Module 4 - WordPress.com

boingcadgeMechanics

Nov 18, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

142 views


1

E
-
Tech University

Performance Improvement Project


Contents


page

Module 4:


Justification for Intervention Strategy



Describe the strengths and limitations of each of the three strategies

................................
......


3




Development of Apprentices

................................
................................
..............................

3




Game plan for Situated Lea
dership

................................
................................
....................

3




Diagram of Management Layers Around Situated Leadership

................................
..........

3




Samples Apprentice Modules

................................
................................
.............................

3





Model for Aerospace Technology Laboratory






Mission

................................
................................
................................
...............

4






Dewey’s Philosophy of Education

................................
................................
.....

5






Skeletal Sample of Aerospace Technology Lab Ap
prenticeship (Age 4 to 5)

...

5






PAL Series

................................
................................
................................
.........

7







Sample Module for 101PAL (4 Yrs): Historic Background for







Bubble Science

................................
................................
............................

7





Learning Objectives

................................
................................
...............

7





Learning Objects online

................................
................................
.........

7





Learning Outcomes

................................
................................
................

7





Supplies/Equipment

................................
................................
...............

7





Classroom la
yout

................................
................................
...................

8





Teacher/Student Dialogue (blue, red, and green teams)

........................

8





Bubble Boy video on You Tube discussion of





social and ethical issues

................................
................................
.......

10





Social Participation in voting

................................
...............................

10





Module Review
................................
................................
....................

11





References

................................
................................
...........................

11

Sample Module for 1001PAL (4 Yr
s): Problems of the day for

lab activities

................................
................................
................................
..

12





Diabetes and Obesity in Interdisciplinary missions

.............................

12





Bubble Gardens and Community Gardens

................................
..........

12





Video Archives in Information Technology Laboratory

.....................

12





Comparative Analysis

................................
................................
..........

12





Aeroponic and Hy
droponic Technology

................................
..............

12





Bubble Gardens and Community Gardens Options

.............................

13





Layouts with Google Search photos and photo sources

......................

14





Overall Plan of Activities

................................
................................
....

14






Five most important tasks and activities

................................
........

14






Five most important results

................................
............................

15






Sample apprentice readiness table

................................
..................

15






Apprentice Readiness Gap

................................
.............................

20


Justify why the intervention strategy you selected is more likely to

resolve the problem than the other two. Include data from documents

provided by the organization, interview data
, or other information

gleaned from the Web to support your choice

................................
................................
......

21


In one paragraph for each of the strategies you did not use, describe why

you rejected it, supporting your decision with data and sound reasoning

.........................

21


Demonstrate how your chosen inter
view strategy best meets the organizational

goals stated in the performance gap in Module 2

................................
................................
.

21


2




Prepare

................................
................................
................................
.............................

21





Assess

................................
................................
................................
...............................

22




Diagnose

................................
................................
................................
...........................

22




Prescribe

................................
................................
................................
...........................

22




Develop

................................
................................
................................
............................

22




Reinforcement

................................
................................
................................
..................

22


Follow up

................................
................................
................................
.........................

22



Project Manager Responsibilities

................................
................................
................................
...

21


Explain your
role as project manager for this intervention strategy

................................
..........

23


Figure 4.7: Job Enrichment Assessment and Planned Changes

................................
...............

23


Project management techniques

................................
................................
................................

23


Task identity

................................
................................
................................
..............................

23


Variety of Skills

................................
................................
................................
........................

24


Responsibility

................................
................................
................................
............................

24


Resource management techniques

................................
................................
................................

24


Task i
dentity

................................
................................
................................
..............................

24


Autonomy
................................
................................
................................
................................
..

24


Delivery system management techniques

................................
................................
.....................

24


Instruction

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

24


Delivery of Donations

................................
................................
................................
...............

24


Information Management Techniques

................................
................................
.........................

25


Operations board

................................
................................
................................
.......................

25


Feedback

................................
................................
................................
................................
...

25


Sample Resource Modules

................................
................................
................................
........

25



Sample Module for 301PAL (4 Yrs): Bubble Scie
nce

Materials of Production

............

26



Sample Module for 501PAL (4 Yrs): Bubble Science

Agencies of Production

............

30



Sample Module for 401PAL (4 Yrs): Bubble Science

Materials of Production

............

36


Sampling Informal Group Behavior

................................
................................
.............................

38

























3

Module 4
: Justification for Intervention Strategy


Describe the strengths and limitations of each of the three strategies.


Development of Apprentices:

The strength of strategy 1, to develop only one tech lab, is that it more
fully develops students as apprenti
ces (Chevelier, 2007). Its biggest strength is that it serves as a more
complete model of how to develop later tech labs for strategy 2 (develop 2 tech labs) and strategy 3
(develop all 12 tech labs). Strategy 1 (to develop only one tech lab) lays out t
he game plan for how to
strategize the environment so students, parents, and grandparents enrolled in apprenticeship programs
can all succeed as a family unit and family goal. All three management levels are nurtured and
developed using a situated leaders
hip profile that adjusts the amount of direction and support based on
the apprentice’s willingness and ability to do a task. (Chevelier, 2007)


Game Plan for Situated Leadership:

The first strength of strategy 1 (to develop only one tech lab)
over strate
gy 2 (develop 2 tech labs) and strategy 3 (develop all 12 tech labs) is to lay out, or model,
the game plan for leadership and management. The diagram below lays out the leadership and
management model at E
-
Tech University.










































































This situated leadership plan serves as the model for strategy 2 (develop 2 tech labs) and strategy 3
(develop all 12 tech labs). The limitations of strategy 1 is that is can not cross cor
relate activities to
other tech labs in strategy 2 and strategy 3 to find strengths in design mechanics that make one strategy
more beneficial to some apprentices and less beneficial to other apprentices in an ongoing basis.


Samples Apprentice Modules
:

However, a strength of strategy 1 (to develop only one tech lab) is
that it samples apprentice modules to show apprentice interactions and how team member patterns can
evolve into readiness for participating in theory and lab activities. An example of
apprentice
interactions in strategy 1 for the Aerospace Technology Lab is as follows:


Management Layers Around Situated Leadership

Financial Managers

(Resources)







Operations Managers

(Pe
ople and Programs)







Apprentiseers
-
Managers

(Curriculum Projects)







Apprentisors

(Situated Leadership)



Apprentices

(Team Member Managers)






Apprentices

(Team Member Managers)






Apprentices

(Team Member Managers)







4

Strategy 1 is the Model for Aerospace Technology Laboratory. As in all Tech Labs at E
-
Tech
University, Apprentiseers manage curriculum projects. All curriculum project
s begins with a
university missions statement, objectives to be achieved, and intended outcomes.


Mission:

The Aerospace Technology Laboratory program fulfills E
-
Tech University’s mission “to provide
a comprehensive lifelong learning education so gradua
tes achieve productive apprenticeship careers and
responsible citizenship in the fields of aviation and space technology. The program’s focus is on modeling
and constructing mission
-
oriented vehicles and outer space communities for human and animal life.

The
goal of the aerospace technology laboratory program is to produce graduates who are ready for constructive
roles in Earth and space societies and who are prepared to continue learning throughout their lives. In order
to achieve these objectives, the
following are the expected outcomes:


1.

General education

students will satisfy the university’s general pre
-
Apprentice
-
22 education
requirements to broaden the student’s education, develop effective communication skills, and obtain
awareness of social and e
thical issues.

2.

Basic science and mathematics

Students will demonstrate a knowledge of chemistry fundamentals
including oxidation/reduction, the essentials of physical chemistry and the basics of organic
compounds as related to composite materials, basic p
hysics (mechanics, heat, sound, electricity, and
optics) and mathematics (differential and integral calculus, differential equations, matrix algebra, and
vector calculus) to use as tools in support of their studies of modeling and constructing mission
-
orie
nted vehicles and outer space communities for human and animal life.

3.

Aerodynamics and aeronautics

Students will demonstrate a knowledge of topics in aerodynamics, to
include a majority of the following: the aerospace environment; applications of mass, m
omentum,
energy, and entropy principles to one and two dimensional flows; potential flow; viscous flow and
boundary layers; aerodynamics of airfoils in incompressible and compressible flows; steady
-
state
aircraft performance, static stability, propeller an
d rotary wing fundamentals, applications of the
concept of panel methods; supersonic flow and aerodynamic heating.

4.

Thermal sciences

Students will demonstrate knowledge of a sequence of topics in thermodynamics,
heat transfer, and propulsion so as to be abl
e to assess the operational capabilities and analyze the
performance of air
-
breathing and rocket engines.

5.

Structures

students will demonstrate a knowledge of topics in aerospace structures and materials, to
include as a minimum, the equilibrium of forces a
nd moments in three dimensions; shear and bending
moment diagrams; stresses and deflections due to elastic tension, compression, shear and torsion on
stable cross sections, compression and shear buckling; composite materials; basics of the finite
elements
method; and vibration, fatigue and fracture mechanics concepts.

6.

Electronics

students will demonstrate a knowledge of topics in electric circuits, analog and digital
electronic fundamentals, electromechanical devices, and instrumentation fundamentals.

7.

Astro
nautics

students will demonstrate a knowledge of topics in orbital mechanics, gyroscopic
motion and control systems with aerospace applications.

8.

Laboratories and data interpretation

Student will demonstrate an ability to perform laboratory work,
including
statistical processing of data and error analysis, in materials, structures, aerodynamics, power
and energy systems, electronics, and instrumentation.

9.

Design

students will carry out and defend the conceptual design of an aircraft or a spacecraft or a
susta
inable space community in an industry
-
like environment, in teams, using realistic constraints and
considerations of cost, safety, manufacturability and maintainability, and the need of the public.
Students will likewise also carry out the detail design of

an aircraft system, a spacecraft system, and a
sustainable space community system.

10.

Aerospace technologist responsibilities and methodology

From pre
-
Apprentice Level training
onward, students will be made aware of how aerospace technologists commit to eth
ics and lifelong
education. Students are assigned to interdisciplinary team activities and design projects, attend
workshops and seminars, and carry out assignments to open
-
ended problems throughout their tech lab
career curriculums. (See example at
http://www.erau.edu/db/degrees/b
-
aeroengineering.html
)





5

Dewey’s Philosophy of Education:

E
-
Tech University follows John Dewey’s (1944) philosophy
of education to advance full intellectual a
nd social meaning of a vocation or apprenticeship. Hence, all
levels of apprenticeship follow the same curriculum format: instruction in the historic background of
present conditions, training in science to give intelligence and initiative in dealing wit
h materials and
agencies of production; study of economics, civics, and politics to bring the future apprentice in touch with
the problems of the day, the various methods proposed for its improvement, and training in re
-
adaptation to
changing conditions so

those entrenched in command of industrial machinery would not continue to use
others for their own ends.


Dewey found that the “desired transformation of education in society is for every person to be
occupied in something which makes the lives of others
better and worth living. This makes the ties that
bind persons together more perceptible. It breaks down barriers of distance between them.” (p. 316) In
Dewey’s rationality model, a futurist model, the interest of each apprentice’s career, life’s work,

or
apprenticeship calling, transforms lifelong learning. In this vein, Dewey argues that “the greatest evil is not
poverty or the suffering caused by poverty, but the fact that so many people [conform to] a calling which
makes no appeal to them and they
pursue simply for the monetary reward that accrues”. (p. 317)


Dewey was a transformer and futurist who found that there is a “great difference between a
proficiency limited to immediate work and a competency extended to insights in social bearings; betwee
n
efficiency in carrying out the plans of others and in one forming one’s own plans” (p. 316).


Hence, two plans are crucial to E
-
Tech University, the curriculum and building plans. The
curriculum plan is dynamic and learning object based. E
-
Tech Univers
ity’s plan is to house a repository of
learning objects that are adaptable across domains with quality learner support systems.
(edtech.twinisles.com 2010) Textbooks are learning objects, but computer technology makes it easy to
locate resources anywhere
in the world. Learning objects come with what they are intended to teach.
Presently, MIT has an
MIT OpenCourseWare

online publication of MIT course materials.
MERLOT
-

Multimedia Educat
ional Resource for Learning and Online Teaching

also has a free and open resource
designed primarily for faculty and students of higher education.


In the final analysis of curriculum planning, Dewey found that knowledge involves an end,
mastery of materi
al or stuff worked upon, control of appliance, and definite order of procedure, all of which
must be known in order that there is intelligent skill or art, or technical know
-
how. This is the end purpose,
mission, or vision of E
-
Tech University.



Skeletal

Sample of Aerospace Technology Lab Apprenticeship

(Age
-
Related [Pre
-
A
-
22] Topical Categories for Year Round Apprenticeship)

Age Range
and
Apprentice
Level (AL)

Age 4 to Age 5


(Pre
-
AL4 and
Pre
-
AL5)

Age 6 to Age 9


(Pre
-
AL6,
AL1, AL2,
AL3, AL4)

Age 10 t
o
Age 12


AL5, AL6,
AL7)

Age 13 to
Age 15


(AL8, AL9,
AL10)

Age 16 to
Age 18


(AL11,
A12)

Age 19 to
Age 28


(AL13 to
AL22)

Month #

Bubble
Science

Balloon
Science

Kite
Science

Plane
Science

Jet Science

Space
Science

1 (Aug)

101PAL:
Historic
backgroun
d






2 (Sep)

201PAL:
Historic
background






3 (Oct)

301PAL:
Science:
Materials of
Production







6

4 (Nov)

401PAL:
Science:
Materials of
Production






5 (Dec)

501PAL:
Science:
Agencies of
Production






6 (Jan)

601PAL:
Science:
Agencies of
Production






7 (Feb)

701PAL:
Economics






8 (Mar)

801PA: Civics






9 (Apr)

901PAL:
Politics






10 (May)

1001PAL:
Problems of
the day






11 (Jun)

1101PAL:
Proposed
Methods for
Improvement






12 (Jul)

1201PAL: Re
-
adaptation
Training








References


Chevelier, R. D. (2007).
A manager’s guide to improving workplace performance.

New York: American
Management Association.


Dewey, J. (1944).
Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of education.

New York:
Macmi
llan Publishing Co., Inc. (Original work published in 1916)


Donaldson, J. A. (2010).
Vodcast: Introduction to the course.

Retrieved March 12, 2010, from


Edtech.twinisles.com. (2010).
Reusable learning objects.

Retrieved March 12, 2010, from
http://edtech.twinisles.com/learningobjects.php

















7

PAL Series:

Strategy 1 demonstrates a pre
-
Apprentice Level (PAL) Module for Bubble Science (age 4
yrs). Bubble Science connects the learning outcomes of general education to broaden the student’s
education, develop effective communication skill
s, and obtain awareness of social and ethical issues. It is
known as the “PAL” series.


Sample Module for 101PAL (4 Yrs): Historic Background for Bubble Science


Learning Objectives


Students will learn the definition of a bubble

Students will discuss ex
amples of bubbles they have seen or heard about

Students will see pictures of different types of bubbles


Learning Objects online


Bubble Gum Definition,
htt
p://www.bing.com/Dictionary/search?q=define+bubble&FORM=DTPDIA&qpvt=define+bubble
,
_
http://www.bing.com/Dictionary/search?q=define+bubble&FORM=DTPDIA&qpvt=define+bubble

Bubble Gum history,
http://inventors.about.com/od/gstartinventions/a/gum.htm
,
http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/bubblegum.htm


Bubble Boy example,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iG6h0_
-
TnuQ


Bubble Pictures,
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=picture+of+bubble+pipes&FORM=IGRE
#, and
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=picture+Bubble&FORM=MFEIMG&PUBL=Google&CREA=user
id1743598607ed8e91e4f507000b52f6676f44
#

Bubble

Trouble Game at
http://www.zurqui.co.cr/crinfocus/bubble/tro.html



Learning Outcomes


Learners will tap their prior knowledge of how bubbles are made to bridge new knowledge about using
bub
bles in Aerospace Technology Labs


Supplies/Equipment


Laptop

LCD Projector

White Board in front of class





















8


Classroom layout




Teacher/Student Dialogue


Teacher: Let’s define Bub
ble. What is a bubble?

(Encarta World English Dictionary and Microsoft Corporation, 2009)


1.

thin globe
-
shaped air filled film; a thin spherical or dome
-
shaped film that is filled with air or gas

2.

a globule within a liquid or solid like a soft drink or in gl
ass

3.

gurgling sound like boiling water

4.

sound produced by bubbles forming and bursting

5.

dome of transparent glass or plastic

6.

a protected isolated or exempted area

7.

a false feeling of confidence or security. The big cheeks filled with air is a bubble that will

surely go
flat

8.

risky or unreliable business plan that is unsuccessful because of fraud


Teacher: Can we agree on a bubble being defined as “a circle filled with air, soap, water, and light, or a
gurgling sound.” Now, we will discuss examples of bubbles
you have seen or heard. We will go around
the room to each team of apprentices


Blue Team


Jason: The tire on the car was going flat. The mechanic sprayed water on it to see if bubbles came out of
the tire. This meant it had a hole from a nail, or poin
ted rock, or something.


Janet: I can blow bubbles from my bottle of bubbles.


Beatrice: I see bubbles from my bubble bath.


Thomas: I hear and see bubbles when Mom fries eggs, bacon, pancakes, or chicken, or burgers.



Blue


Team


Red


Team


Green


Team


Yellow


Team


Teacher


Station





White
Board


Laptop


& LCD
Projector
&


Tech Lab


Blue


Team


Green


Team


Teacher


Station


Lab Supplies &

Eq
uipment Storage
Facilities


Red


Team


Yellow


Team


9


Red Team


John: I see bubbles in
my oatmeal when it is cooking.


Aaron: I see bubbles when I splash my boots in the rain.


Peggy: I saw a movie named Bubble Boy. (YouTube, 2008)


Nancy: I blow bubbles with bubble gum. I can hear my bubbles pop loud. (Bellis, & About.com., 2010
and Th
e Great Idea Finder, 2007)


Green Team


Sharon: Mother uses a stopper to unstop my brother’s nose when he is sick. The stopper makes bubbles.


Bill: Ice sickles can have bubbles at the bottom when they melt slowly.


Preston: Mother uses bubbles and pea
nuts to mail packages


Ashton: Water fountains can have bubbles when water comes/sprays from the bottom



Teacher: Very good team examples. Now, what do bubbles look like? (Microsoft Corporation, 2010)
Microsoft has some pictures for us. Teacher flas
hes bubble pictures on whiteboard from Laptop and LCD
projector.



















http://bubbleblowers.co
m/types/Pipe.html



http://www.bubbleblowe
rs.com/pages/161.html



10

Teacher dialogue: We will now watch a short video clip of “Bubble Boy” on You Tube.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iG6h0_
-
TnuQ



Let’s talk about the social and ethical issues in Bubble Boy. Why did the boy live in a bubble?


Blue Team


Jason: He was sick. The bubble kept him well.


Janet: Germs would kill the boy.


Beatrice: His body was not strong enough to fight off
sickness.


Thomas: He was born with something wrong with him.


Teacher: Alright, Blue Team, good answers. Red Team, why did Mother get mad at the neighbors when
she got home from the hospital.


Red Team


John: She thought they would make her son sick.


Aaron: The neighbors did not understand that ordinary things like balls had too many germs that would
make her son sick.


Peggy: The mother wanted to protect her son from getting sick.


Nancy: The mother saw the boys as extra problems for keeping her s
on well.


Teacher: Good answers Red Team. So do you think the Mother is good or bad in trying to keep other
neighbors from her son, Green Team.


Green Team


Sharon: The mother is good because she loves her son and wants him to live.


Bill: The neighbor

boys probably see the mother as bad because she won’t let her son have friends.


Preston: I think if the Mother explains to the neighbors that her son is sick, they will probably understand.
But, then when they make fun of the son outside his window, I
think this is wrong of the neighbors. If they
were sick, they would want people to like them, not make fun of them.


Ashton: Bubble Boy is too young to know about friends. A baby always sees its Mother as good.


Teacher: Good discussion. What I hea
r you saying is that when we are sick, it is not good to make fun of
us. We need help and support, not jokes and laughter at our sickness. These are great ethical standards for
you all to consider. You believe the Mother is correct in keeping neighbors
away from her son because she
has a higher duty to protect the health and well being of her son even though she may deny him friends in
the neighborhood. So health and wellbeing are more important than friendship in certain circumstances.


Social Partic
ipation in voting:
We will take a show of hands to see how many of you agree with these
social and ethical standards.


With a show of hands, how many of you see the mother as correct in not allowing neighbors to play with
her son because he is sick? Un
animous yes



11

With a show of hands, how many of you see the neighbor boys as bad for making fun of Bubble Boy when
he is sick? Unanimous yes


With a show of hands, how many of you see bubble technology as a good way to save a person’s life who
has immune s
ystem disorder? Unanimous yes


With a show of hands, did the bubble do a good job in protecting the boy from germs in the air that might
make him sick? Unanimous yes


Do you see bubble technology as a good way to build space communities in the future to
protect humans on
other planets? Unanimous yes


Think about the following question for today’s afternoon lab on bubble gardens. If your team could build a
huge bubble for outer space communities on other planets, what would be the most important part of
the
bubble town, air, water, food, bubble cars to move around in, all of the these?


Module Review:

In this Module, we talked about:


1.

Examples of bubbles in our everyday lives (tires, bottles of bubble, bubble bath, eggs/bacon bubbles,
oatmeal bubbles, b
oot bubbles, bubble boy movie, bubble gum, nose stopper bubbles, ice sickle
bubbles, mailing bubbles, and water fountain bubbles)

2.

Different types of bubbles

3.

Social and ethical standards for parents and children who have immune system disorders and use
bubb
le technology to stay well

4.

Space communities using bubble technology to live on other planets


References


Bellis, M., & About.com. (2010).
The history of chewing gum and bubble gum.

Retrieved April 5, 2010,
from
http://inventors.about.com/od/gstartinventions/a/gum.htm



Encarta World English Dictionary and Microsoft Corporation. (2009).
Bubble definition.

Retrieved April
5, 2010, from
http://www.bing.com/Dictionary/search?q=define+bubble&FORM=DTPDIA&qpvt=define+bubble



Microsoft Corporation. (2010).

Pictures of bubbles
. Retrieved April 5, 2010, from
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=picture+of+bubble+pipes&FORM=IGRE
#, and
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=picture+Bubble&FORM=MFEIMG&PUBL=Google&CREA=user
id1743598607ed8e91e4f507000b52f6676f44
#


The Great Idea Finder. (2007
).
Fascinating facts about the invention of bubble gum by
Walter Diemer in

1928
. Retrie
ved April 5, 2010, from
http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/bubblegum.htm



YouTube. (2008).
Bubble Boy
. Retrieved April 5, 2010, from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iG6h0_
-
TnuQ














12

Sample Module for 1001PAL (4 Yrs): Problems of the day for lab activities


Diabetes and Obesity in Interdisciplinary missions:

Problems of today in aerospace technology include
how bubble science impact healthful and natural food supplies to assist in lowering our diabetes and weight
gain (obesity) profile, nationally. E
-
Tech University’s interdisciplinary aerospace
-
biomedical/healthcare
-
global mission includes bubble gardens an
d community gardens.


Bubble Gardens and Community Gardens:

Bubble gardens are campus based on the aerospace tech lab
premises either inside or outside depending on the team member vote. Community gardens are in the
community commons devoted to communi
ty outreach activities. E
-
Tech University will design an indoor
garden area for educational purposes for both student apprentices and community residents not enrolled in
the University. Food from both gardens can be donated to food pantries, missions, sh
elters, or other needs
-
based organizations. Food can also be sold to families in
-
house for fundraising activities depending on a
vote from team members. All food is donated either for community outreach or fundraising. And, team
members get to have a s
ilent auction as far as family members are concerned to raise money for campus
activities like enlarging indoor garden areas in the community commons. Ten acres are sought for
community commons areas in five separate community locations.


Video Archiv
es in Information Technology Laboratory:

Apprentiseers keep weekly video mini
archives of each student’s garden activity, 1 minute per week over the growing season of possibly 4 months
total. Student records are archived in the Information Technology Lab
oratory by the Operations Managers.
Students have three days lab activities in bubble gardens and 2 days lab activities in community gardens.


Usually Monday, Wednesday, and Fridays are spent on campus bubble gardens. Tuesdays and Thursdays
are spent i
n community gardens. Two hours of theory each day moves into four hours of practice each day.
Apprentices grow from their bubble gardens using soil. They grow into using aeroponic and hydroponic
gardens where they grow plants using the air or water with

no soil or pesticides. Light replaces sunshine
and air or water replaces the soil. With no specific growing season using hydroponic and aeroponic
techniques, apprentices can garden all year long. There is a more intense flavor from plants grown in air
and water than with plants grown in soil. When apprentices grow produce in thin air, apprentices spray
nutrients and water on plants five seconds every 20 minutes from a sprinkler system. Food items have a
freshness because the same day they are harveste
d they are delivered to local restaurants or food ministries.


Comparative Analysis:

Apprentices will make comparisons using video archives (maintained by
Apprentiseers and older Family Member apprentices assigned to community service or lab activities)

that
document growth differences between soil grown plants, hydroponic grown plants, and aeroponic grown
plants. Students will create a blog site to upload one minute videos and vodcasts of accomplishments over
time. Weekly 1 minute video clips will sho
w the difference over time for each week’s stage of plant
growth. Students will theorize why soil, air, and water grown plants behave differently under their
particular conditions. This covers a three
-
year cycle, from age 4, 5, and 6 years (soil, hydropo
nic, and
aeroponic grown plants). [See 4
-
year old gardener in New Zealand who won national competition at
http://w
ww.garden
-
nz.co.nz/latest
-
news/news/4
-
year
-
old
-
gardener
-
takes
-
top
-
prize
-
in
-
national
-
vegetable
-
growing
-
competition.html

and
http://www.veggiegardeninfo.com/childrens
-
gardening
/]


Aeroponi
c and Hydroponic Technology:

In aeroponics, the system relies on an air pump and an air stone
to bubble air through a nutrient solution. You need to generate a spray to get clay pebble medium wet to
establish roots through the net pot. The water has to
be high enough to get clay pebble medium wet using
bursting air bubbles. Air stone is at the bottom of the 5 gallon bucket and lava rock is made wet by
bursting water bubbles. Bubbles need to pop just below the roots. See iVillage Inc. (2006).
Need so
me
aeroponic help.

Retrieved April 21, 2010, from
http://forums.gardenweb.com/forums/load/hydro/msg0320335024765.html



For aeroponic and hydroponic plants, apprentices do
not have to clean the vegetables since no dirt or
pesticides are used. Small restaurants can have aeroponic gardens in the back of their restaurants all year
long for fresh vegetables to serve the public. Student apprenticeships extend to design, setup a
nd
maintenance of aeroponic and/or hydroponic gardens for local restaurants. Hence, aerospace tech lab

13

students learn the science of aeroponics and hydroponics as growth mechanisms during their pre
-
Apprenticeship and Level 1 Apprenticeship years. See You
Tube videos on aeroponics and hydroponics at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6o5LTl6GJw
,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ruNY
-
QLAcqs&feature=related
,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d9giG07M8uo&feature=fvw
. Aerospace
technology includes aeroponics and hydroponics gardens.


Bubble Gardens and Community Garde
ns Options

2 x 2 circle garden and 4 x 4 square community gardens


Choice of fruit

Strawberries

Blueberries

Black berries

Raspberries

Watermelon

Cantaloupe




Choice of Vegetables

Tomatoes

Green Peppers

Spinach

Cabbage

Green beans

Turnip greens

Squash































14












Overall Plan of Activities:

In following Chevelier’s (2007) overall plan activities, Apprentiseers clearly
define overall expectations and apprentice performance during the period. Apprentise
ers identify and
discuss the means, tasks, activities, and ends or outcomes and results in terms of performance standards.
They keep 1 minute video archival records of each apprentice’s performance throughout the appraisal
period. They get apprentice inp
ut and hold constructive counseling sessions before writing or video taping
evaluations.


The
five most important tasks and activities

that an apprentice must do to be successful include:


1.

attendance in person or online

2.

participating in theory and lab ac
tivities for bubble science

3.

making interconnections to prior knowledge on bubble theory and practice

Vegetab
le

1 stalk

Vegetable

1 stalk

Fruit

1 vine

Fruit

1 vine

Bubble Garden

Vegetable

4 stalks

Vegetable

4 stalks

Fruit

4 stalks

Fruit

4 stalks

Community Garden

http://www.pics
earch.com/pictures/home%20li
ving/gardening/growing%20strawberries.html


http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=ht
tp://www.coolop
ticalillusions.com/eye
-
tricks/optic
-
pictures/watermelon
-
face
-
illusion.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.coolop
ticalillusions.com/eye
-
tricks/watermelon
-
face
-
illusion.htm&h=413&w=550&sz=54&tbn
id=cEi0yAKQGT3eLM:&tbnh=100&tbn
w=133&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpicture%
2Bof%2Bwate
rmelon&usg=__PBc2Q8tw
qomy5bHqPxVfMJMTPzk=&ei=nU3LS8
PwD5SW8QS095y4BA&sa=X&oi=image
_result&resnum=4&ct=image&ved=0CB
AQ9QEwAw


http://www.fotosearch.com/phot
os
-
images/yellow
-
squash.html


http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://
www.babyfi
t.com/babyfit/member_pics/spina
ch_plant.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.sparkpeo
ple.com/resource/nutrition_articles.asp%3Fid
%3D1320&h=404&w=297&sz=34&tbnid=b
CEi9TEnLjFQwM:&tbnh=124&tbnw=91&pr
ev=/images%3Fq%3Dpicture%2Bof%2Bspin
ach%2Bplant&usg=__9r
-
I3
-
4jH_XrH27G3k
YjLXmQgCc=&ei=6k7LS46
SB5KK8wTSxLXPBA&sa=X&oi=image_res
ult&resnum=2&ct=image&ved=0CAwQ9QE
wAQ


Bubble Garden and Community Garden Layouts w
ith Google Search photos and photo sources


15

4.

planting and growing vegetable and fruit garden in soil, hydroponic, and aeroponic experiments

5.

reviewing video records of planting and growth activities ov
er time from 4 years, 5 years, and 6 years
old


What are the
five most important results

apprentices must achieve


1.

Grow 2 vegetable stalks and 2 fruit vines in bubble garden

2.

Grow 4 vegetable stalks and 4 fruit vines in community garden

3.

Participate in decis
ion making to donate vegetables and fruits to community outreach efforts

4.

Participate in decision making to sell vegetables and fruits as fundraising activities to build more
indoor garden space at community commons

5.

Create blog site to download one minute v
ideo clips of vegetable and fruit garden growth over time
and create an audio vodcast about accomplishments



Below is a
sample apprentice readiness table
. It is an example of how 4 year olds may answer questions
of how ready they are to do the five most
important tasks and activities to be successful. Apprentices
verbally respond on a 4 point Likert scale of 1 = “no way,” 2 = “I am not sure I can do this,” 3 = “I am
willing to try to do this,” and 4 = “definite yes, I am willing and able to do this.”


Leadership Style 1: The Apprentice Readiness Table shows that apprentiseers will need to adopt leadership
style 1 for Peggy and Preston to help them participate more fully in theory and lab activities for bubble
science using the tools of informing, descr
ibing, instructing, and directing. Peggy, Nancy, and Ashton will
need leadership style 1 to plant and grow vegetable and fruit gardens in all three environments (soil,
hydroponic, and aeroponic) using the tools of informing, describing, instructing, and d
irecting.


Leadership Style 2: Janet, Thomas, Nancy, and Ashton need leadership style 2 in participating in theory
and lab activities for bubble science using the tools of guiding, persuading, explaining, and training.
Beatrice will need leadership styl
e 2 for planting and growing vegetable and fruit gardens in all three
mediums (soil, hydroponic, and aeroponic) science using the tools of guiding, persuading, explaining, and
training.


Leadership Style 3: Jason and Beatrice need leadership style 3 in
participating in theory and lab activities
for bubble science using the tools of encouraging, supporting, motivating, and empowering. Jason,
Beatrice, Thomas, John, Sharon, and Aston will need leadership style 3 to plant and grow vegetable and
fruit garde
ns in all three environments (soil, hydroponic, and aeroponic) using the tools of encouraging,
supporting, motivating, and empowering.





















16

Sample Apprentice Readiness Table

Assessment of Follower Readiness


S4: Prepare

Low Direction

Low Support


1.

Observe, monitor,
and track
performance


2.

Review your
records and
employee input


3.

Set counseling
goals and set
strategy

S3: Assess

Low Direction

High Support


1.

Build rapport,
trust, and
personal
power


2.

Begin session
with open
ended
questions


3.

Id
entify
issues and
problem
ownership

S2: Diagnose

High Direction

High Support


1. Focus
discussion
with direct
questions


2.

Identify
readiness
level for each
issue


3.

Select an
appropriate
leadership
style









Selecting Leadership Style


S4: Follow U
p

Low Direction

Low Support


4.

Document
session in
performance
records


5.

Follow through
on all
communications


6.

Observe, monitor,
and track
performance


S3: Reinforce

Low Direction

High Support


4.

Reinforce
self
-
worth
and self
-
esteem


5.

Assess
understanding
and
co
mmitment


6.

Encourage,
support,
motivate, and
empower

S2: Develop

High Direction

High Support


1. Discuss
activities/goal
s to improve
performance


4.

Reach
agreement on
best course of
action


5.

Guide,
persuade,
explain, and
train

S1: Prescribe

High Direction

Low

Support


1. Clearly
communica
te
expectation
s and goals


2.

Define role
as both
means and
ends


3.

Inform,
describe,
instruct,
and direct


Selection of Leader’s Style Matched to Follower Readiness


R4 High

R3 Moderate

R2 Moderate

R1 Low

Agreed Upon
Tasks

Able
(knowled
ge,
experienc
e, skills
necessary
to do
task)

Willing
(desire
and
confiden
ce to do
task

Able, but
unwilling or
insecure

Unable, but
willing and
confident


(sees
performance
shortfall the way
you do)

Unable,
unwilling,
insecure


Total










17

Sample Apprentice Readiness Table

1.

attendance in
person or online

R4 High

Able

skilled

R4 High

Willing

confident

R3 Moderate

Able, but
unwilling or
insecure

R2 Moderate

Unable, but
willing/confident

R1 Low

Unable,
unwilling,
insecure




Total


Blue Team








Jason

4

4






Janet

4

4






Beatrice

4

4






Thomas

4

4














Red Team

4

4






John

4

4






Aaron

4

4






Peggy

4

4






Nancy
















Green Team








Sharon

4

4






Bill

4

4






Preston

4

4






Ashton

4

4






Total

48

48




96

2. participating in
theory and lab
activities for
bubble science



Blue Team








Jason



3





Janet




2




Beatrice



3





Thomas




2












Red Team








John

4

4






Aaron

4

4






Peggy





1



Nancy




2












Green Team








Sharon

4

4






Bill

4

4






Preston





1



Ashton




2




Total

16

16

9

8

2

51















18

Sample Apprentice Readiness Table

3. making
interconnections
to prior
knowledge on
bubble theory
and practice

R4 High

Able

skilled

R4 High

Willing

confident

R3 Mod
erate

Able, but
unwilling or
insecure

R2 Moderate

Unable, but
willing/confident

R1 Low

Unable,
unwilling,
insecure




Total


Blue Team








Jason

4

4






Janet

4

4






Beatrice

4

4






Thomas

4

4














Red Team








John

4

4






Aar
on

4

4






Peggy

4

4






Nancy

4

4














Green Team








Sharon

4

4






Bill

4

4






Preston

4

4






Ashton

4

4






Total

48

48




96

4. planting and
growing
vegetable and
fruit garden in
soil, hydroponic,
and aeroponic
exper
iments



Blue Team








Jason



3





Janet

4

3






Beatrice

3

2






Thomas

3

4














Red Team








John

3

4






Aaron

2

4






Peggy

1

4






Nancy

1

4














Green Team








Sharon

4

3






Bill

2

4






Preston

4

4






Ashton

3

1






Total

30

37

3



70




















19

Sample Apprentice Readiness Table

5. reviewing video
records of
planting and
growth activities
over time from 4
years, 5 years,
and 6 years old


R4 High

Able

skilled

R4 High

Willing

confident

R3 Moderate

Able, but
unwilling or
insecure

R2 Moderate

Unable, but
willing/confident

R1 Low

Unable,
unwilling,
insecure




Total


Blue Team








Jason

4

4






Janet

4

4






Beatrice

4

4






Thomas

4

4














Red Team








John

4

4






Aaron

4

4






Peggy

4

4






Nancy

4

4














Green Team









Sharon

4

4






Bill

4

4






Preston

4

4






Ashton

4

4






Total

48

48




96




Apprentice Readiness Gap:

The Apprentice Readiness Table shows a readiness gap spanning from 26%
to 45% (70 to 51 p
oint difference in 96 readiness points) which means apprentices are apprehensive about
their skills in new areas of aeroponic and hydroponic gardening. The chart below illustrates the readiness
gap. Small home gardens or small home garden labs may be a k
ey to raising confidence and task
performance for apprentices who need more time on task. Apprentice team leaders can also fulfill a
coaching need for their team members. As a team effort that directly impacts community health, wealth,
and well
-
being, te
am leaders can instill a community pride factor that gives needed boost in confidence and
nurturing of a higher caliber of sensitivity. Online lab activities may also boost confidence. It also may
help for less confident team members to become tutors for

students outside the apprenticeship program in
homeless programs and other neighborhood outreach programs that help youngsters the same age develop
aeroponic and hydroponic gardening skills. Extra credit points for gift cards are possible for these types

of
extra curricular activities. Every documented hour of help equals 5 gift card points. Apprentiseers
document hours of community help/service. Fifty gift card points equal a $25 gift certificate. Family
dynamics can also play a role when parents and

siblings take an interest in how well apprentices do in
generating team efforts that benefit the family income and community health. These incentive program
elements (coaching, tutoring, and gift certificates, family income) help maintain a positive appr
enticeship
environment where apprentices believe they have an opportunity to succeed every day. (Chevelier, 2007)


20







Apprentice Readiness Gap
96
51
96
70
96
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
1. attendance in person or online
2. participating in theory and lab activities for bubble
science
3. making interconnections to prior knowledge on
bubble theory and practice
4. planting and growing vegetable and fruit garden in
soil, hydroponic, and aeroponic experiments
5. reviewing video records of planting and growth
activities over time from 4 years, 5 years, and 6 years
old
Bubble Science Activities
Readiness to Particiipate
Series10
Series9
Series8
Series7
Series6
Series5
Series4
Series3
Series2
Series1

21

Justify why the intervention strategy you selected is more likely to resolve the problem than the other
two. Include data from documen
ts provided by the organization, interview data, or other
information gleaned from the Web to support your choice.


Based on the Apprentice Readiness Table, the Apprentice Readiness Gap, sample Interview questions, and
the comparative analysis projected fo
r different soil, aeroponic and hydroponic technology, students
develop a community of practice where they apply mathematical principles in the real world to make a
difference in their community at large. They will see math at work and be able to harvest
their calculations
as goods and services that benefit community nonprofits and restaurants that can use apprentice services for
garden produce all year long. Aeroponic and hydroponic lab components on and off campus give students
a high profile visibility

and community connection that survives online as video portfolio resources that can
be documented over age range and community service attributes. It can definitely help close the gap in
math career abilities for apprentices who develop expertise using r
eal mathematical strategies that attest to
how well students can plant, grow, harvest, and meet the needs of business and family resource
management and leadership in a team
-
based and ongoing basis. These factors justify why strategy #1 is
the best inter
vention to resolve the problem of low math passage rates transformed into high
-
level career
apprentice opportunities and high
-
level professional employment rates, community wide.



In one paragraph for each of the strategies you did not use, describe why

you rejected it, supporting
your decision with data and sound reasoning.


I rejected Strategy 2 because breadth, depth, application, and caveats that may be crucial can only be
gleaned or surfaced over if two or all 12 tech labs are developed simultaneous
ly within strategy 2 and
strategy 3, respectively. However, it would be an advantage to see and make interconnections more fully if
two, strategy 2, or all 12 tech labs, strategy 3, were developed simultaneously. The time and resource
management for the
second and third strategies make them unlikely to be fully accomplished or developed
in only a six week session. There was an opportunity to make interconnections between aerospace and
biomedical applications in the bubble garden and community garden prof
iles of Strategy 1. (see Sample
Module for 501PAL (4 Yrs): Bubble Science

Agencies of Production, p. 28 below)


I rejected Strategy 3 because of the same reasons that I rejected Strategy 2. A superficial covering of all 12
tech labs in a short period of

time would be a start, but a shallow start with a need for a much more detailed
and sustained effort for curriculum management and leadership variables. To simulate an apprentice
readiness profile without the basic elements of an overall plan for each te
ch lab to show the five factors
most crucial for success and the five results needed for achievement would not yield positive results for
performance evaluation because a clear picture of how to succeed would not be in place.



Demonstrate how your chosen
interview strategy best meets the organizational goals stated in the
performance gap in Module 2.


A sample of my chosen interview strategy to meet my performance gap in Module 2 includes:


Maintain a positive work environment where your apprentice believe
s he or she has an opportunity to
succeed every day.


Application exercise


Prepare


Reflect on apprentice’s performance and develop open
-
ended questions to begin a discussion of it.
Examples are:

Manager:

How have you been doing with your bubble sci
ence studies. Have you had any problems
understanding how to do your bubble garden or community garden areas?



22

Assess

See if apprentice sees same areas for improvement as you do.

Apprentice:

I am having good results with my bubble garden. My community g
arden area needs work. I
may need to fertilize it.


Diagnose

Listen closely to determine whether the apprentice sees his or her performance the same way as you do.
Determine the apprentice’s readiness level to change. Define expectations and give deta
ils of how the
apprentice has performed.

Manager:

You only need 4 stalks and 4 vines for your community garden area. Your apprentiseer says
you have all four for each. In fact, you may have five stalks and five vines.

Apprentice:

Yes, but they are s
mall in size. I need to make them more healthy.

Manager:

I think you did a superb job (reinforce performance by praising apprentice) I have seen your
video records and you are very thorough attending the needs of your plants by weeding and watering ve
ry
carefully. Your site is manicured to perfection with neat circles and dividers that are very attractive. Your
video shows you carefully measuring and keeping records of how much water you use for each application.
It shows your garden journal and you

asking for help documenting your measurements precisely.


Prescribe
:

Manager:

Let’s get you some fertilizer, Miracle Grow, for a couple of applications. I think miracle grow
could work.


Apprentice:

I did use some at the beginning. Maybe I did not

use enough. Or maybe I got five plants, but
small, instead of 4 larger plants.


Develop

Manager:

Make note of how much miracle grow you use and let me know how well it worked for beefing
up your produce. (If you work with motivated apprentice, skip p
rescribe stage and go straight to develop
stage. This allows apprentice to participate in deciding what should be done.)

Apprentice:

I used only a teaspoon at first. I will use a couple of teaspoons this time.


Reinforcement

Manager:

I think your coup
le of teaspoons method may work well


Follow up

Manager:

Make summary of interview to include when and where the counseling took place, issues
discussed and planned course of action.

Manager:

I will follow up to see how well your miracle grow formula w
orks. Keep up the great work on
your bubble and community gardens.













































































































































23

Project Manager Responsibilities


Document projec
t management techniques: Explain your role as project manager for this intervention
strategy.


My role as project manager for this intervention is to develop a sample planning proposal for one tech lab
that includes: a) general tech lab description, b) pr
eliminary budget projection, and c) sample classroom
strategy. I chose a sample planning proposal for the Aerospace Technology Lab because it was the first lab
of the 12 labs when alphabetically ordered. I began general lab description above in the missi
on statement
of the Aerospace Tech Lab. Project management will typically be interwoven and cross
-
functioned
between apprentiseers (Curriculum Project Managers), apprentisors (Situated Leadership), financial
managers (Resources), and operations managers
(People and Programs). Apprentiseers develop curriculum
projects, apprentisors determine manufacturing goals and make major decisions on machinery and
equipment for each project, financial managers do proposal writing to fund curriculum projects, and
oper
ation managers maintain operations budgets for all apprenticeship program and people activities. This
interrelated team of managers and leaders ensure appropriate solutions to particular performance problems
(i.e., bubble gardens and community gardens) a
re developed and implemented on time to harvest produce,
on budget, and to specifications established at outset of the project within a 4 month time period, for
example. (Januszewski & Molenda, 2008) Techniques include a knowledge base in the Information

Technology Laboratory which houses a repository of learning objects and explanations that are accessible
across tech lab domains. Student video archives are maintained in the Information Technology Laboratory
that can be correlated to assessment and perf
ormance evaluation criteria on an annual basis, also accessible
across tech lab domains.


My role as project manager also includes techniques on creating a positive work environment characterized
as four positive “strokes” (recognition of good performance)

for each negative stroke (correction).
(Chevelier, 2007) In this vein, I must document techniques for managing the project, for managing
resources, for managing delivery of intervention strategy, and for managing information related to the
intervention
strategy. I chose Chevelier’s (2007) Job Enrichment Assessment and Planned Changes Table
to document core dimensions for techniques.


Figure 4.7: Job Enrichment Assessment and Planned Changes


Low

High


Core Dimensions

1

2

3

4

5


Task identity: Appre
ntices can identify with the
final product of vegetables and fruits they grow in
their bubble gardens and community garden areas







Task significance: Apprentices see the relationship
between their gardening work and the final product
of nutritious ve
getables and fruits to help battle
diabetes and obesity problems in the community







Variety of skills: Apprentices use many skills to
complete their gardens (seed selection, planting,
spacing between plants, watering, fertilizing,
weeding, harvesting
, donating produce to needy in
community)







Autonomy: Apprentices make decisions regarding
how the work process is done on a daily basis with
scheduled garden upkeep and maintenance on
campus bubble gardens or in the community garden
areas







Fee
dback: Apprentices receive timely, specific
feedback on the garden work they have done
(number of vines and stalks in growth or bloom)







Responsibility: Apprentices are given responsibility







24

for the completion of tasks in their bubble gardens
and the
ir community garden areas



Project management techniques

include:


Task identity

Apprentices can identify with the final product of vegetables and fruits they grow in their
bubble gardens and community garden areas. Tasks are not just educational,

but economic, as well. In
other words, apprentices carry out tasks as part of a pay scale regiment to learn how tasks lead to economic
and educational capital. Apprentices agree to deliver produce in a timely fashion along with team
calculations that ma
ke learning part of a overall practice of accomplishing certain tasks in a time frame that
benefits family, team, and community. Attitudinal shifts gravitate toward fulfillment of tasks when
fulfillment leads to meeting family needs for survival. In othe
r words, fulfillment has value enrichment
that apprentices feel in being part of a plan that builds up self
-
esteem and self
-
worth in making family
dreams of betterment a reality.


Variety of Skills

Apprentices learn how go online to look up ways to help th
eir garden grow when
weather conditions become unexpectedly harsh

too much sun or too much rain for a season. As a team,
apprentices look for solutions to make their garden yield successful. They plan different strategies to get
better yield. Mathematic
al calculations have harvesting results.


Responsibility

In closing the gap, apprentice mates, or a
-
mates, take on the responsibility of carrying out
planned strategies and watching for results to see if they work. Video
-
diaries document whether strategie
s
panned out. Apprentiseers video archive verbal strategies, steps taken to carry strategies out, and results
from strategies.


Resource management techniques

include:


Task identity

Financial and organization managers make provisions for financial resour
ces. Resources
stock seed, fertilizer, garden gloves, shovels, measuring devices, cultivating equipment, air pumps with air
spray extensions, air stones, nutrient solutions, 5 gallon buckets, lava rock, light lamps/sources, and
accessories needed to plant

and harvest a yield of student produce using soil, hydroponic, and aeroponic
technologies. As part of the economic and educational planning operation, organization and financial
managers seek to make all apprentices producers of a high
-
quality strain of
goods that can be tested and
marketed to wholesale and retail users in the future. Stalk and vine production of fruits and vegetables will
be weighed at the end of the season to see which student teams got the largest, nutrient rich, yield.
Incentives in
clude garden awards in the form of gift certificates, game awards, ipod gifts, etc.


Autonomy

Apprentices make decisions as to which vegetables each member will plant and be responsible
for and the yield each hopes to generate. Of the four team mates, t
wo could pick squash

one yellow and
one green. They both may want at least 6 squash per stalk or vine. They may decide they want each
squash to be at least 6 inches long and 2 inches in diameter.


Delivery system management techniques

include:


Instructi
on

Apprentiseers, parent/grandparent apprentices, and team leader apprentices deliver instruction,
direction, and pathways for planting, growing, and harvesting fruits and vegetables on campus bubble
gardens and in the community commons gardens. Apprentic
es can choose face
-
to
-
face or online
instruction.


Delivery of Donations

Food donations to community groups in need will have a television and radio spot
to say thank you to apprentices and apprentiseers for their food pantry contributions to the communi
ty.
Apprentice teams may be videotaped delivering their food gifts to community food centers and ministries
for public airing.




25

Information Management Techniques

include:


Operations board

The Operations Board maintains apprentice schedules on a daily an
d weekly basis that
can be accessed online, or by ipod, or cell phone 24/7. Weekly modules are accessible through the
Information Technology Laboratory for all course materials in the archival retrieval system updated daily
by the operations board members

and staff.


Feedback

Where team mates (apprentice mates or a
-
mates) agree on a specific squash yield (for
example), the apprentiseer can help with measurement feedback to explain the gap between actual size and
agreed upon size. A
-
mates and A
-
seers can

strategize how to close the gap in size of yellow and green
squash.


Sample Resource Modules housed in the Information Technology Laboratory repository include 301PAL
501PAL, and 401PAL (4 Yrs) on Bubble Science. These sample modules appear below.



Refe
rence


Januszewski, A., & Molenda, M. (2008).
Educational Technology: A definition with commentary.

New
York: Lawrence Erbaum Associates.






































26

Sample Module for 301PAL (4 Yrs): Bubble Science

Materials of Production


Le
arning Objectives


Students will learn how bubbles form

Students will learn how bubbles break



Learning objects


The Physics of Bubbles at
http://homeschooling.gomilpitas.com/explore/bu
bbles.htm


Water Molecule at
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.
brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/SDgraphics/PSgraphics/Wat
erMolecule.GIF&imgrefurl=http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/SDgraphics/PSgraphics/SD.PS.LG.Wat
er.html&h=286&w=328&sz=21&tbnid=gx9cEzrdOEPckM:&tbnh=103&tbnw=118&prev=/images%3Fq%
3Dpicture%2Bof%2Ba%2Bmolecul
e&usg=__IODq5vXlUYEjYDY_aM3lg75fPDU=&ei=dWLPS_bsMJC
I8wS7jpC6Dw&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=3&ct=image&ved=0CAwQ9QEwAg


Bubble Molecule at
http://maartenrutgers.org/science/soapbasi
cs/soapbasics.html


Light reflections in bubbles at
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soap_bubble


Bubbles from water poured in a glass at
http://www.flickr.com/photos/brittanychavez/4310326243/?likes_hd=1



Learning Outcomes


Students will learn about forces that repel and forces that attract

Students will learn how light waves reflect color patterns



Supplies


Bottle of bu
bbles and bubble blower

Paper cups for 12 students (2 per student)

1 gallon picture of water

1 eye dropper

LCD Projector

White Screen


Teacher dialogue:


Bubbles form when water flows from tap to sink. Bubbles can form by pouring water into a glass. S
ee
picture below. How many bubbles do you think formed in this glass at this moment?

For us, I will pour water into your paper cup so you see how bubbles form.


27

Forces between water molecules tear bubbles apart.

Drops of water form a bubble. See pictur
e above. A drop of water has twenty thousand million, million,
million molecules (Answers Corporation, 2010)

So, what does a water molecule look like? (Blamire, 2000) Let’s count the protons, neutrons, and
electrons of a water molecule?




And, what d
oes a bubble molecule look like:


28



A bubble is a thin sheet of water sandwiched between two layers of soap molecules. (Rutgers, n.d.) Part of
the bubble molecule likes water (hydrophilic) and the other part hates water (hydrophobic). The heads
stay in
the water while the tails stay in the air. The hydrophobic heads are the little red balls and the
hydrophobic tails are black squiggle lines. A molecule is much smaller than this drawing. Bubble walls
are a few micrometers thick and a few nanometers lon
g. Bubbles start out as a film in a bubble wand. But,
once you blow on the wand, the film separates into a free floating form called a bubble. A bubble has no
edges.


Joy or Dawn or Palmolive liquid dishwashing detergent attracts water drops.

Bringing h
ands together means attracting, hands held apart means repelling

Liquid detergents reduce forces between water molecules to form bubbles

Detergent molecules cover surface of bubbles to let it expand without breaking

A soap bubble is a sandwich. Inside the

sandwich is a layer of air, a layer of detergent molecules, a layer of
water, and another layer of detergent molecules. To better remember, think of a peanut butter/jelly
sandwich with bread slice, peanut butter, jelly, peanut butter, bread slice. The b
read slices are air, the
peanut butter is soap molecules, and the jelly is water. Peanut butter has a red heads and black squiggly
tails. The red heads of peanut butter like jelly or water and are hydrophilic. The black tails hate jelly and
keep their t
ails in the air or bread.

Inner and outer layers of detergent molecules stretch a great deal, but water molecules hold the bubble
together.


Now, you will use your bottle of bubbles to blow a bubble and watch the bubble until it pops


If you look careful
ly, you will see lots of colors swirling around on the surface of the bubble. You can see
reflections in your bubble as well. Do you see yourself in your bubble?

Just before the bubble bursts, some part of the bubble will look like it has lots of black s
wirls on it.

Bubbles have a lot going on. Watch them to understand how they form and how they break.


You see colors and reflections in your bubble because light is bouncing off both the inside and outside
surface of your bubble. When this happens, light

waves from the inner and outer surfaces interfere with
each other and produce brightly colored patterns. So we have light waves and interference of light waves.

Sunlight contains a wide range of colors. Each color has a unique wavelength. You see a par
ticular color
when the surface of the bubble is just the right thickness (one quarter wavelength thick) to cause
constructive interference for a particular color. But when the surface of the bubble gets very thin the light
destructively interferes and you

see mostly black.


So, what does a bubble look like when it reflects light (Wikipedia, 2010)




29


The bubble reflects pictures. Let’s talk about the pictures in the bubble. You see a two
-
story house, tree
branches, tree leaves, the blue sky, green
yard, windows in the house, a door on the house. The next bubble
has patterns. The first pattern looks like a chicken, maybe a women’s head and bonnet in three of the
pictures, and a scene of a place in two pictures.



So, in this module we looked at:


1.

How bubbles form when water flows from the faucet or from a picture into a glass or cup

2.

How forces between water molecules tear bubbles apart

3.

How bubbles are formed from water molecules

4.

How soap bubbles have two parts, one hydrophilic (loves water) and on
e hydrophobic (hates water)

5.

The hydrophilic parts are little red heads that stay in water

6.

The hydrophobic parts are little black tails that stay in air

7.

Soap bubbles are symbolized by a sandwich with air, soap bubble, water, soap bubble, air (bread is air,
peanut butter is soap bubble, jelly is water, peanut butter is soap bubble, and bread is air)

8.

How light reflects in bubbles to form colors and pictures


References


Answers Corporation. (2010).
How many water molecules are in one drop of water.

Retrieve
d April 21,
2010, from
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_many_water_molecules_are_in_one_drop_of_water



Blamire, J. (2000).
Physical structure

Lecture graphics: Wate
r molecule
. Retrieved April 21, 2010,
from
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgu
rl=http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/SDgraphics/PSgraphics/Wat
erMolecule.GIF&imgrefurl=http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/SDgraphics/PSgraphics/SD.PS.LG.Wat
er.html&h=286&w=328&sz=21&tbnid=gx9cEzrdOEPckM:&tbnh=103&tbnw=118&prev=/images%3Fq%
3Dpicture%2Bof
%2Ba%2Bmolecule&usg=__IODq5vXlUYEjYDY_aM3lg75fPDU=&ei=dWLPS_bsMJC
I8wS7jpC6Dw&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=3&ct=image&ved=0CAwQ9QEwAg



Brr. (2010).
53 seconds of water being poured in and out of glasses.

Retrieved April 21, 2010, from
http://www.flickr.com/photos/brittanychavez/4310326243/?likes_hd=1



Cornell University. (n.d.).
Atoms for kids.

Retrieved April 21, 2010, from
http://74.125.45.132/search?q=cache:TmxwgFptGIwJ:www.lns.cornell.edu/Edu
cation/rsrc/LEPP/Educatio
n/ActivitiesK12/AtomsForKids.doc+picture+of+water+poured+in+paper+cup+to+see+how+bubble+form
&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us



Rutgers, M. A. (n.d.).
What is a soap bubble?

Retrieved April 21, 2010, from
http://maartenrutgers.org/science/soapbasics/soapbasics.html



Wikipedia. (2010).
A soap bubble.

Retrieved April 21, 2010, from
http://en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Soap_bubble



Zeise, A. (2010).
The physics of bubbles
. Retrieved April 21, 2010, from
http://homeschooling.gomilpitas.com/explore/bubbles.htm












30


Sample Module for 501P
AL (4 Yrs): Bubble Science

Agencies of Production


Learning Objectives


Students will learn how bubbles are used in Aerospace Technology Labs and Biomedical Labs

Students will learn that the Earth is in a Heliosphere bubble from solar wind traveling out
from the sun at
supersonic speeds.

Students will learn that spacecraft can be placed in M
2
P
2
bubbles to surf solar winds


Learning Objects

Students will learn about Heliosphere bubble around the earth,
http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/080702
-
voyager
-
crosses
-
shock.html


Students will learn about M
2
P
2
bubbles around a spacecraft,
http://w
ww.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=solar
-
wind
-
surfing




Learning Outcomes


Students bridge prior knowledge of bubbles discussed in Module 101(PAL), 301(PAL) to using
bubbles in Aerospace Technology and Biomedical Technology in Module 501(PAL)



Tea
chers: How are bubbles used in Aerospace Technology labs?




























Imagine that you are the sun for a moment. When you blow air, it is called solar wind. It makes a
heliosphere bubble around the Earth. Your solar wind collides with

particles outside your body called
interstellar space. As you blow solar wind out, interstellar space is coming in. Your solar wind is traveling
at supersonic speeds and this puts pressure on the southern region of the solar system. This pressure may
s
hift to another region of the solar system in a thousand years or so. The temperature of your sun’s solar
wind is about 16,540 degrees Fahrenheit. The temperature of your regular body is only about 98.7 degrees
Fahrenheit.
(Hsu, 2008)



Hence, the Earth
has a heliospheric bubble, or magnetic bubble to protect it from solar radiation.
Suncreen makes a bubble when you rub it on your skin to protect you from sun burn. It is
possible to put a magnetic bubble around a small space craft so it can ride solar w
inds and be
protected from cosmic rays. Instead of water and air to blow this bubble, ionized gas, or plasma
is used to fill a vacuum chamber where the spacecraft is placed. The project is named Mini
-
Magnetosphere Plasma Propulsion or (M
2
P
2
). The engine

is the sun, or if we blew a bubble, the
engine would be our lungs blowing air. M
2
P
2
bubbles ride the exhaust or the energy from the sun.
So, we use magnetic bubbles to surf solar winds. (Wong, 2000)


This is the Heliosphere

bubble aroun
d
the Earth. The sun blows solar wind
outward to inflate the bubble pressure
from interstellar wind.


31







A Cygnus bubble in space is called a planet
ary nebula.(Atkinson, 2009)






Problems with bubbles in space. If you boil water on earth, the bubbles will float up. The bubbles
separate and carry heat away. But if you boil something in space, the bubbles get confused
about which way to go. If
you are traveling in space, and a bubble gets stuck in your feeding
tube, you die because you can’t get food, or you can’t get air. If a bubble gets stuck in your fuel
supply line, you get stuck in space with no way to get back home. Space bubbles also g
ang
together to form super bubbles the size of footballs. But, if you use electricity with bubbles, you
get a force similar to gravity. The bubbles detach from one another and move toward the
electricity. (Britt, 1999)



Will (The Regents of the Univers
ity of Michigan, 2000) explains how a bubble works. When you blow a
bubble, you exert pressure on the bubble’s soapy surface. Pressure is a type of force. The equation for
pressure is force/area. A force is a push or a pull. The force is a push on the

surface of the bubble. The air
in the atmosphere is under pressure too. Near the surface of the Earth, there are a lot of air molecules
pushing on each other. The pressure near the surface is high. As you go higher in the atmosphere, there
are less an
d less air molecules, so the pressure gets lower. When you blow a bubble, you exert a high
amount of pressure into the bubble. The bubble is being pushed on the inside by air molecules from your
breath, but is also being pushed on the outside by air mole
cules in the atmosphere. When the bubble leaves
the wand, the air inside the bubble has the same amount of pressure as the air outside the bubble. The
bubble may float for a while as it tries to maintain the equalization of pressure. Eventually, the bu
bble will
pop. If the bubble floats too high in the atmosphere, the pressure inside the bubble will become too great,
and the bubble will explode in a big “POP”. If the bubble sinks too close to the ground the pressure inside
the bubble becomes lower tha
n the pressure outside and the bubble will implode. We still hear it Pop. In
M
2
P
2
bubbles around a spacecraft
surfing solar winds.


32

space there is no pressure. Or pressure is so small you that if you try to blow a bubble in space, nothing
will happen because the pressure inside the bubble is always too stro
ng for the pressure in space. The
bubble can only exist when there is equal pressure inside and out.






Teacher: How are Bubbles used in Biomedical Technology labs? There are two places where
bubbles can help: with diabetes and with breast cancer.



We saw how the sun blows bubbles, or a circle, around the Earth in Aerospace Technology. We
pretended to be the Sun. Now, we will pretend to be a needle/syringe in medicine. As a needle,
we will blow bubbles that are filled with genes (that look like t
he Earth) to help people with
diabetes. The technique is called “ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction.” We can coat
small gas
-
filled bubbles with DNA and inject them into the bloodstream. We then direct the
ultrasound beam to the pancreas where i
slets produce insulin. The ultrasound waves cause the
bubbles in nearby blood vessels to burst, and release genes in the bubbles. The ultrasound
waves are like a pin that you use to burst a balloon. These genes break holes in the membranes
of adjacent c
ells to create a passage for the genes to enter. We can use bubbles to deliver
human insulin genes to islets in rats. Human insulin is made in the rats several days later and
this reduces the animals blood sugar levels. So, we can use bubbles to deliver

insulin and insulin
brings down blood sugar levels. If blood sugar levels are too high (hyperglycemia), you could
have a heart attack, stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems. You could feel
tired all the time. You have to go to the

bathroom and pee a lot because the kidneys want to
flush the high levels of glucose sugar out of the body. When you lose a lot of fluid, you want to
drink a lot and feel thirsty all the time. You lose weight because there is not enough insulin to
help t
he body use glucose. So, the body breaks down muscle and stored fat to get fuel for
hungry cells. See The Nemours Foundation. (2010). When blood sugar is too high. Retrieved
April 18, 2010, from
http://kidshealth.org/teen/diabetes_basics/what/high_blood_sugar.html
. Gene
therapy is promising for type 1 diabetes to restore insulin production in islets or protect islets from
immune attach. In type 2 diabetes, the body
does not produce enough insulin or is resistant to
insulin.


Humphries, C. (2006).
Bursting the bubble on diabetes: Research with rats points the way to
delivering gene therapies for diabetes using tiny bubbles and ultrasound.

Retrieved April 17,
2010,

from
http://www.technologyreview.com/biomedicine/16891/?a=f





33


Microscopic bubbles can detect if cancer has spread to the lymph nodes in breast cancer
patients.


Life
-
saver: 'Microbubbles' containing sulphur hexafluoride gas can be injected into the patient which are

then tracked by ultra
sound.




Davies, C. (2010). Revealed: The bubbles that can detect breast cancer. Retrieved April 16,
2010, from
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/h
ealth/article
-
1233992/Revealed
-
The
-
bubbles
-
detect
-
breast
-
cancer.html



An ultrasound machine looks like this


Kosmix Corporation. (2010). Ultrasound systems. Retrieved April 16, 2010, from
http://www.righthealth.com/Health/Picture%20Of%20A%20Ultrasound
-
s?lid=goog
-
ads
-
sb
-
8536643334



Ultrasound can find lesions or cancer cells in the body. Microbubbles are injected into the patient and they
are a
ttracted to lesions or cancer cells in the body. Ultrasound means a sound beyond human hearing or
above 20 hertz
-
20 kilohertz. It is a frequency greater than 20 kilohertz. Ultrasound means acoustic energy
(a longitudinal mechanical wave) above what huma
ns can hear. A dog whistle is usually above what
humans can hear, but dogs can hear. 50
-
100 Megahertz is used to examine the eye in biomicroscopy.


Read more:
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article
-
1233992/Revealed
-
The
-
bubbles
-
detect
-
breast
-
cancer.html#ixzz0mUUGhXfp
,
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article
-
1233992/Revealed
-
The
-
bubbles
-
detect
-
breast
-
cancer.html
,
http://www.technologyreview.com/biomedicine/16891/?a=f



34



http://kidshealth.org/kid/htbw/eyes.html













For this Module, we learned

1.

The sun blows a heliosphere or magnetic bubble around the earth to protect it from solar radiation.

2.

We can blow ionized gas or plasma in a bubb
le around a spacecraft to it can ride solar winds and be
protected from cosmic rays

3.

Bubbles traveling in space can get stuck because they don’t know which way to travel. But, electricity
can act like gravity and pull bubbles toward electric current. Bubb
les detach from one another and
move toward electricity.

4.

When you blow bubbles, you deal with two forces or pressures: pressure coming from our mouth and
pressure coming from the atmosphere. If pressure inside and pressure outside are equal, the bubble
w
ith last. If pressure inside bubble is greater than outside, bubble will explode or pop

as bubble
floats upward. If pressure outside is greater than pressure inside bubble, bubble will implode or pop

as bubble floats downward.

5.

A syringe needle can deliv
er bubbles with DNA into the bloodstream and ultrasound can cause gas
filled bubbles to pop and deliver insulin genes to bring down blood sugar in diabetics. If sugar is too
high, people have a heart attack, stoke, kidney disease, vision problems, and ner
ve problems.

6.

Microbubbles with sulphur hexaflouroide gas can be injected in patient and tracked by ultrasound to
see if cancer has spread to lymph nodes in breast cancer patients.

7.

Microbubbles can be used to detect problems in the eye region.


References


Atkinson, N. (2009). Giant soap bubble in space. Retrieved April 5, 2010, from
http://www.universetoday.com/2009/07/24/giant
-
soap
-
bubble
-
in
-
space
/


Britt, R. R. (1999).

Study of problematic space bubbles electrified. Retrieved April 5, 2010, from
http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/generalscience/space_bubbles_991117.html



Hsu, J. (2008). Voyager spacecraft reveals solar system edge. Retrieved April 5, 2010, from
http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/080702
-
voyager
-
crosses
-
shock.html



35


The Regents of the University of Michigan. (2000). Can you blow bubbles in space? Retrieved April 5,
2010, from
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=picture+of+bubbles+in+space&FORM=IGRE4#focal=e3ab3f1fbee
b2ccf676a0eb4bc411e8d&furl=http%3a%2f%2fwww.windows.ucar.edu%2fkids_space%2fimages%2fbub
ble.jpg



Wong
, K. (2000). Solar wind surfing. Retrieved April 5, 2010, from
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=solar
-
wind
-
surfing


















































36

Sample Module for 401PAL (4 Yrs): Bubble Science

Materials of Production


Learning Objectives


Students will learn how different formulas for bubbles produce different effects from watching a video

Students will learn the properties, physics, and

chemistry of water at H2O or HOH

Students will learn that


Learning Objects

Water molecule,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_(properties
)

Bubble video,
http://www.bubble
-
time.com/vid
-
montage.html

Bubble machine,
http://www.djdepot.com/chauvet
-
b250
-
bubble
-
machine
-
pi
-
145.html



Learning Outcomes


Students wa
tch bubble video in social setting

Students engage critical thinking in how water molecules are formed in physics and chemistry

Students learn how bubble machine makes bubbles in relation to human being making bubbles



Teacher:
Let’s watch the Bubble visi
on video (Casey Carle) to get a clearer picture of how bubbles fly.
Do you think we could create a bubble that could fly to the moon instead of across the room?


http://www.bubble
-
time.com/vid
-
mont
age.html




What do water molecules look like under a microscope?

/wiki/File:H2O_
-
_2d.svg
/wiki/File:H2O_
-
_2d.svg

/wiki/File:Water_molecule_3D.svg
/wiki/File:Water_molecule_3D.svg





Physics and chemistry (Wikipedia, 2010)

Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula H
2
O. O
ne molecule of water has two hydrogen
atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom. Water is tasteless, odorless liquid at ambient
temperature and pressure. It appears colorless in small quantities. It has a very light blue hue. Ice appears
colorles
s. Water vapor is invisible as a gas. Under standard conditions, water is primarily liquid. Water
can appear as gases like hydrogen sulfide. Elements surrounding oxygen in the periodic table, nitrogen,
fluorine, phosphorous, sulfur, and chlorine combin
e with hydrogen to produce gases under standard
conditions. The reason water forms a liquid is that oxygen is more electronegative than all other elements
with the exception of fluorine. Oxygen attracts electrons much more strongly than hydrogen, resulti
ng in a
net positive charge on the hydrogen atoms and a net negative charge on the oxygen atom. The presence of a
charge on each of these atoms gives each water molecule a net dipole moment. Electrical attraction
between water molecules due to this dipole

pulls individual molecules closer together, making it more
difficult to separate the molecules and therefore raising the boiling point. This attraction is known as
hydrogen bonding. The molecules of water are constantly moving in relation to each other,
and the
hydrogen bonds are continually breaking and reforming at timescales faster than 200 femtoseconds.

H O H


H O H


37

However, this bond is strong enough to create many of the peculiar properties of water described in this
article, such as those that make it integral
to life. Water can be described as a polar liquid that slightly
dissociates disproportionately into the hydronium ion (H
3
O
+
(aq)) and an associated hydroxide ion
(OH

(aq))



H
2
O (l)



H
3
O
+

(aq) + OH


(aq)


Teacher: Do you remember seeing
a bubble machine in the video? This is a picture of a bubble machine.




Source:
http://www.djdepot.com/chauvet
-
b250
-
bubble
-
machine
-
pi
-
145.html


What is similar to this bubb
le machine and your bottle of bubbles?


James: The pipe to blow bubbles.


Teacher: Very good, James. Yes, the pipe to blow bubbles is the same for the machine and for your bottle
of bubbles. But your lungs replace the machine or your lungs, throat,

and mouth perform the same blowing
that the machine does. We plug the machine in to get an electric current. You inhale to get strength to
blow your bubble pipe/wand.








References


Info@djdepot.com

(2010).
C
hauvet B
-
250 bubble machine.

Retrieved April 5, 2010, from
http://www.djdepot.com/chauvet
-
b250
-
bubble
-
machine
-
p
-
145.html?osCsid=f95dba449bf
0c6583af0b64020e03517



Wikipedia. (2010). Water: Physics and chemistry. Retrieved April 5, 2010, from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_(properties
)


Torello, G. (2009).
Bubble time!
The dawn of undiluted joy.

Retrieved April 5, 2010, from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LyZtgO_2mUY&feature=player_embedded

(embed code) <object
width="480" height="385"><pa
ram name="movie"
value="http://www.youtube.com/v/LyZtgO_2mUY&hl=en_US&fs=1&"></param><param
name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess"
value="always"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/LyZtgO_2mUY&hl=en_US&fs=1&"
type="application/x
-
shockwave
-
flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="480"
height="385"></embed></object>




38


Sampling Informal Group Behavior:

As project manager, I also have the task of analyzing informal
group behavior to find so
lutions. I used Figure 5.2 to sample and analyze Informal Group A below.


Figure 5
-
2. Analyzing Informal Groups Exercise (A Sample)

Informal Group A:


Members: Jason, Thomas, John, Preston, and Ashton


Informal Leaders: Jason


Norms: They like to hav
e fun by bringing creepy crawly things to class. It is disruptive and time
consuming removing the animals from the class. They have an affinity to frogs and lizards


How will you improve performance: First, discuss health and safety issues. It was also
discussed that
because at 4 years old, your immune systems are still forming, frogs and lizards may have bacteria, viruses,
parasites, and fungi that can cause humans to get sick if the animal spits or urinates or has dander that gets
on you.
http://kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/pet_infections.html#a_How_Pets_Spread_Infections

So, to make sure you stay well, we don’t br
楮g=th敳攠typ敳f=p整猠瑯=s捨oo氮l=䡡e攠愠捬慳c=vo瑥ton=wh整e敲=
汩l攠frogs=and=汩穡lds=捡n=b攠brough琠瑯=s捨oo氮l=qh攠vo瑥twas=T=瑯=R=慧慩as琠tppr敮瑩捥猠tringing=frogs=慮d=
汩穡lds=瑯=s捨oo氮l=g慮整e=B敡瑲楣攬=m敧gyI=慮d=ph慲on=spok攠of=how=瑨ey=d楤=no琠t
ik攠瑯=b攠s捡r敤=w楴h=
surpr楳攠frogs=慮d=汩穡lds=thrown=慴a瑨em=during=br敡k=瑩m攮==qh敹=d楤=no琠t敥氠s慦攠if=汩穡ld=go琠楮瑯=瑨敩e=
h慩a=or=捬c瑨敳⸠=䑩acuss楯n=in捬cd敤=or楧am椠ip慰敲=d敳楧ned)=frogsI=汩穡ldsI=慮d=o瑨敲=慮im慬猠as=p慲琠tf=
捬慳c=indoor=g慲
d敮=捲敡瑩tns.==C污獳=d散楤敤=瑯=m慫攠i琠tn=or楧am椠iomp整楴楯n=for=瑨攠mos琠tr瑩t瑩挠
Ebr楧h瑬y=捯汯r敤)=or楧am椠frogI=汩穡ldI=bu瑴敲flyI=敬数h慮琬t捡琬tdogI=monkeyI=or=慮y=oth敲=
慮im慬⽳瑡t⽤敳楧nI=stud敮ts=may=捨oos攮==C污ss=vo瑥t=unanimously=and=d散楤敤
=
瑯=hos琠t=pr敳捨oo氠
慰pr敮瑩捥t捯mp整楴楯n.==qhey=慬獯=d散楤敤=瑯=g整eh敬e=楮=汯捡瑩tg=fn瑥tne琠t楤敯s=瑯=mak攠or楧am椠
frogsL汩穡lds=from=奯u=qub攠慴a
h瑴t㨯W睷w.you瑵b攮捯m⽲esul
瑳?s敡r捨_qu敲y㵯r楧am椫frogsC慱㵦
=
and=
h瑴t㨯W睷w.you瑵b攮捯m⽲esul瑳?s敡r捨_qu敲y㵯r楧am椫汩穡rdsC慱㵦
=
=
䡥汰=m敥琠獴ud敮琠n敥d=for=so捩慬cr敬慴楯nsh楰sI=s散ur楴yI=and=s敬e
J

瑥tm=in=捨oosing=or楧am椠iubs瑩tu瑥tfor=
汩l攠慮ima汳.==g慳an=慳k敤=楦=h攠捯u汤=汥慤=瑨攠or楧am椠iomp整楴楯n=in=瑥tms=of=ge瑴楮g=th攠word=ou琠瑯=o瑨敲=
s瑵den瑳=and=h敬e楮g=w楴h=th攠捯mp整e瑩tn=se琠tp.==qh攠瑥tms=vo瑥t=yes=for=h楳=捯n瑲楢u瑩tn=of=汥慤楮g=
ori
gam椠iomp整楴楯n.
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=