Q1. Explain the working of Bus connection. Answer. Bus

bonkburpsNetworking and Communications

Oct 23, 2013 (4 years and 2 months ago)

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Q1. Explain the working of Bus connection.

Answer. Bus
is an electrical cable or connection of cables that are used to transfer the data,
information or the address of the memory
location. Bus connections are of three major types
Address bus, Data bus and last but not the least Control bus.

An
address bus

is a computer bus (a series of lines connecting two or more devices) that is used to
specify a physical address. When a process
or or DMA
-
enabled device needs to read or write to a
memory location, it specifies that memory location on the address bus (the value to be read or
written is sent on the data bus). The width of the address bus determines the amount of memory a
system can
address. For example, a system with a 32
-
bit address bus can address 232
(4,294,967,296) memory.


Q2.Write a note on: Robotics and Voice Recognition.

Answer. Robotics
is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation,
and appl
ication of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and
information processing. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of
humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resem
ble humans in appearance,
behavior, and/or cognition. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of
bio
-
inspired robotics.

The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but
resear
ch into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th
century. Throughout history, robotics has been often seen to mimic human behavior, and often
manage tasks in a similar fashion. Today, robotics is a rapidly gr
owing field, as technological
advances continue, research, design, and building new robots serve various practical purposes,
whether domestically, commercially, or militarily. Many robots do jobs that are hazardous to people
such as defusing bombs, explori
ng shipwrecks, and mines.


Q3. Describe the construction of CD
-
ROM.

Answer. CD
-
ROM (Compact Disc, read
-
only
-
memory)
is an adaptation of the CD that is
designed to store computer data in the form of text and graphics, as well as hi
-
fi stereo sound. The
ori
ginal data format standard was defined by Philips and Sony in the 1983 Yellow Book. Other
standards are used in conjunction with it to define directory and file structures, including ISO 9660,
HFS (Hierarchal File System, for Macintosh computers), and Hybr
id HFS
-
ISO. Format of the CD
-
ROM is the same as for audio CDs: a standard CD is 120 mm (4.75 inches) in diameter and 1.2 mm
(0.05 inches) thick and is composed of a polycarbonate plastic substrate (under layer
-

this is the
main body of the disc), one or m
ore thin reflective metal (usually aluminum) layers, and a lacquer
coating. CD
-
ROMs are popularly used to distribute computer software, including video games and
multimedia applications, though any data can be stored (up to the capacity limit of a disc). S
ome
CDs, called enhanced CDs, hold both computer data and audio with the latter capable of being
played on a CD player, while data (such as software or digital video) is only usable on a computer.


Q4. Explain SR and JK flip flop.

Answer.
In electronics, a

flip
-
flop

or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to
store state information. A flip
-
flop is a bi stable multi vibrator. The circuit can be made to change
state by signals applied to one or more control inputs and will have one or

two outputs. It is the
basic storage element in sequential logic. Flip
-
flops and latches are a fundamental building block of
digital electronics systems used in computers, communications, and many other types of systems.

Flip
-
flops and latches are used as

data storage elements. A flip
-
flop is usually controlled by one or
two control signals and/or a gate or clock signal. The output often includes the complement as well
as the normal output. As flip
-
flops are implemented electronically, they require power a
nd ground
connections.



Q5. Explain different stages in Software Testing.

Answer. The different stages in Software Test Life Cycle




Q6. What is OSI reference model? Briefly explain various network types.

Answer. The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI
)
model (ISO/IEC 7498
-
1) is a conceptual
model that characterizes and standardizes the internal functions of a communications system by
partitioning it into abstraction layers. The model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection
project at the Interna
tional Organization for Standardization (ISO).

Application (Layer 7)

This layer supports application and end
-
user processes. Communication partners are identified,
quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any co
nstraints
on data syntax are identified.