Ericsson's patenT activities - SNITTS

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Dec 12, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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licensiNG

Tomas Dannelind

Director Technology Licensing

ERICSSON AB

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2

Agenda


Ericsson


In the beginning


Current situation


Organization


Generating value from a patent portfolio


Telecom and standards


Ways of working


portfolios


Technology Licensing (TL) vs. Patent Licensing


TL key factors


Licensing Process


Value chain considerations


Pricing


Does size (portfolio) matter


Patent Licensing Programs


TL Licensing programs



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3

Ericsson history

134 years of continuous development

1878 From telegraph to telephone

1923 From manual to automatic switching

1968 From electro mechanics to computer control

1981 From fixed to mobile communication

1991 From 1G analog to 2G digital mobile technology

1998 Integration of voice and data in mobile networks

2000 Moving toward 3G and mobile Internet

2001 Sony Ericsson joint venture launched

2004 Breakthrough of WCDMA

2005 Expanded in IP and fiber transmission

2006 Launches of HSPA mobile broadband globally

2008 Breakthrough of mobile broadband and LTE technology

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Short facts on Ericsson

Founded
: 1876 in Stockholm, Sweden

Headquarters
: Stockholm, Sweden

Employees
: 82,500 (Dec. 31, 2009)

Net Sales
: SEK 209 billion in 2008


Net Sales (SEK billion)

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IN THE BEGINNING...(ca 1990)


European telecom companies applied for very few patents and
contributed with un
-
patented solutions to GSM standardization



US companies had already significant experience and
competence in patent licensing and were prepared to assert
their patents aggressively



When first approached by these companies, Ericsson refused
to take a license.



The US companies then went after Ericsson’s customers
effectively forcing Ericsson into a license agreement.



Since Ericsson had virtually no patent portfolio to use in the
negotiations and no experience of licensing, the license terms
were very unfavorable.


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6



0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Patent portfolio

-

granted

patents only

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7

Patent Portfolio OVERVIEW

Ericsson has …


... the worlds strongest GSM/EDGE, WCDMA/HSPA and LTE essential
IPR portfolio


...around 25,000 granted patents worldwide


... business driven patent portfolio management


... a worldwide non
-
exclusive licensing program of
essential IPR

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Generating value from a patent
portfolio


three main strategies


Defending

against patent attacks from other companies


Protection / ”freedom of action” for own products




Excluding

competitors from introducing products in the marketplace


Competitive advantage for own products


Proprietary products (e.g. pharmaceutical industry)




Licensing
the patents

for revenue and / or cross
-
licensing purposes


Licensing revenue / protection for own products


Licensed together with other IPR (Technology Licensing, TL)


Open standards products (e.g. telecom industry)

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THE LPD Organization

Steering Group

Håkan Eriksson, CTO (Chairman)

Carl Olof Blomqvist, General Counsel

Jan Wäreby, Head of BU Multimedia

Johan Wibergh, Head of BU Networks

Patent Licensing

Kasim Alfalahi

Patent Strategies and

Portfolio Management

Gustav Brismark

Patent Development

John Han

Assistant

Licensing and Patent Development

Kasim Alfalahi

Human Resources

Legal Counsel

”Sales”

”Product
development”

”Product mgmt”

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Product
Development

Product Management

Sales

Patenting

Patent Portfolio Mgmt

Licensing

Create patents
covering technology
others want to use
and/or Ericsson wants
exclusive right to use

Develop existing
patents into portfolios
reflecting market
development

Add value by:

1. Accessing other
patent holders
patent portfolios to
a minimal cost

2. Creating substantial
royalty revenues

THE Patent business development
process

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THE PATENT DEVELOPMENT
Organization

Patent Development

PU
-
3G

Kista

GSM & WCDMA

PU
-
IPB Älvsjö


IMS, Platforms and

Broadband Access

PU
-
COM Germany


Core and Management

(incl. Hungary,

Holland & Spain)

PU
-
MPR Canada

Messaging and

Packet Routing

PU
-
MP
Lund


Mobile Platform

PU
-
OPT United Kingdom

Optical Networks

PU
-
USA

PU
-
LTE
Kista


LTE &
OFDM


(incl. Finland & Japan)

PU
-
SLM Kista


Service Layer & Multimedia

PU
-
AMW Gothenburg


Antennas & Microwaves

(incl. Norway)

CST
-

Tools & Processes

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12

Standardization

Define efficient solutions

for vendors and operators

Patent

Protect our inventions

Research

First to inventions

Continuously building technology leadership

Ericsson operational view



Research, Patents, Standardization

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13

Telecom relies on open
standards


Communications is a basic human need



Telecommunications is for everyone



Telecommunications relies on interoperability



Interoperability relies on open standards




TTC

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14

3G

”4G”

DL ”2 Mbps”

UL ”5.6Mbps”

DL 14 Mbps

UL ”5.6Mbps”

DL 14 Mbps

UL 5.6 Mbps

DL 42 Mbps

UL 12 Mbps

DL 100 Mbps

UL 23 Mbps

DL 300 Mbps

UL 75 Mbps

1 Gbps

COLLABORATIVE standardization

10,000’s of specific solution proposals

Release 99

Release 5

REQUIREMENTS SETTING

Technology Concept
Selection Stage

Start of detailed

SSO work

1999

2002

Releases 4

time

First Release Stage

Technical
Solution
Stage

the standardization process

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15


Requirements agreed early


Concurrent research


Standardization means
technology
sharing
for contributing companies





Joint
technology ownership
in the
industry


Large number of patent holders
-


some 50 companies claim rights to 3GPP
technologies

TTC

CCSA

*Fair, Reasonable & Non
-
Discriminatory

STANDARDIZATION & PATENTS


Patent holders waive their rights to block others but are entitled to fair compensation

=> FRAND* commitment for
essential

patents


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16

Interpreting FRAND


“FRAND” = “
Fair, Reasonable & Non
-
Discriminatory”


No formal definition of FRAND exists!


Majority industry view:

FRAND =

accumulated reasonable rate
where licensor demand must reflect its
proportional
contribution of
patents to the standard

Accumulated

Reasonable rate


(e.g. 8%)

Companies

patent
share

Company A (20%)

Company F (5%)

Company E (5%)

Company B (30%)

Company G (20%)

Company C (20%)

Company D (10%)

E.g. Company ”B” may
at most

charge 30% of the accumulated rate (8%) = 2.4%

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-
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Management or Mining?




Mining through high volumes is cumbersome





Portfolio Management is pro
-
active

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2010
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18

Patent Portfolio Life Process

...

...

Focus Portfolio B

Licensing Program A

Focus Portfolio

:

C

.

Key Projects /KPA

Std

.

Contributions

Scrub sessions

Spontaneous Ids

Acquisitions

Scope of Technology

Patent Portfolios

Licensing Roadmap

Licensing Programs

Portfolio

A

Licensing Program B

LOP

Beneficial Owner 1

Beneficial Owner 2

Beneficial Owner 3

Beneficial Owner ...

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-
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ŗŘřŚśŞşŠšŢţŤťŪūŮůŰűŲųŴŵŶŷŸŹźŻż
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19

A patent grants a right to exclude others
from “using” the patented

technology.

One and the same patent is often

essential to several different

standards.

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ŗŘřŚśŞşŠšŢţŤťŪūŮůŰűŲųŴŵŶŷŸŹźŻż
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20

Technology vs. patent licensing

Technology (”carrot”) licensing:

-
Focus on technology transfer (know
-
how, design etc)

-
Licensee receives license to all relevant IPR

-
”Friendly” selling process

-
Exclusive or non
-
exclusive license

-
Most common licensing method in theory


Patent (”stick”) licensing:

-
Focus on patents

-
Licensee receives patent license only

-
”Unfriendly” selling process


implied threat of litigation

-
Non
-
exclusive license

-
Most common licensing method in practice

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5

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ŗŘřŚśŞşŠšŢţŤťŪūŮůŰűŲųŴŵŶŷŸŹźŻż
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21

Impact of Licensing

Production Cost

R&D

CoS

Margin

Production Cost

R&D

CoS

Margin

Production Cost

CoS

Margin

Margin

R&D

Tech Lic

Potential Licensee

Tech Licensee

Patent Licensee

Ericsson IPR
Licensing

Slide title

minimum 32 pt

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Text and bullet level 1

minimum 24 pt


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-
5

minimum 20 pt



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ĢģĪīĮįİıĶķĹĺĻļĽľŁłŃńŅņŇňŌŐőŒœŔŕŖ
ŗŘřŚśŞşŠšŢţŤťŪūŮůŰűŲųŴŵŶŷŸŹźŻż
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22

Technology licensing


key
factors


Proprietary knowledge



Non
-
core technology



Market size too small



New market entries / partnering



Sourcing / outsourcing



Conflict solution



Long
-
term relationship

Slide title

minimum 32 pt

(32 pt makes 2 rows)



Text and bullet level 1

minimum 24 pt


Bullets level 2
-
5

minimum 20 pt



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-
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1
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ĢģĪīĮįİıĶķĹĺĻļĽľŁłŃńŅņŇňŌŐőŒœŔŕŖ
ŗŘřŚśŞşŠšŢţŤťŪūŮůŰűŲųŴŵŶŷŸŹźŻż
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23

THE Patent licensing process

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

”Proof package”
OK?

Identification of own patents
+ potential licensee(s)

Business case
OK?

NO ACTION

First letter /

license offer sent

Agreement
reachable?

LAWSUIT

AGREEMENT

Yes

Pre
-
study phase

Licensing phase

Slide title

minimum 32 pt

(32 pt makes 2 rows)



Text and bullet level 1

minimum 24 pt


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-
5

minimum 20 pt



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ĢģĪīĮįİıĶķĹĺĻļĽľŁłŃńŅņŇňŌŐőŒœŔŕŖ
ŗŘřŚśŞşŠšŢţŤťŪūŮůŰűŲųŴŵŶŷŸŹźŻż
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24

Patent licensing


pre
-
study
phase


Patent identification


Claim analysis


Jurisdictions


Validity



Business case


Where to license in the value chain?


Licensee's sales of infringing products (royalty base)


Licensee's patent portfolio (own exposure / need for grantback)


Pricing



“Proof package”


Lists of patents / infringing products


Claim charts (often mapped against standard specifications)


Reverse engineering?

Slide title

minimum 32 pt

(32 pt makes 2 rows)



Text and bullet level 1

minimum 24 pt


Bullets level 2
-
5

minimum 20 pt



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ûüýþÿĀāĂăąĆćĊċČĎďĐđĒĖėĘęĚěĞğĠġ
ĢģĪīĮįİıĶķĹĺĻļĽľŁłŃńŅņŇňŌŐőŒœŔŕŖ
ŗŘřŚśŞşŠšŢţŤťŪūŮůŰűŲųŴŵŶŷŸŹźŻż
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2010
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25

Platform designer

Chipset manufacturer

OEM/ODM Manufacturer

Product Brand Owner


Operator

Ericsson

Example 1:

License

Patents

Exhausted

Exposure

Customers

Customer

Customer

Customer

Where to license in the value
chain?

Slide title

minimum 32 pt

(32 pt makes 2 rows)



Text and bullet level 1

minimum 24 pt


Bullets level 2
-
5

minimum 20 pt



!"# $%&'()*+,
-
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1
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ĢģĪīĮįİıĶķĹĺĻļĽľŁłŃńŅņŇňŌŐőŒœŔŕŖ
ŗŘřŚśŞşŠšŢţŤťŪūŮůŰűŲųŴŵŶŷŸŹźŻż
ŽžƒȘșˆˇ˘˙˚˛˜˝ẀẁẃẄẅỲỳ


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2010
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26



Platform designer

Chipset manufacturer

OEM/ODM Manufacturer

Product Brand Owner


Operator

Ericsson

Example 2:

License

Exposure

Customers

Customer

Customer

Customer

Where to license in the value
chain?

Patents

Exhausted

Slide title

minimum 32 pt

(32 pt makes 2 rows)



Text and bullet level 1

minimum 24 pt


Bullets level 2
-
5

minimum 20 pt



!"# $%&'()*+,
-
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1
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ĢģĪīĮįİıĶķĹĺĻļĽľŁłŃńŅņŇňŌŐőŒœŔŕŖ
ŗŘřŚśŞşŠšŢţŤťŪūŮůŰűŲųŴŵŶŷŸŹźŻż
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27

License pricing factors


Relative patent strength


Target company's sales


Market praxis


Timing / Maturity aspects


License scope


Technology value for the product


Level of damages in case of litigation


Type of payment

Slide title

minimum 32 pt

(32 pt makes 2 rows)



Text and bullet level 1

minimum 24 pt


Bullets level 2
-
5

minimum 20 pt



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-
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1
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×
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÷
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ûüýþÿĀāĂăąĆćĊċČĎďĐđĒĖėĘęĚěĞğĠġ
ĢģĪīĮįİıĶķĹĺĻļĽľŁłŃńŅņŇňŌŐőŒœŔŕŖ
ŗŘřŚśŞşŠšŢţŤťŪūŮůŰűŲųŴŵŶŷŸŹźŻż
ŽžƒȘșˆˇ˘˙˚˛˜˝ẀẁẃẄẅỲỳ


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In
litigation
: One valid patent often enough


Damages based on sales of infringing product(s) rather than
number of infringed patents



In
licensing discussions
: More patents => better case


Risk assessment & probabilities


FRAND based on proportionality


Preferred “minimum” licensing portfolio: ~5
-
10 patents

Does the number of patents
matter?

Slide title

minimum 32 pt

(32 pt makes 2 rows)



Text and bullet level 1

minimum 24 pt


Bullets level 2
-
5

minimum 20 pt



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ŗŘřŚśŞşŠšŢţŤťŪūŮůŰűŲųŴŵŶŷŸŹźŻż
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Common strategic responses


Look for prior art (invalidate patent)


Bring up own patents (cross
-
license)


Investigate bargaining position (business relations etc)


Agree to take a license


Ignore the whole matter


Design around


Wait until patent expires


Stop R&D and any commercial operations

MOST COMMON

LEAST COMMON

Slide title

minimum 32 pt

(32 pt makes 2 rows)



Text and bullet level 1

minimum 24 pt


Bullets level 2
-
5

minimum 20 pt



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ĢģĪīĮįİıĶķĹĺĻļĽľŁłŃńŅņŇňŌŐőŒœŔŕŖ
ŗŘřŚśŞşŠšŢţŤťŪūŮůŰűŲųŴŵŶŷŸŹźŻż
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Ericsson's

PATENT licensing
PROGRAMS



3GPP Core Network


3GPP IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem)


3GPP GSM/GPRS GERAN


3GPP GSM/GPRS MS


3GPP LTE RAN


3GPP LTE UE


3GPP TD
-
SCDMA UE


3GPP TD
-
SCDMA UTRAN


3GPP WCDMA/HSPA UE


3GPP WCDMA/HSPA UTRAN


3GPP2 cdma2000


3GPP/OMA MMS


3GPP/OMA WAP


3GPP MBMS


OMA IMPS


ETSI DVB
-
H


ETSI DECT


ETSI TETRA


TIA IS
-
95


ITU H.323


ITU H.264


ITU xDSL


ITU SDH/ANSI SONET


ISO JPEG2000


IEEE 802.3 Ethernet


IEEE 802.11
-

W
-
LAN


IEEE 802.16
-

WiMAX


CCITT ATM


AMR Codec


AAC


Cellular positioning & LBS


Charging


Bluetooth


Softswitch


VoIP


Security (e.g. 3GPP AKA)


Enterprise Solutions


Graphics & Multimedia


I.N. (Intelligent Networks)


Antenna & Antenna Near Technologies

Cross licensing



80 agreements bring

value in direct revenues
AND
freedom to sell Ericsson
infrastructure

Slide title

minimum 32 pt

(32 pt makes 2 rows)



Text and bullet level 1

minimum 24 pt


Bullets level 2
-
5

minimum 20 pt



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ŗŘřŚśŞşŠšŢţŤťŪūŮůŰűŲųŴŵŶŷŸŹźŻż
ŽžƒȘșˆˇ˘˙˚˛˜˝ẀẁẃẄẅỲỳ


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Ericsson’s Technology Licensing
Programs


ETT, Ericsson Tower Tube


BART, Bandwidth Availability Measurements in Real
-
Time


CHG, Connected Home Gateway


Antenna Tech


CHG, Connected Home Gateway


STB, Set Top Box


sRIO, serial Rapid I/O Switch


SQI, Speech Quality Index


EC, Eco
-
Cancellation


Power solutions


Interfaces


A
-
bis


Iub


Ix


ISC


Etc.


RET, Remote Electrical Tilt


Bluetooth


Mobile Platforms (now a jv “ST
-
Ericsson” with ST
-
Microelectronics)


Slide title

minimum 32 pt

(32 pt makes 2 rows)



Text and bullet level 1

minimum 24 pt


Bullets level 2
-
5

minimum 20 pt



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ûüýþÿĀāĂăąĆćĊċČĎďĐđĒĖėĘęĚěĞğĠġ
ĢģĪīĮįİıĶķĹĺĻļĽľŁłŃńŅņŇňŌŐőŒœŔŕŖ
ŗŘřŚśŞşŠšŢţŤťŪūŮůŰűŲųŴŵŶŷŸŹźŻż
ŽžƒȘșˆˇ˘˙˚˛˜˝ẀẁẃẄẅỲỳ


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Slide title

minimum 32 pt

(32 pt makes 2 rows)



Text and bullet level 1

minimum 24 pt


Bullets level 2
-
5

minimum 20 pt



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-
./0
1
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÷
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ûüýþÿĀāĂăąĆćĊċČĎďĐđĒĖėĘęĚěĞğĠġ
ĢģĪīĮįİıĶķĹĺĻļĽľŁłŃńŅņŇňŌŐőŒœŔŕŖ
ŗŘřŚśŞşŠšŢţŤťŪūŮůŰűŲųŴŵŶŷŸŹźŻż
ŽžƒȘșˆˇ˘˙˚˛˜˝ẀẁẃẄẅỲỳ


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Questions?