4-1 course file - Vignan's Institute of Technology and ...

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Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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CONTENTS














Page No.

1.

ACADEMIC CALENDAR





2

2.

TELECOMMUNICATION SWITCHING SYSTEM



4

3.

COMPUTER NETWORKS





48

4.

VLSI DESIGN







92

5.

MICROWAVE ENGINEERING





129

6.

OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS





169

7.

MANAGEMENT SCIENCE







209







Telecommunication
Switching System







COURSEFILE






Department of

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

VIGNAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND
AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

VIGNAN HILLS, DESHMUKHI VILLAGE, POCHAMPALLY (MANDAL)

NALGONDA (
DISTRICT)
-

508284

Sponsored by

Lavu Educational Society

(Approved by AICTE and Affiliated to JNT University, Hyderabad)


















COURSE
OBJECTIVE

Telecommunication Switching Systems




Course Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester




COURSE OBJECTIVE


Telecommunication switching systems provides in depth knowledge on telecommunicati
on switching and good
background for advanced studies in communication networks. The entire subject is dealt with conceptual treatment and the
analytical mathematical approach is made only to some extent. Initial chapter deals with introduction of
telecomm
unication systems. First chapter mainly aims with historical development. Chapter 2 deals with the
telecommunication standards organizations and the standards. The telephone systems, transmission systems and the
impairments related to the transmission of s
ignals are described in the chapter 3. Entire 4th chapter discusses the evaluation
of PSTN, electromechanical switching system, SPC exchanges those are basics for digital switching systems, various
switching procedures and the components used in switches.
Remaining chapters deal with the digital switching and
computer controlled switching procedures and some currently available switching systems are discussed, concentrates on
signaling techniques. The signaling system enables the quick path setup between ca
lling and called subscribers. Chapter 8
is completely devoted to traffic engineering that covers various systems and blocking models. It helps the viewer to
understand the numbering plan, charging and how to organize an exchange. Chapters 10, 11 and 12 are

devoted
completely to communication networks. Also deals with DSL technologies and SONET/SDH network and gives idea
about OSI















Syllabus
Telecommunication Switching Systems



Syllabus





Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester




SYLLABUS


UNIT I

TELECOMMUNICATION SWITCHING SYSTEMS
: Introduction, Elements of switching
systems, switch
ing network configuration, principles of cross bar switching.


UNIT II

SWITCHING TECHNIQUES:

Electronic space division switching, Time division switching, Combination switching.


UNIT III

TELEPHONE NETWORKS :
Subscriber loop systems, switching hierarchy an
d routing, transmission
plan, numbering plan, charging plans.


UNIT IV

SIGNALING TECHNIQUES
: In channel signaling, common channel signaling. Network traffic load
and parameters, grade of service and blocking probability.


UNIT V

DATA COMMUNICATION NETWORK
S :
Introduction, network architecture, layered network
architecture, protocols, data communications hardware, data communication circuits.


UNIT VI

Public switched data networks, connection oriented & connection less service, Circuit Switching,
packet swi
tching and virtual circuit switching concepts, OSI reference model, LAN, WAN, MAN &
Internet. Repeaters, Bridges, Routers and gate ways.


UNIT VII

INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK (ISDN) :
Introduction, motivation, ISDN
architecture, ISDN interfaces, f
unctional grouping, reference points, protocol architecture, signaling,
numbering, addressing, BISDN.


UNIT VIII

DSL Technology: ADSL, Cable Modem, Traditional Cable Networks, HFC Networks, Sharing, CM &
CMTS and DOCSIS.

SONET: Devices, Frame, Frame Transm
ission, Synchronous Transport Signals, STS I, Virtual
Tributaries and Higher rate of service.



TEXT BOOKS :

1. Tele communication switching system and networks
-

Thyagarajan Viswanath, PHI, 2000.

2. Advanced electronic communications systems
-

Wayne Tomas
i, PHI, 2004.


REFERENCES :

1. Digital telephony
-

J. Bellamy, John Wiley, 2nd edition, 2001.

2. Data Communications & Networks
-

Achyut. S.Godbole, TMH, 2004.

3. Principles of Communication Systems


H. Taub & D. Schilling , TMH, 2nd Edition, 2003.

4. Dat
a Communication & Networking
-

B.A. Forouzan, TMH, 3rd Edition, 2004.

Telecommunication Switching Systems



Syllabus





Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester



5. Telecommunication switching, Traffic and Networks
-

J E Flood, Pearson Education, 2002.












STUDENT'S
SEMINAR
TOPICS

Telecommunication Switching Systems


Seminar T
opics

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester



STUDENTS SEMINAR TOPICS


1.

The elements of switching systems.

2.

Write the advantages and applications of telecommunications.

3.

Electronic space division switching.

4.

Time division switching.

5.

Switching hierarchy and routing.

6.

Transmission plan.

7.

Signaling techniques.

8.

Network traffic load and parameters.

9.

ISDN.

10.

BSDN
.


















LECTURE PLAN


Telecommunication Switching Systems




Lecture Plan

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering


IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


LECTURE PLAN





S.No


NAME OF THE TOPIC

No of
Periods

Method of
Teaching

Text books
referred

ACTUAL
DATE

1

Evolution of Telecommunications

1

Black board

T2


2

Basics of switching systems

1

Black board

T2


3

Strowger Switching Com
ponents

1

Black board

T2


4

Step by step switching

1

Black board

T2


5

Design parameters

1

Black board

T2


6

100 line switching system

1

Black board

T2


7

1000 line blocking exchange

1

Black board

T2


8

10000 line exchange

1

Black board

T2


9

Cross

bar switching

1

Black board

T2


10

Principle of cross bar switching

1

Black board

T2


11

Cross bar switching configuration

1

Black board

T2


12

Cross point technology

1

Black board

T2


13

Cross bar exchange organization

1

Black board

T2



Telecommunication Switching Systems



Le
cture Plan

Vignan
’s

Ins
titute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


14

A gener
al trunking

1

Black board

T2


15

Electronic switching

1

Black board

T2


16

Reed electronic systems

1

Black board

T2


17

Digital switching systems

1

Black board

T2


18

Introduction to Telecommunication traffic

1

Black board

T2


19

The unit of traffic

1

Black board

T2


20

Congestion

1

Black board

T2


21

Traffic measurement

1

Black board

T2


22

A mathematical model

1

Black board

T2


23

Lost
-
call system theory

1

Black board

T2


24

Traffic performance

1

Black board

T2


25

Loss systems in Tandem

1

Blac
k board

T2


26

Use of traffic Tables

1

Black board

T2


27

Queing systems
-
The second Erlang
Distribution

1

Black board

T2


28

Probability of Delay

1

Black board

T2


29

Finite Queue Capacity

1

Black board

T2


30

Some other useful results

1

Black board

T2



Telecommunication Switching Systems



Le
cture Plan

Vignan
’s

Ins
titute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


31

System with a single server

1

Black board

T2


32

Queues in Tandem

1

Black board

T2


33

Delay Tables

1

Black board

T2


34

Application of Delay Formulae

1

Black board

T2



MID TERM I

36

Introduction of single stage networks

1

Black board

T2


37

Grading

1

Black board

T2


38

Traffic capacity of grading

1

Black board

T2


39

Application of Grading

1

Black board

T2


40

Link systems
-
General

1

Black board

T2


41

Two stage networks

1

Black board

T2


42

Three stage networks

1

Black board

T2


43

Fou
r stage networks

1

Black board

T2


44

Grades of Service of link systems

1

Black board

T2


45

Time division switching

1

Black board

T2


46

Basic time division switching

1

Black board

T2


47

Time division time switching

1

Black board

T2



Telecommunication Switching Systems



Le
cture Plan

Vignan
’s

Ins
titute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


48

Time multip
lexed time switching

1

Black board

T2


49

Combination switching

1

Black board

T2


50

Three stage combination switching

1

Black board

T2


51

Control of switching systems

1

Black board

T2


52

Call processing Functions

1

Black board

T2


53

Sequence of op
erations

1

Black board

T2


54

Signal exchanges

1

Black board

T2


55

State transition diagrams

1

Black board

T2


56

Common control

1

Black board

T2


57

Reliability

1

Black board

T2


58

Availability and security

1

Black board

T2


59

Inter register sig
naling

1

Black board

T2


60

Common channel signaling principles
-
General signaling networks

1

Black board

T2


61

The high level data link control protocol

1

Black board

T2


62

The signaling information field

1

Black board

T2


63

Packet switching: introd
uction

1

Black board

T2


64

Statistical multiplexing

1

Black board

T2



Telecommunication Switching Systems



Le
cture Plan

Vignan
’s

Ins
titute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


65

Local area and wide area networks

1

Black board

T2


66

Various networks

1

Black board

T2


67

Flow control

1

Black board

T2


68

Frame relay

1

Black board

T2


69

Broadband netw
ork
-
general

1

Black board

T2


70

ATM,ATM switches

1

Black board

T2


71

Networks

1

Black board

T2


72

Charging

1

Black board

T2


73

Routing

1

Black board

T2








LEARNING
OBJECTIVES


Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester



LEARNING

OBJECTIVES


UNIT I
TELE
COMMUNICATION SWITCHING SYSTEMS
:

At

the conclusion of this unit the student should be able to explain:

1.

Historical development of telecommunication networks and switching systems

2.

The elements of switching systems.

3.

Write the advantages and applications of telecommunications.

4.

Differentiate sin
gle stage and multistage networks.

5.

Principle of cross bar switching.


UNIT II

SWITCHING TECHNIQUES:


At the conclusion of this unit the student should be able to explain:

1.

Electronic space division switching.

2.

Time division switching.

3.


Combination switching
.


UNIT III
TELEPHONE NETWORKS
:

At the conclusion of this unit the student should be able to:

1.

Telephone networks.

2.

Subscriber loop systems.

3.

Switching hierarchy and routing.

4.

Transmission plan.

5.


Numbering plan and charging plans


UNIT IV
SIGNALING TECHNIQUES
:

At the conclusion of this unit the student should be able to:

1.

Signaling techniques.

2.

Network traffic load and parameters.

3.


Grade of service and blocking probability.



UNIT V
DATA COMMUNICATION NETWORK

:

At the conclusion of this unit the student should b
e able to:

1.

Introduction to data communication networks.

2.

Network architecture.

3.

Layered network architecture and protocols.

4.

Data communication circuits.


UNIT VI

NETWORKS:

At the conclusion of this unit the student should be able to:

1.

Public switched data net
works.


Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


2.

Connection oriented and connection less service.

3.

Circuit switching.

4.

Packet switching and virtual circuit switching concepts.


UNIT VII
INTEGRATED

SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK (ISDN)
:

At the conclusion of this unit the student should be able to:

1.

Integrat
ed services digital network.

2.

Functional grouping.

3.

Protocol architecture.

4.

Signaling.

5.

Numbering.


UNIT VIII
DSL Technology:

At the conclusion of this unit the student should be able to:

1.

DSL Technology.

2.

Cable modem.

3.

Traditional cable networks.

4.

Frame transmiss
ion.



Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


















OBJECTIVE
TYPE
QUESTIONS


Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester



OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS


UNIT I
TELECOMMUNICATI
ON SWITCHING SYSTEMS
:



1.

In telephone conversation, the one who initiates the call is referred to a s the _____


a. Ca
lling subscriber

b.
Called subscriber c. Source

d. Destination



2.

In telephone conversation, the one for whom the call is destined to is referred to as
the _____

a. Calling subscriber

b.
Ca
lled subscriber c .
Source


d.
Destinat
ion


3.

Graham bell demonstrated a _____ telephone connection.


a.

Multi
-
point

b.
Point
-
to
-
multi

c. Point
-
to
-
point


d. Universal


4.

In order to draw the attention of the called subsc
riber before information exchange
can begin, some form of _____ is required with each link.


a. Signalling

b.
Communication

c. Absorption


d.
Overall size


5.

No. of point
-
to
-
point links required to connect five entities

a.

10


b.
12


c.
8




d.
4


6.

Networks with point
-
to
-
point links among all the entities are known as _____

a.

Partial connected network

b.
Fully connected network


c.
Time division network

d. Space division network


7.

We require 1225 links for fully interconnecting _____ subscribe
rs.

a.

23


b.
20


c. 25



d. 50


8.

The functions performed by a switching system in establishing and releasing
connections are known as _____


a. Switching function


b. Data function

c.
Control function


d.
System function


9.


Step
-
by
-
step switch
ing system is also known as _____


a.

Strowger

b.
Electronic

c. Electromechanical


d. Space


10.


Electronic switching system is also known as _____

a.

SPC




b. Space

c.
Time




d.
Combination


11.


_____ switching is operator oriented.

a. Automatic



b.
Manual

c. Space




d.
Time


12.


The link that run between pairs of switching systems is known as _____

a.

Trunks



b.
Subscriber lines

c.

Cable



d.
wires



Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester



13.


The links that run between switching system and subscriber premises is known
as _____

a.

Subscriber lines b. Cables


c.
Wires





d. Trunks

14.


Present day optical sources require electrical signals as _____

a.

Input




b. Output


c.
Input / Output


d. None


15.


Signal conditioning involves one
of the following _____

a.

Decoding



b.
Encoding

c. Amplification



d. None


16.


In simplest form of telephone circuit, no. of entities are _____

a.

2




b.
3



c.4





d.
5


17.


One way communication is known as __________

a.

None




b.
Simp
lex

c. Full duplex



d.
All


18.


The form of communication where the information transfer takes place both
ways but not simultaneously is known as _____

a.

Half
-
duplex



b. Full
-
duplex

c. All




d.
None


19.


If the information transfer takes place i
n both directions simultaneously, then it
is known as _____

a.

Full
-
duplex





b.
Half
-
duplex



c. All




d. None


20.


Condition for symmetric network is _____(If no. of inlets is M and no. of
outlets is N).

a.

M=N




b.
M>N




c. M<N





d. None


ANSWERS

1.a

2. b

3. c

4. a

5. a

6. b

7. d

8. c

9. a

10. a

11. b

12. a

13. a

14. a

15. c

16. a

17.b

18. a

19. a

20. a

.












Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester





UNIT II

SWITCHING TECHNIQUES:



1.
_____ provides the basis for the analysis and desig
n of telecommunication

networks.

a.

Traffic engineering



b.
Networks




c. Telegragh




d. Data networks


2.

In a day, the 60
-
minute interval in which the traffic is the highest is called the
_____

a.

Busy hour(BH)


b.
Peak BH



c. Time consi
stent busy hour

d. All


3.

Average busy hour calls = _____

a.

BHCA+CCR



b.
BHCA/CCR



c. BHCA*CCR



d. None


4.

Traffic intensity is measured in _____

a.

Ohms




b. Erlang (E)

c.

All




d.

None


5.

CCS stands for _____

a.

Centum call second


b.
Centum car
ry second

c. Both





d.
None


6.

Traffic carried per server _____


a.

Occupied duration/Total duration


b. Occupied duration+ Total duration

c. Occupied duration*Total duration d. Occupied duration ^ Total duration


7.

Subscriber traffic in erlangs ___
__


a.

Busy period+ Total period


b. Busy period*Total period

c. Busy period/Total period


d.
All


8.


GOS is called _____

a.

Call congestion



b. Time congestion

b.

Both





d.
None

9.

Blocking probability is called _____

a.

Time congestion



b.
Call congestion






c. Both





d.
None


10.

The probability that a call experience delay, termed as _____

a.

Delay probability



b.
Time probability

c.

Blocking probability



d. None


11.


GOS stands for _____

a.

Grade of system



b.
Grade of service

b.

Both





d. None


Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


12.

Actual
traffic carried by network is called as _____

a.

Carried network



b.
Carry on network

c. Both





d. All

13.


GOS is defined as _____

a.

Lost traffic
-
offered traffic


b. Lost traffic+ offered traffic

c. Lost traffic/offered traffic



d. Lost traffic+ of
fered traffic


14.

Blocking model is also known as _____

a.

None





b. Reflection

c.
All





d.
Congestion

15.

QOS stands for ____

a.

Quality of service



b.
Quality of system

c. Both





d. None


16.

Random process is also known as _____

a.

Stochastic




b.
Glow

c. Light





d. Propagation


17.

A discrete state stochastic process is often called as _____


a.

Distinct process



b. Chain

b.

Both





d.
None

c.






18.

LCS stands for _____


19.

Offered traffic is _____

a.

New traffic + Retry traffic


b. New traf
fic
-

Retry traffic

c. New traffic / Retry traffic


d. New traffic * Retry traffic


20.


LCD stands for ______

a.

Lost carry details



b.
Lost call delayed

c. Both





d. None


ANSWERS


1. A



2. A

3. C


4. B

5. A


6. A


7. C

8. A

9. A


10. A


1
1. B

12. A

13. C

14. D

15. A

16. A

17. B


18. Lost
calls
returned
system

19.A

20. B











Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester






UNIT III
TELEPHONE NETWORKS :

1.

In single stage network _____number of cross points are used.

a.

1



b.
2

c. 3



d. None


2.

Mean wait time is deno
ted by _____

a.

Kq




b. tq


c. Both



d.
None


3.

FCFS stands for _____

a.

None



b.
First come fast serve

c. First come first server d. Both b & c


4.

Busy hour stands for _____

a.

Busy hour


b. Break hour

c. back hour


d. None


5.


Line unit are_____ way
units.

a.

2



b.3

c.

5




d. none


6.

Network that support N simultaneous connections but under restricted traffic
distribution conditions are known as _____ networks.

a.

Circular


b. Baseline

c.

Blocking


d. None


7.

In order to have a low value fo
r the blocking probability_____ factor must be
small.

a.

α/k



b. αk

c. α + k



d.
none


8.

A three stage switching network can be made _____ by providing adequate
number of blocks in the second stage.

a.

Blocking


b.
Non
-
Blocking



c. Both




d. None


9.

Actual traffic carried by the network is called the_____ traffic.

a.

Lost traffic


b.
Carried traffic

c.
Offered traffic


d. None


10.


GOS is defined as ______

a.

Ratio of
offered traffic to lost traffic


b.
Ratio of carried traffic to los
t
traffic

b.

Ratio of lost traffic to offered traffic


d.
Ratio of offered traffic to carried
traffic


Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


11.

SDL stands for _____

a.

Specification description language

b. Specification delta language

c. Specification description load


d. Specification da
ta language


12.

Overlay is also called as _____

a.

Dynamic memory



b. Virtual memory

c. Both





d. None

13.


PABX stands for _____

a.

Both b & c


b. Private allowance branch exchange

c. None



d. Private branch automatic exchanges

14.


One of t
he first electronic devices to be tried out as a cross
-
point is the
_____Which of the following is not true for plastic fibers?

a.

Diode diaphragm



b.
Cold cathode diode

b.

Both





d. None

15.


The line of the called party is controlled by _____

a.

Terminating m
arker



b.
Originating marker



c.
both





d.
None






16.


A Reed relay is latched _____ which of the following will not reduce the
number of modes that an optical fiber can carry?

a.

Magnetically




b. None

c .Electrically




d.
Both a & c

17.

Each reed relay contains a bank of _____ contacts.

a.

1






b. 3 or 4

c. 2





d.
None


18.


The switching time of mini switches is about _____

a.

8
-
10 ms





b.8
-
13 ms

c. 13
-
10 ms




d.18
-
10 ms


19.


Mini switches are made of a precious metal like ____
_which permits the design
of electrically quieter contacts

a.

None





b.
Both a & d

c. Cobalt





d. Palladium


20.


The line link frames along with the associated markers and registers are known as
_______

a.

Trunk unit




b. Line unit

c.
Both





d. None



ANSWERS

1. a

2. b

3. c

4. a


5. a

6. b

7. a

8. b

9. b

10. c

11. a

12. b

13. b


14. b


15. a

16.d


18. a

19. d

20. b












Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester






UNIT IV
SIGNALING TECHNIQUES
:


1.


ANSI stands for _____

a.

American National Standard Institute


b.
Advanced Natio
nal Standard
Institute


c.
Any one above





d.
None

2.

ISDN stands for _____

a.

International standard digital network


b.
Integrated standard digital
network

c.
Integrated services digital network.


d.
None

3.


ISDN is leading the concept of _____

a.

Intelligent
network




b.
Broadband network


c.
Standard network




d.
None

4.

ISO stands for _____

a.

International Standards Organization


b.
Int
ernational Services Orgn.


c.
None






d.
Integrated standard organization

5.


DOT stands for _____

a.

None






b.
Depar
tment of traffic control

c.

Department of telecommunication


d.
Both b & c

6.

Telephone networks are classified into _________ types.

a.

3







b.
2

c.
1







d.
4

7.

The links that run between the pairs of the switching systems are called_____


Telecommunication Switching Systems

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arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


a.

Both a & d





b.
Subscriber line

c.

None






d.
Trunks


8.


Optical detectors produce electrical signals as _____

a.

Output

b.

Input

c.

Input/ Output

d.

None

9.

BHT stands for __________

a.

Busy hour traffic



b.
Busy hour telecommunication

c.
Busy hour trunking



d.
None

10.


If no. of inle
ts is equal to no. of outlets then it is called as ______

a.

Asymmetric network



b.
Symmetric network

c.
Any one of above



d.
None

11.


A technique called _____ permits more than 10 final selector to be connected to
a group selector.

a.

Grading group connection


b.
Group mismatch

c.
Both





d.
None

12.

A subscriber may be barred from making certain calls which is called as _____


a.

Call priority




b.
Call barring

c.
Both





d.
None

13.


The initial translator is some time known as _____

a.

Office code translator



b.

decoder
-
marker

c.
Both





d.
None

14.


In a rotator dial telephone, it takes about _____seconds to dial a 7
-
digit number.

a.

14





b.
13

c.
12





d.
None

15.

DTMF stands for
___

a.

Dual tone mega frequency


b.
Dual tone multi frequency signalling


Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


c.
Both





d.
N
one

16.


DIVA stands for _____

a.

Data in voice answer



b.
Data in voice absorb

c.
Both





d.
None

17.


_____ mode of operation is the simplest of dual processor configuration
operation.

a.

Stand by mode



c.
Busy mode

b.

Both




d.
None

18.

In _____ operation, an incoming
call is assigned randomly.

a.

Load division



c. Both

b.

Load sharing



d. None

19.


The set of addresses supplied by different interrupting sources is known as
_____

a.

Interrupt vector



b.
Interrupt latency

c.

Both




d.
None

20.


The nature of parametric data may be c
lassified as either ______

a.

Semi
-
pe
rmanent



b.
T
e
mporary

c.
a or b




d.
None



ANSWERS

1. a


2. c

3.a

4. a

5. c

6. d

7. b

8. a

9
. a

10
. a

11
. b

12
. a


13

b

14
. c

15
. c

16
.b

17
. a

18
. a

19.

a

20
.c















Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester









UNIT V
DATA COMMUNICATION NETWORK
S :




1.

SDL stands for _____

a. Specification description languages


b. Specified data language

c. Both






d.
None

2.

MML stands for _____

a. Man
-
machine language




b. Mode
-
machine language

c. a or b






d. None

3. SDL diagram
s are easily transformed into _____



a. Petrinets






b. Transition


c.
Both






d. None

4. MML procedures also have a _____

mechanism

a. Small overall





b.
Both

c. Roll back





d.
No
ne

5. Application software of a switching system may be divided into _____ main
classes

a. 3







b.

4

c. 5







d. 6

6. AD stands for _____

a.
Abbreviated dialing




b.
Advanced dialing


c.

Both






d. None

7. Identify the design consideration o
f switching system.


a.

Choice of code





b. Choice of duration

c. Both






d.
None

8. A reed relay may be latched _____ or magnetically.

a. Electrically





b. Electromagnetically

c. Both






d.

None

9. For the propagation of electromagnetic waves
in free
space
,

the wavelength equals


a.

C/f






b. 1/f


c. C






d.
Cf

10. In rotator dia
ling telephone, it takes about _____ seconds to dial a 7
-
digit
number.

a.

12







b.
13


Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


c.

14







d.
None

11. A _____ matrix is constructed
by placing one reed relay at each cross point.

a.

Cross point





b.
Cross bar

c.
Both






d.
None

12. One of the first electronic devices to be tried out as a cross
-
point is the _____

a.

Common diode





b.
Cold cathode diode

c.
Both






d.
None

13.

In crossbar
exchange, the call processing progresses in three stages: Preselection,
group selection, and _____

a. Line selection





b. Group selection

c.
Both






d.
None

14.

A 10,000 line exchange has _____ stages.

a.

3







b.
4

c.
Both






d.
None

15.

Carrying ou
t the exchange control functions through programs stored in the
memory of a computer let to the nomenclature _____

a.

Stored program control



b.
Stored program circuit

c.
None






d.
Both

16. There are basically two approaches to organizing stored prog
ram control:
Centralised and _____

a.

Discrete






b.
Distributed

c.
Both






d.
None

17._____ of operation is the simplest of dual processor configuration operations.

a.

Both






b.
Dual mode

c.
Simplest mode





d.
None

18. In ____ operation, an incoming

call is assigned randomly or in a predetermined
order to one of the processors which then handles the call right through
completion.

a.

Load exchange





b.
Load sharing


Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


c.

Both






d.
None

19. The set of addresses supplied by different interrupting source
s is known as _____

a.

Interrupt vector





b.
Interrupt latency

c.
Both






d.
None

20.

There is _____ of processes in accessing shared data.

a.

Mutual exclusion




b.
Mutual inclusion

c.
Both






d.
None


ANSWERS

1. a

2. a

3. a

4. c

5. a

6. a

7. a

8. a

9. a

10. a

11. a

12. b

13. a

14. b

15. a

16. b

17.c

18. b

19. a

20. a

.



































Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester








UNIT VI

NETWORKS:

1.


_____ specifies being formed with two or more elements involved in a connect
ion.

a.

Uniformity





b.
Non
-
uniformity

c.
Both






d.
None

2.

_____ deals with information flow characteristics.

a.

Symmetry





b.
Assymetry

c.
Both






d.
None

3.


The attribute _____ has three subattributes.

a.

Connection congestion




b.
Connection configurat
ion

c.
Both






d.
None

4.


The attribute _____ can take on one of three values: demand, reserved, or
permanent communication.

a.

Both






b.
Establishment of transmission

c.
Establishment of communication


d.
None

5.


_____ mode may either be circuit mode or pac
ket mode switched.

a.

Transfer






b.
Transition

c.
Both






d.
None

6.

Both the bearer service and the teleservice functionalities may be enhanced by
adding to the basic service, the functionalities of what are known as _____
services.

a.

Telecom






b.
Supple
mentary

c.
Both






d.
None


Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


7.


The term _____ implies that the information is transferred as it is unaltered and as
far as the user is concerned the channel is transparent.

a.

None






b.
Restricted

c.
Unrestricted





d.
Both

8.


Information transfer attribu
tes describe the _____ capabilities.

a.

Information





b.
Network

c.
Both






d.
None

9.

IWF stands for ____

a.

Internetworking functions



b.
Internetworking features

c.
Both






d.
None

10.

Two principal light sources are used in fiber optic communication sys
tems: Light
emitting diodes (LEDs) and _____

a.

Injection laser diodes




b.
Laser diodes

c.

a or c






d.
None

11.

A fundamental difference between LEDs and ILDs is that LEDs are _____
sources, whereas ILDs are _____ sources.

a.

Incoherent and coherent



b.
Coher
ent and incoherent

c.
Both






d.
None

12.


The light emitting region of both LEDs and ILDs is a semiconductor p
-
n
junction known as _____ or _____ region.

a.

Active and recombination



b.
Active or recombination

c.
Both






d.
None

13.

The fraction of the infect
ed electron
-
hole pairs that combine radiatively is known
as _____

a.

Quantum efficiency




b.
Quantum theory

c.

Both






d.
None


Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


14.


_____ is another factor determining the power levels that can be launched into
fibres.

a.

Brightness





b.
Radiance

c.


a or b






d.
None

15.


Lattice vibrations in the crystal known as _____

a.

P
honons






b.
photons

c.

Both






d.
None

16.


The carrier lifetime is one of the most important operating parameters of an
______
-
optic device. The spreading of the optical pulse as it travels
along the fiber
limits the _________ of the fiber

a.

Electro






b.
Magneto

c.
a or b






d.
None

17.


The most effective and widely used structure known as _____

a.

Double heterostructure




b.
Heterostructure

c.
Both






d.
None

18.

For a given infection level, the

_____remains constant.

a.

Power
-
bandwidth product



b.
Power product

c.
Both






d.
None

19.


Carrier confinement achieves a high level of _____ recombination

a.

Radiative





b.
Pulsative

c.
Both






d.
None

20.


The surface
-
emit type is called _____

a.

Burrus type LED




b.
Burrus type LCD

c.
Both






d.
None




ANSWERS

1. a


2.b

3. b

4. c

5. a

6. b

7. b

8. b

9. a

10. c

11. a

12. b

13.a

14. c

15. a

16. a

17. a

18. a

19. a

20. a



Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester



UNIT VII
INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK (ISDN) :

1.

Binary digital informati
on is usually represented by either unipolar or bipolar
codes using either _____ logic systems.

a.

Positive or negative




b.
Static or dynamic

c.
Both






d.
None

2.

Asynchronous transmission is also known as _____

a.

Bit transmission





b.
Start
-
stop transmiss
ion

c.
Both






d.
None

3.


The key to extracting clock from the data is in the signal transitions that occur in
the _____

a.

Data






b.
Clock

c.
Both






d.
None

4.

Zero level are used to represent the _____ ones and zeros

a.

Binary






b.
Decimal

c.
Both






d.
None

5.


An n
-
bit binary code set has _____code words.

a.

2^n






b.
3^n

c.
Both






d.
None

6.

Data scrambles randomize the _____ patterns and prevent the transmission of
repetitive data patterns on the line continuously.

a.

Time






b.
Data

c.
Both






d.
None


Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


7.

The key to extracting clock from the data is in the signal transitions that occur in
the _____.

a.

Input







b.
Data

c.
Both







d.
None

8.

_____ is a technique where an extraneous bit is introduced in the data stream
whenever there are no signal
transitions in the data for a continuous period of
given duration.

a.

Bit stuffing






b.
Bit mapping

c.
Both







d.
None

9.

_____ randomize the data patterns and prevent the transmission of repetitive data
patterns on the line continuously.

a.

Both







b.
Dat
a stuffing

c.
Data scramblers






d.
None

10.

The walsh code 1 is also known as _____ coding.

a.

Manchester






b.
Ternary

c.
Both







d.
None

11.

Another class of line codes are _____ codes which operate on three signal levels,
usually positive, zero and negativ
e.

a.

Manchester






b.
Ternary

c.
Both







d.
None

12.

The best known of the pseudo
-
ternary codes is the _____ code.

a.

Manchester





b.
Aternate mark inversion (AMI)

c.
Both






d.
None



Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


13.

NRZ stands for ____

a.

Non return to zero





b.
Negative return to zero

c
.
a or b







d.
None

14.


AMI stands for _____

a.

Alternate mark insignificance




b.
Alternate mark inversion

c.
Terminal







d.
Attachment

15.


PST stands for _____

a.

Pair standard ternary





b.
Pair selected ternary

c.
Both







d.
None

16.


Another way of organiz
ing time division switching is to use a _____ block.

a.

Memory







b.
Data

c.
Both







d.
None

17.


Time space is also called as ____

a.

Space time






b.
Space division

c.
Both







d.
None

18.

In order to ensure low blocking, a _____ is used.

a.

Correlator






b.
Decorrelator

c.
Both







d.
None

19.

When the refractive index changes gradually, the fibres are known as
_____fibres.

a.

Graded index






b.
Step index

c.
a or b







d.
None





II Year B.Tech. 1st Semester



20.

Fibres are classified as: Single mode fibres and _____ mode fibres.

a.

Multi







b.

Uni

b.

a or b







d.
None


ANSWERS

1. a

2. b

3. a

4. a

5. a

6. b

7. b

8. a

9. c

10. a

11. b

12. b

13. a

14. b

15. b

16. a

17. a

18. b

19. a

20. a


UNIT VIII
DSL Technology:


1. Broadband ISDN (BISDN) is defined as a network capable of supporting data
ra
tes greater than the primary rate supported by _____

a.

ISDN







b.
CAD

c.
Both







d.
None

1.


Distribution services are classified as Broadcast services and ____

a.

Retrieval services





b.
Cyclic services

c.
Both







d.
None

2.

One of the classification of
Interactive services are _____

a.

Both







b.
Cyclic services

c.
Messaging services





d.
None

3.

Messaging services offer store and _____ communication.

a.

Forward







b.
Send

c.
Both







d.
None

4.

BISDN services are broadly classified as interactive and ___
__ services.

a.

Cyclic







b.
Distribution

c.
Both







d.
None

5.

Quality of reproduction is known as _____

a.

Flexibility









b.
Fidelity

c.
Both







d.
None

6.

_____ deals with information flow characteristics


Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


a.

Both







b.
Non
-
symmetry

c.
Symme
try






d.
None

7.

Ability to interwork other private or public networks is called _____

a.

Universality






b.
Reliability

c.
Both







d.
None

8.

Delay in establishment or release of connections.

a.

Ergonomicity






b.
Promptness

c.
Losses







d.
Low cost

9.

End
-
to
-
end information transfer time or throughput is known as _____

a.

Both







b.
None

c.
Transfer







d.
Transfer speed

10.

Provision of prompts and voice announcements is known as _____

a.

User friendliness





b.
Flexibility

c.
Both







d.
None

11.

The process
of construction of an expert system is known as _____

a.

Knowledge engineering





b.
Interconnecting engg.

c.
Both







d.
None

12.

A physical symbol system consists of a set of entities called_____

a.

Symbols







b.
Expression

c.
Both







d.
None

13.


Computer s
ystems or software packages that perform the tasks, which are
normally carried out by experts in real life, are known as _____

a.

Expert systems






b.
Domain systems

c.
Both







d.
None

14.


Symbols are physical patterns that can occur as components of another

type of
entity called an _____

a.

Symbol structure





b.
Expression


Telecommunication Switching Systems

Le
arning Objective

Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


c.
a or b







d.
none

15.

The most popular technique is the one where knowledge is represented in terms
of modular procedures, known as _____

a.

Procedural rules






b.
Production rules

c.
None







d.
Both

16.


Knowledge representation techniques are placed under two broad categories:
Declarative and _____

a.

Both







b.
Procedural

c.
Production






d.
None

17.


If ____ is used, then the packet size is to be small to maintain the real time
charact
eristics of the service.

a.

Packetised voice transmission




b.
Packetised data
transmission

c.
Both







d.
None

18.

_____allocation results in easy frame management.

a.

Contiguous






b.
Continuous

c.
Both







d.
None

19.


BBU stands for _____

a.

Basic bandwidth unit





b.

Basic broadband unit

c.
Both







d.
None



ANSWERS

1. a

2. b

3. b

4. a

5. b

6. b

7. c

8. a

9. b

10. d

11. a

12. a

13. a

14.a

15.c

16. b

17.b

18.a

19.a

20.a






























ESSAY
TYPE
QUESTIONS

Telecommunication Switching Systems

Essay Type Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester



ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS

UNI
T I
TELECOMMUNICATI
ON SWITCHING SYSTEMS
:

1.

Historical development of telecommunication networks and switching systems

2.

The elements of switching systems.

3.

Write the advantages and applications of telecommunications.

4.

Differentiate single stage and multistage ne
tworks.

5.

Principle of cross bar switching.


UNIT II

SWITCHING TECHNIQUES:


1. Electronic space division switching.

2. Time division switching.

3. Combination switching.

UNIT III
TELEPHONE NETWORKS
:


1.

Telephone networks.

2.

Subscriber loop systems.

3.

Switching hi
erarchy and routing.

4.

Transmission plan.

5.

Numbering plan and charging plans



UNIT IV
SIGNALING TECHNIQUES
:

1.

Signaling techniques.

2.

Network traffic load and parameters.

3.

Grade of service and blocking probability.

UNIT V
DATA COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
:


1.

Introductio
n to data communication networks.

2.

Network architecture.

3.

Layered network architecture and protocols.

4.

Data communication circuits.

UNIT VI NETWORKS:

1.

Public switched data networks.

2.

Connection oriented and connection less service.

3.

Circuit switching.

4.

Packet swi
tching and virtual circuit switching concepts.

UNIT VII
INTEGRATED
SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK (ISDN)
:

Telecommunication Switching Systems

Essay Type Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester



1.

Integrated services digital network.

2.

Functional grouping.

3.

Protocol architecture.

4.

Signaling.

5.

Numbering.


UNIT VIII
DSL Technology
:


1.

DSL Technology.

2.

Cable mo
dem.

3.

Traditional cable networks.

4.

Frame transmission.





Assignment

Questions
Telecommunication Switching Systems Assignment
Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS


UNIT I
TELECOMMUNICATI
ON SWITCHING SYSTEMS
:

1.

Historical development of telecommunication networks and switching systems

2.

The elements of switching systems.

3.

Writ
e the advantages and applications of telecommunications.

4.

Differentiate single stage and multistage networks.


UNIT II

SWITCHING TECHNIQUES:


1.

Electronic space division switching.

2.

Time division switching.

3.

Combination switching.



UNIT III
TELEPHONE NETWORKS
:


1.

Telephone networks.

2.

Subscriber loop systems.

3.

Switching hierarchy and routing.

4.

Transmission plan.

5.

Numbering plan and charging plans.


UNIT IV
SIGNALING TECHNIQUES
:


1.

Signaling techniques.

2.

Network traffic load and parameters.



UNIT V
DATA COMMUNICATION NE
TWORKS
:


1.

What are the advantages of optical communication?

2.

Define direct band gap materials and indirect band gap materials.

3.

What are the advantages of LED?



UNIT VI NETWORKS:


1.

Public switched data networks.

2.

Connection oriented and connection less service
.

3.

Circuit switching.


UNIT VII
INTEGRATED
SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK (ISDN)
:


Telecommunication Switching Systems Assignment
Questions


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


1.

Integrated services digital network.

2.

Functional grouping.

3.

Protocol architecture.

4.

Signaling.


UNIT VIII
DSL Technology
:


1.

DSL Technology.

2.

Cable modem.


***THE END***




II Year B.Tech. 1st Semester



Computer network
s












COURSEFILE







Department of

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

VIGNAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND
AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

VIGNAN HILLS, DESHMUKHI VILLAGE, POCHAMPALLY (MANDAL)

NALGONDA (DISTRICT)
-

508284

Sponsored by

Lavu Educati
onal Society

(Approved by AICTE and Affiliated to JNT University, Hyderabad)

















COURSE
OBJECTIVE
Computer Networks




Course Objective


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


Page
50


II Year B.Tech. 1st Semester



COURSE OBJECTIVE


This course provides a broad view of computer networks. The course exposes students to all
seven layers of OSI Reference Model whil
e providing an introduction into newer topics such as
wireless networking and Internet traffic concerns. The objective is to focus on an understanding of
fundamental concepts of modern computer network architecture from a design and performance
perspective
. Topics covered include: physical layer considerations, network protocols, wide area
networks, local area networks, wireless networks, switches and routing, congestion, Internet traffic and
network security. Students will be expected to do systems/network

programming and make use of
simulation and measurement tools to gain an appreciation of current network design and performance
issues.

This course provides an in
-
depth look into computer networks. While repeating some of the
areas from CS3516, the goal i
s to go deeper into computer networks topics. This in
-
depth treatment in
topics such as routing, congestion control, wireless layer protocols and physical signaling
considerations will require the use of basic queuing theory and probability to provide a mo
re formal
treatment of computer networks performance. Other topics covered include: LAN and WLAN
technologies, mobile wireless networks, sensor networks, optical networks, network security, intrusion
detection and network management. Students will be expec
ted to do more sophistical network
programming and will conduct laboratory activities involving measuring the performance of modern
networking applications running on both wired networks and infrastructure wireless networks.

This course covers the more adv
anced features of networks with a particular emphasis on
security. The student will develop an understanding of the roles of Layer 2 and 3 networks, how traffic
is routed between them, and how access between networks can be securely managed. The student wi
ll
also gain a holistic overview of security within data network environments and learn the specifics of
security hardware such as firewalls, Virtual Private Networks, Demilitarized Zones and Intrusion
Detection Systems

This course covers the fundamentals
of network management, network operations and network
fault triage. With a focus on industry standard network management tools based on the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP), the student will learn how to monitor the network for alarms and react
to

those alarms using a standard escalation policy as defined by the instructor. The students will learn
issue escalation and network triage as well as problem isolation and tracking.





















Syllabus
Computer Networks


Syllabus


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


Page
52


II Year B.Tech. 1st Semester



SYLLABUS


UNIT


I

Introduction :
Introduction
to networks, internet, protocols & standards, OSI model, TCP/IP suite,
addressing, analog and digital signals


UNIT
-

II

Physical Layer
: Digital transmission, multiplexing, transmission media, circuit switched networks,
datagram networks, virtual circuit
networks, switch and telephone networks


UNIT
-

III

Data link layer
: Introduction, block coding, cyclic codes, checksum, framing, flow and error control,
noiseless channels, noisy channels, HDLC, point
-
to
-
point protocols


UNIT
-

IV

Medium Access sub layer

:
Random access, controlled access, channelization, IEEE standards,
Ethernet, fast Ethernet, giga
-
bit Ethernet, wireless LANs


UNIT
-

V

Network Layer :
Connecting LANs, backbone networks and virtual LANs, wireless WANs, SONET,
frame relay & ATM


UNIT


VI

Network layer:
Logical addressing, internetworking, tunneling, address mapping, ICMP, IGMP,
forwarding, uni
-
cast routing protocols, multicast routing, protocols


UNIT

VII

Transport Layer:
Process to process delivery, UDP & TCP protocol, SCTP, data traffi
c, congestion,
congestion control, QoS, integrated services, differentiated services, QoS in switched networks


UNIT


VIII

Application Layer:
Domain name space, DNS in internet, electronic mail, FTP, WWW, HTTP,
SNMP, multi
-
media, network security

Computer Networks


Syllabus


Vignan
’s

Institute of Technology &
Aeronautical
Engineering

IV Year B.Tech. 1
st

Semester


TEXT BOO
KS

1.

Computer Networks


Andrew S Tanenbaum,4th Edition. Pearson Education/PHI

2.

Data Communications and Networking


Behrouz A. Forouzan.Third Edition TMH.



REFERENCE BOOKS

1.

An Engineering Approach to Computer Networks
-
S.Keshav, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education
.

2.

Understanding communications and Networks, 3rd Edition, W.A. Shay, Thomson.