Long range

High Frequency

Short range

CDMA

Fixed

WiMAX

3G

(UMTS2100)

EDGE1800

EDGE900

Mobile WiMAX/

3G extension band

2500 MHz

500 MHz

2000 MHz

3500 MHz

1000 MHz

1500 MHz

3000 MHz

LTE

LTE

LTE

LTE

LTE

LTE

Digital
Dividend

LTE
Adv.

LTE is defined for all relevant frequency bands

Evolution in site capacity from GSM to LTE

-

Downlink, sum of voice and data

Disclaimer: Values should be taken as indicative. Performance will vary greatly with deployed solution,
surrounding environment, terminal penetration and size of frequency spectrum. HSPA assumes 14,4 Mbps
version. HSPA+ assumes 64QAM feature, not MIMO or Dual Carrier.

Source: CONTEST, Telenor.

1

4.5

9

28

32

21

45

96

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Plain GSM
Year 1995
(10 MHz)
GSM/EDGE
Year 2010
(10 MHz)
3G Rel.99
(15MHz)
Turbo-3G
(HSPA)
(15MHz)
Turbo-3G
(HSPA+)
(15 MHz)
LTE 800
(5 MHz)
LTE 1800
(10 MHz)
LTE 2600
(20 MHz)
Total capacity per site (Mbps)

20
MHz

10
MHz

Competitive power

-
Determined by spectrum

LTE deployment strategy
must be tuned to our
relative ability to compete.

Fakecom

2600

800
MHz

2600

MHz

26

To summmm up…

12. desember 2013

Key take
-
aways


Convergence:

Usage and interactions between mobile and fixed
networks will continue to grow to ensure optimum service
offerings


Cost curves:

Mobile technologies are much less suited for flat
-
rate subscriptions than fixed broadband technologies


Hybrid networks:

Operators need to utilize more than one
mobile technology to secure cost
-
effective deployments


Mobile Broadband:

Mobile networks keep offering higher data
rates but within limited coverage range, especially indoor


Indoor coverage:
Indoor mobile broadband users represent
majority of the traffic and should to a larger extent be connected
via indoor antenna solutions.


New spectrum:

Mobile Broadband at low frequencies is a cost
-
effective solution for areas with lower population density, as long
as a healthy traffic balance is maintained.

LTE:

Customers expect high performance

…and they expect coverage


Thank you for
your attention!

12. desember 2013

Backup slides

12. desember 2013

Abbreviations

BSC


Base Station Controller

BSS


Base Station Subsystem

BTS


Base Transceiver Station

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access

CSD


Circuit Switched Data

CN


Core Network

D
-
AMPS

Digital
-
Advanced Mobile Phone System

EDGE

Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution

E
-
GPRS

Enhanced
-

GPRS

ERAN

EDGE Radio Access Network

ETSI

European Telecommunications



Standards

Institute

FDD


Frequency Division Duplex

FDD
-
DS

Frequency Division Duplex





Direct Spread

FDD
-
MC

Frequency Division Duplex
-

MultiCarrier

GGSN

Gateway GPRS Support Node

GERAN


GSM EDGE Radio Access Network

GMSK

Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying



(Modulation)

GPRS

General Packet Radio System

GSM

Global System for Mobile



communication

HLR


Home Location Register

HSCSD

High Speed Circuit Switched Data

IN


Intelligent Network

IP


Internet Protocol

ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network

ITU


International Telecommunication Union

IMT
-
2000

International Mobile Telecommunication

MSC

Mobile Switching Center

PLMN

Public Land Mobile Network

PSK


Phase Shift Keying (Modulation)

PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network

RNC

Radio Network Controller

SCP


Service Control Point

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

TDD


Time Division Duplex

TDMA

Time Division Multiple Access

UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecommunications



System

UTRAN

UMTS Terestrial Radio Access Network

VHE


Virtual Home Environment

VLR


Visitor Location Register

VoIP

Voice over Internet Protocol

WAP

Wireless Application Protocol

W
-
CDMA

Wideband
-
CDMA

2G


2nd Generation (mobile network)

(2,5G

GPRS)

3G


3rd Generation (mobile network)

3GPP

3rd Generation Partnership



Project

12. desember 2013

Sites, BTSs and cells…


A SITE is the physical location of which a base station is
placed. Includes all equipment put up by the operator
(mast, antennas,cabin, base station rack etc.)


A BTS is the
base transceiver station
, normally just
called base station, i.e. the cabinet(s) containing the 1
-
3
cells belonging to a site.


A NodeB is the term used for BTS in UMTS


A CELL is each uniquely identified GSM or UMTS capacity
source in a BTS or NodeB, defined by its own coverage
footprint (or coverage cell)


A TRX is a single transmitter/receiver unit able to provide
one single GSM frequency to the cell’s coverage footprint.
Each cell has 1
-
12 TRXs depending on the capacity need.

Typical user data rates


3G basic

HSPA

LTE

LTE
-

Advanced

100 kbps

1 Mbps

10 Mbps

100 Mbps

150
-
350 kbit/s

1.0


5 Mbit/s

5


60 Mbit/s

30


300 Mbit/s

Target for the network evolution:

All IP broadband network










network domain

user domain

I n t e r n e t

Fixed
network

C o r e

T r a n s p o r t

Packet
Switch
Serving
Node

Media
Gateway

Packet
Switch
Gateway


B a c k h a u l

Base station

Base
Station

Control

Basic network interfaces

Marie

Anne

Service Platform

Subscriber
profiles

Authentication

Charging

Intelligent Network

Core
Network

Radio /
Access
Network

Transport
Network

12. desember 2013

BSC

Backbone network

Hub

ISP internet

connection

Core

MSC

MGW

BTS

BTS

BTS

n*E1

m*E1

Backhaul

E1

CAPEX share for

greenfield voice

30%

20%

50%

Access network

CAPEX share for
greenfield MBB

10%

45%

45%

Cost distribution in mobile networks


Core & Backbone network

Transport network

Radio Access network