Genetic Engineering

boohoolabourerBiotechnology

Dec 16, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Genetic
Engineering

Impact On Farmers

Advantages of GE products
in agriculture.


Hybrids that are immune to certain
diseases.



Plants that yield hybrid fruits.



Plants that do not use as much nutrients,
and don’t drain the soil.

Fears About GE Products in
Agriculture


GE feed given to animals, causing problems
with the animals.


GE products in human foods affecting humans
in an adverse way.


GE produced hybrids that are susceptible to
diseases that the original plants were not.

Ag Products That Currently
Use GE Products

Corn

Corn Oil

Canola Oil

Cotton

Cattle Feed

Wheat

Tomatoes

Safeguards Against GE
Problems in Agriculture.



International policies preventing the “un
-
ethical” use of GE products in agriculture.


Thorough study of the effects of GE
products and hybrids on humans and
animals.


Impact of problems with GE products
closely monitored; effectively causing
worry among those creating and
improving GE technology.


Farmers having the choice of
planting/using GE products.

What is Recombinant DNA?

Recombinant DNA is DNA in which one or
more segments or genes have been
inserted, either naturally or by laboratory
manipulation, resulting in a new genetic
combination.

What is a Plasmid?

A plasmid is a segment of DNA that is
independent of the other
chromosomes and capable of
replication, occurring in bacteria and
yeast: used in recombinant DNA
procedures to transfer genetic
material from one cell to another.


What is PCR?

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a
laboratory process in which a
particular DNA segment from a
mixture of DNA chains is rapidly
replicated, producing a large, readily
analyzed sample of a piece of DNA.

What is a Restriction
Enzyme?

A restriction enzyme is any of a group
of enzymes that catalyze the
cleavage of DNA molecules at
specific sites: used for gene splicing
in recombinant DNA technology and
for chromosome mapping.

What Are Transgenic
Foods?

Transgenic foods are foods that contain
genetically engineered products.

DNA Recombination Process


A plasmid isolated from the cell
or bacteria being engineered.


The plasmid is cut out using a
restriction enzyme.


Once the plasmid is cut out, it
leaves “sticky ends” which
allow the attachment of new
complimentary DNA to anneal
to the desired section.


Ligation is accomplished by
mixing the plasmids and DNA
fragments together and
allowing them to incubate, the
process is random, many of the
pieces will not anneal to the
plasmids.


The ligated DNA is transformed
into living cells that can
reproduce, usually E coli.


E coli is used because of its
rapid reproduction rate.


The transformation of the E coli
is accomplished through “heat
shocking” the bacteria, which
causes the cell membrane to
weaken allowing the changed
plasmid to enter.


Electrophoresis is used during
the GE process to confirm that
each step is completed.

DNA Recombination Process Diagram

Application


GE products in agriculture perform many
functions, most of them helpful.


GE products increase food production in
some plants.


GE fertilizers created by specialized
decomposers deliver nutrient more
efficiently to the soil.


The above mentioned may all benefit the
particular area in which we live.

Acknowledgments


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